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16940-66-2 Structure

16940-66-2 Structure

Sodium borohydride


Borate(1-), tetrahydro-, sodium
Borohydrure de sodium
Sodium tetrahydroborate(1-)

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

White solid
[mp ]

>300 °C (dec.)(lit.)
[bp ]

[density ]

1.035 g/mL at 25 °C
[Fp ]

158 °F
[storage temp. ]

Store at RT.
[form ]


Stability Stable, but reacts readily with water (reaction may be violent). Incompatible with water, oxidizing agents, carbon dioxide, hydrogen halides, acids, palladium, ruthenium and other metal salts, glass. Flammable solid. Air-sensitive.
[Water Solubility ]

550 g/L (25 ºC)
[Sensitive ]

[Merck ]

[CAS DataBase Reference]

16940-66-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Sodium tetrahydroborate(16940-66-2)
[Storage Precautions]

Store under inert gas;Air sensitive;Moisture sensitive
[EPA Substance Registry System]

16940-66-2(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R60:May impair fertility.
R61:May cause harm to the unborn child.
R15:Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
R34:Causes burns.
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R24/25:Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R35:Causes severe burns.
R21/22:Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R42/43:May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact .
R49:May cause cancer by inhalation.
R63:Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
R62:Possible risk of impaired fertility.
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin .
R43:May cause sensitization by skin contact.
[Safety Statements ]

S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S43:In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases the risk add-Never use water) .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S22:Do not breathe dust .
S50:Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .

UN 3129 4.3/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]


[F ]

[HazardClass ]

[PackingGroup ]

[HS Code ]

[Safety Profile]

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. A strong alkali. A severe eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Ignites in air above 288’C when exposed to spark. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum chloride + bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether. Reacts with ruthenium salts to form a solid product which explodes when touched or on contact with water. Reacts to form dangerously explosive hydrogen gas on contact with alkali, water and other protic solvents (e.g., methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, phenol), aluminum chloride + bis(2methoxyethy1)ether. Reacts violently with anhydrous acids (e.g., sulfuric, phosphoric, fluorophosphoric) to form diborane. Violent exothermic reaction with dimethyl formamide has caused industrial explosions. Mixtures with sulfuric acid may ignite. Incompatible with palladium, diborane + bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether, polyglycols, dimethylacetamide, oxidizers, metal salts, finely divided metallic precipitates of cobalt, nickel, copper, iron, and possibly other metals. Emits flammable vapors on contact with acid fumes. Materials sensitive to polymerization under alkaline conditions, such as acrylonitrile, may polymerize upon contact with sodium borohydride. Avoid storage in glass containers. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NanO. See also HYDRIDES, BORON COMPOUNDS, and SODIUM COMPOUNDS.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

16940-66-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
【Raw materials】

Methanol-->Sulfuric acid-->Sodium-->Sodium hydride-->Hydrogen-->Orthoboric acid-->Isoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid
【Preparation Products】

