ChemicalBook--->CAS DataBase List--->96-48-0


96-48-0 Structure

96-48-0 Structure



endo-cis-5-norbornene-endo-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride
FEMA 3291

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

Oily, colorless, clear liquid. Faint, pleasant odor.
[Melting point ]

-45 °C (lit.)
[Boiling point ]

204-205 °C (lit.)
[density ]

1.12 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
[vapor density ]

3 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

1.5 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

[refractive index ]

n20/D 1.436(lit.)
[Fp ]

209 °F
[storage temp. ]

[solubility ]

DMF: 10 mg/ml; DMSO: 10 mg/ml; Ethanol: 10 mg/ml; PBS (pH 7.2): 1 mg/ml
[form ]

[color ]

Clear colorless

at 100.00 %. creamy oily fatty caramel
[PH Range]

4 at 100 g/l at 20 °C

Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, strong reducing agents.
[explosive limit]

[Odor Type]

[Water Solubility ]

[JECFA Number]

[Merck ]

[BRN ]



-0.566 at 25℃
[CAS DataBase Reference]

96-48-0(CAS DataBase Reference)

3 (Vol. 11, Sup 7, 71) 1999
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

[EPA Substance Registry System]

96-48-0(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
[Safety Statements ]

S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S39:Wear eye/face protection .
[WGK Germany ]


[Autoignition Temperature]

851 °F

[HS Code ]

[Safety Profile]

Moderately toxic by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by skin contact. Mutation data reported. Less acutely toxic than ppropiolactone. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Potentially explosive reaction with butanol + 2,4 dichlorophenol + sodium hydroxide. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid and irritating fumes.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

96-48-0(Hazardous Substances Data)

LD50 orally in rats: 17.2 ml/kg (Smyth)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Tetrahydrofuran-->Hydrogen-->Maleic anhydride-->Succinic anhydride-->1,4-Butanediol
[Preparation Products]

Tetrahydrofuran-->N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone-->METHYL 3-(2,2-DICHLOROVINYL)-2,2-DIMETHYL-(1-CYCLOPROPANE)CARBOXYLATE-->Sorbic acid-->Cyclopropylamine-->Glutaric acid-->ethyl 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1-cyclopropanecarboxylate-->Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid-->4-Phenylbutyric acid-->GAMMA-CHLOROBUTYROPHENONE-->3-Acetyl-1-propanol-->1-Tetralone-->2-Pyrrolidinone-->3,3,4,4-diphenylsulfonetetracarboxylicdianhydride-->2-Acetylbutyrolactone-->D-(+)-Pantothenic acid calcium salt-->4-(2-OXO-1,3-BENZOXAZOL-3(2H)-YL)BUTANOIC ACID-->Indole-3-butyric acid-->2,6-Difluorobenzonitrile-->ALPHA,ALPHA-DIMETHYL-GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE-->4-Chlorobutyryl chloride-->4-Bromo-2,2-diphenylbutyric acid-->3-[2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane carboxylic acid-->Haloperidol-->2-Bromo-4-butanolide-->SODIUM 4-HYDROXYBUTYRATE
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[General Description]

Clear colorless oily liquid with a pleasant odor.
[Reactivity Profile]

4-BUTYROLACTONE(96-48-0) can react with oxidizing materials, inorganic acids and bases, alcohols and amines. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. 4-BUTYROLACTONE(96-48-0) is volatile with steam. . The combination of the lactone, butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and sodium hydroxide in the attempted synthesis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid caused a thermal runaway reaction that eventually exploded, [CISHC Chem. Safety Summ., 1977, 48, 3].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Hygroscopic. Soluble in water.

Toxic by ingestion. Questionable carcino- gen.
[Potential Exposure]

Used as a chemical intermediate for making other chemicals, including pesticides, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; as a solvent for paint, nail polish removers, and industrial chemicals. Used in electronics, drilling and petroleum industries as a stabilizer and solvent. Used as a flavoring agent in various foods and beverages, including grains and breakfast foods, candy, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Drug of abuse: the United States Food and Drug Administration has warned the public not to purchase or consume products, containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). FDA has also asked the companies that manufacture these products to voluntarily recall them. The agency has received reports of serious health problems—some that are potentially life-threatening—associated with the use of these products. Although labeled as dietary supplements and marketed under various brand names, these products are illegally marketed unapproved new drugs. False advertising claims include building muscles, improved physical performance, enhanced sex, reduced stress and induced sleep
[Fire Hazard]

This chemical is combustible.
[First aid]

Eyes: first check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim’s eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes. Simultaneously, call a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim’s eyes without specific instructions from a physician. Immediately transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. Skin: immediately flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, immediately call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment. Inhalation: immediately leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be preparedto transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, SCBA should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under protective clothing. Ingestion: do not induce vomiting. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and immediately call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim’s airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. Do not induce vomiting. Immediately transport the victim to a hospital.

Listed by some sources as unregulated. UN2810 Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1—Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

4-Butyrolactone is incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, alcohols, amines, strong and inorganic acids, strong bases. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. It is hygroscopic and volatile with steam. Combustible; vapor may form explosive mixture with air.

Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone. An endogenous neuroregulator made from gamma-amino butyrate and the precursor of gamma hydroxybutyrate. It causes selective increase of brain dopamine by inhibiting its release from nerve terminals. The compound has sedative properties at low doses and produces surgical anesthesia at high doses. It is also used as an industrial solvent and precursor.
[Waste Disposal]

Use a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. It is inappropriate and possibly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste drugs and pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quantities of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double-bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to properly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.

Reported found as a constituent in coffee aroma; a volatile flavor component in roasted filberts as well. Also reported found in tomato, potato, soybeans, beans, vinegar, mushrooms, roasted chicken, beef, cider, beer, wine, scallops and clams.

ChEBI: A butan-4-olide that is tetrahydrofuran substituted by an oxo group at position 2.

From acetylene and formaldehyde, also from a number of alternative sources; ethylene chlorohydrin, glutamic acid, γ-hydroxybutyric acid solutions, tetrahydrofuran, vinyl-acetic acid.
[Aroma threshold values]

Detection: 20 to 50 ppm
[Taste threshold values]

Taste characteristic at 75 ppm: milky, creamy with fruity peach-like afternotes.
[Biochem/physiol Actions]

Precursor of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It blocks dopamine release by blocking impulse flow in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with γ-butyrolactone allows