CYCLOLEUCINOL-->3-BROMO-CYCLOPENT-2-ENOL-->TERT-BUTYL 4-(HYDROXYMETHYL)PYRIDIN-2-YLCARBAMATE-->(S)-(-)-2-Methyl-1-butanol-->6-(AMINOMETHYL)PYRIDINE-2-CARBOHYDRAZIDE-->N-(4-Methoxybenzyl)-N-methylamine-->3-CHLORO-N-METHYLBENZYLAMINE-->acid washing corrosion inhibitor Sx-1-->9-(Chloromethyl)anthracene-->4,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXAN-1-OL-->DL-PHENYLALANINOL-->(2,6-DICHLORO-3-NITRO)BENZYL ALCOHOL-->2-Hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline-->Rocuronium bromide-->Desogestrel-->2-chloro-5-ethylaminomethylpyridine-->3-METHOXY-N-METHYLBENZYLAMINE 97-->3,5-DIMETHOXYBENZYL BROMIDE-->3-Bromobenzyl alcohol-->3,5-Dimethoxybenzyl alcohol-->9-Anthracenemethanol-->5-METHYL-2-HEXANOL-->2-Methoxy-N-methylbenzylamine hydrochloride ,97%-->ETHYL 6-(HYDROXYMETHYL)PYRIDINE-2-CARBOXYLATE-->CARUMONAM-->4-Trifluoromethylbenzyl chloride-->Atorvastatin-->1-Methylcyclohexanol-->METHYL-(2-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-BENZYL)-AMINE-->N,N-DIMETHYL-4-[(METHYLAMINO)METHYL]ANILINE-->4-Bromobenzyl alcohol-->(1H-IMIDAZOL-2-YLMETHYL)-METHYL-AMINE-->2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol-->(1H-IMIDAZOL-2-YL)-METHANOL-->(3-FLUOROBENZYL)METHYLAMINE-->ETHYL 6-(CHLOROMETHYL)PYRIDINE-2-CARBOXYLATE-->Dulcitol-->Borane-pyridine complex-->beta-Methylphenethyl alcohol-->Tetrabutylammonium borohydride
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[General Description]

SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE(16940-66-2) is a white to grayish crystalline powder. SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE(16940-66-2) is decomposed by water to form sodium hydroxide, a corrosive material, and hydrogen, a flammable gas. The heat of this reaction may be sufficient to ignite the hydrogen. The material itself is easily ignited and burns vigorously once ignited. SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE(16940-66-2) is used to make other chemicals, treat waste water, and for many other uses.
[Reactivity Profile]

SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE is a powerful reducing agent. A chemical base. Absorbs moisture readily forming caustic solution. which attacks aluminum and zinc. A violent polymerization of acetaldehyde results from the reactions of acetaldehyde with alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide. Calcium oxide or sodium hydroxide react with phosphorus pentaoxide extremely violently when initiated by local heating [Mellor 8 Supp.3:406 (1971]. Using potassium hydroxide to dry impure tetrahydrofuran, which contains peroxides, may be hazardous. Explosions have occurred in the past. Sodium hydroxide behaves in a similar way as potassium hydroxide [NSC Newsletter, Chem. Soc. 1967]. Ignition occurs if a mixture of the hydride and sulfuric acid is not cooled. Contact of glycerol and sodium borohydride leads to ignition, other glycols and methanol are exothermic but do not ignite.
[Air & Water Reactions]

Hydrolysis generates enough heat to ignite adjacent combustible material [Haz. Chem. Data 1966]. Dissolves in water with liberation of heat, may steam and spatter. Solution is basic (alkaline). Reaction of water with the borohydride liberates flammable hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride burns in air [Lab. Gov. Chemist 1965].

Reacts with water to evolve hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Store out of contact with moisture.
[Health Hazard]

Solid irritates skin. If ingested can form large volume of gas and lead to a gas embolism.
[Fire Hazard]

Behavior in Fire: Decomposes and produces highly flammable hydrogen gas.
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

sodium borohydride(16940-66-2).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory

Sodium borohydride is an inorganic compound shown as a white to off-white fine crystalline powder or lump. Rapid reaction with methanol will produce hydrogen at room temperature. It is hygroscopic and easily deliquesced upon absorbing water. Boiling point: 500 °C (vacuum); melting point: 400 °C; soluble in water and lower alcohols, ammonia, insoluble in ether, benzene, hydrocarbons; relative density (water = 1): 1.07; Sodium borohydride is usually used as reducing agent in synthesis of inorganic and organic synthesis. Sodium borohydride has a strong selective reduction, being able to selectively reduce a carbonyl group is to a hydroxyl group without reacting with the carbon-carbon double bond and triple bond reaction. A small amount of sodium borohydride can restore the nitrile to the aldehyde with the excess amount being reduced to the amine.
Sodium borohydride

Sodium borohydride is discovered by H. C. Brown and his boss Schlesinger in 1942 at University of Chicago found. At that time the purpose is to study the property of carbon monoxide and borane complexes, but they found the reducing ability of borane on organic carbonyl compound. However, owing to that borane are rare substances at that time, so it did not cause enough attention of organic chemists. Development of borane chemistry should thank to the World War II, when the US Department of Defense needed to find a volatile uranium compounds with molecular weight as small as possible for enriching fissile material uranium 235. Uranium borohydride U (BH4) 4 meets this requirement quite well. The synthesis of this compound requires use of lithium hydride. However, the supply of lithium hydride is quite limited so the cheaper sodium hydride is used as the raw material, and sodium borohydride was re-discovered in the process. Later, because of the resolution of technical issue on processing of uranium hexafluoride, the Ministry of defense gave up the plan of enriching uranium-235 through uranium borohydride, and Brown's research shifts to how to facilitate the preparation of sodium borohydride. Army Signal Corps Company is interested in the ability of large-scale in situ hydrogen producing of this compound. Under their funding, related industrialization research was conducted, resulting in the later industrial procedure of making sodium borohydride process: 4NaH + B (OCH3) 3 → NaBH4 + 3NaOCH3 with the two solid product. Obtain pure sodium borohydride with ethereal solvent recrystallization.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a versatile reducing agent used in a number of industrial processes. Major applications include organic and pharmaceutical synthesis, wastewater treatment, and paper pulp bleaching. Sodium borohydride plays such a significant role in organic synthesis. It is a good reducing agent which has stable performance and selective reduction. It can be used as the reducing agents of aldehydes, ketones and acid chlorides; also as foaming agent for plastic materials, hydrogenating agent of making dihydrostreptomycin, intermediate of making potassium borohydride, raw materials in synthesizing borane, as well as the treatment agent of paper industry and mercury-containing waste water.
Sodium borohydride provides organic chemists a very convenient and mild means for reduction of aldehydes and ketones. Before this, people usually use metal/alcohol approach to reduce carbonyl compound. Sodium borohydride enables the reduction of carbonyl of aldehydes and ketones under very mild conditions to produce primary alcohols and secondary alcohols. Reduction procedure is as below: First dissolve the substrate in a solvent (typically methanol or ethanol), then cool with an ice bath. Finally add sodium borohydride powder to the mixture until the reaction is completed. The reaction process can be monitored by thin layer chromatography. If the solvent is not an alcohol, we need to additionally supply methanol or ethanol along with the reaction. Sodium borohydride is a reducing agent with medium strength, and thus exhibiting good chemical selectivity. It only reduces active aldehyde and ketone carbonyl group, and does not react with the ester, amide.

Chemical manufacture
Production of sodium dithionite
Reduce sulfur dioxide to produce sodium dithionite
Production of potassium borohydrate
Reaction intermediate
Production of borane
Raw material, source of boron
Pharmaceutical industry
Production of various antibiotics
Reduce aldehydes, ketones and acyl chloride to give the related alcohols
Hydrogen storage
Solid state hydrogen storage candidate
Store, release and reabsorb hydrogen under moderate conditions
Fuel cell
The direct borohydride fuel cell
Releases hydrogen in the presence of metal catalysts
Research & laboratory
Oxymercuration reaction
Replace mercury (Hg) with h
Synthesis of gold nanoparticles
Reduce chlorine acid to prepare gold nanoparticals
Sewage treatment
Mercury sewage treatment
Reduce Hg2+ to remove Hg in wastwater
Wood pulp
Pretreatment process
Blowing agent
Releases hydrogen to blow in material
[reducing agent]

Sodium borohydride is relatively mild reducing agent. It has a good efficacy on reducing aldehydes and ketones. Its commonly-used solvents include alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, DMF, and water. It generally does not reduce an ester group, a carboxyl group, and amide. However, when combined with appropriate solvent or catalyzed by Lewis acid in high temperature, it can be used for reducing weak carbonyl group such as ester.
It reduces aldehydes, ketones mildly and high-efficiently. Basic operations: Use methanol or ethanol as a solvent, aldehyde, ketone carbonyl compound mixed with sodium borohydride with quality 1: 1 is sufficient. Stepwise heating method can be used applied for heating, for example, start with 50 degrees, and perform the reflux reaction after a sufficient time such as 1 hour; simultaneously use TLC to monitor the progress. The reaction is generally very thorough. Generally, so long as the amount of solvent the reaction can avoid the occurrence of a white sticky paste after complete of reaction, that’s fine. It is not necessary to keep strictly dry during the reaction; there were even cases where water was used as solvent. For example, for the reduction of formyl benzoic acid where the formyl (formaldehyde) is reduced, first neutralize the carboxyl group with sodium hydroxide, and then perform reaction in water to success reduce the formyl group.
Sodium borohydride can rapidly decompose to release hydrogen gas under acidic conditions so it can not react in acidic conditions but can be used under alkaline conditions. Sodium borohydride is rapidly decomposed to release hydrogen gas when contacted with acid so it cannot reduce the acid alone and should be used in combination with iodine. First react it with a carboxylic acid and add iodine once the bubble stops, continue to release gas. Then add boric acid ester decomposed by hydrochloride to get alcohol. Note: the reaction should be kept in dry THF, and THF must be first reflux with sodium until to the benzophenone get blue before use! Otherwise creaming, instead of clear liquid, will appear during the reaction between carboxylic acid and sodium borohydride in.
Use the sodium borohydride and anhydrous zinc chloride (dried over 200 degrees) to react in anhydrous THF for 3 hours to produce a zinc borohydride. This solution mixture does not need to be isolated and purified before being as zinc borohydride. When used to restore the carboxylic acid or ester in THF under reflux temperature, the yield is good but there may be some double bonds affected. For example, reducing cinnamic acid will result a fraction of double-bond reduced product.

Contact with sodium borohydride will cause sore throat, cough, tachypnea, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, conjunctival hyperemia, and pain. When apply it, we should prevent dust, increase ventilation or wear protective masks. Pay attention to protection of the eyes, wear protective glasses closed, and don’t eat, drink and smoke at work. Quickly leave the scene after the poisoning, take semi-supine rest, breathe fresh air, flush eyes with plenty of water, stripped of contaminated clothing, and rinse the body; If it enters into the digestive tract, immediately rinse the month, drink lots of water to induce vomiting and immediately go to hospital for treatment. Wear protective masks filter when leakage occurs to clean up the leak.
[Production methods]

Sodium borohydride boric acid ester method: Pour boric acid and appropriate amount of methanol to distillation kettle, slowly heated at 54 °C for total reflux 2h. Then collect the azeotropic liquid of methyl borate and methanol solution. After treatment of azeotropic liquid by sulfuric acid, using fine distillation can yield relative pure product. Feed sodium hydrogen obtained with reaction between hydrogen gas and sodium into the condensation reaction tank. Heat with stirring to about 220 °C and then begin to add boric acid ester. Stop heating once the temperature reaches 260 °C; Keep the feed temperature below 280 °C, continue the stirring after the addition of boric acid ester to ensure the thorough reaction. After the completion of reaction, cool the temperature below 100 °C, centrifuge to obtain a condensation product pellet. Add an appropriate amount of water to the hydrolysis reactor and slowly transfer the filter pellet into the hydrolysis reactor, keep the temperature lower than 50 °C, heat to 80 °C after the complete of adding the filter pellet. Centrifuge and separate, transfer the hydrolysis solution to stratification vessel to keep still for 1h for automatic layering. The hydrolysis solution in the lower layer corresponds to sodium borohydride. The reaction formula is as below:
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Sodium borohydride(16940-66-2) IR1
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Venpure SF granules-Sodium borohydride granules, Morton material(16940-66-2)
[Alfa Aesar]

Sodium borohydride, stable aq. soln., 4.4M in 14M NaOH(16940-66-2)
[Sigma Aldrich]


Sodium Borohydride,>93.0%(T)(16940-66-2)
16940-66-2 suppliers list
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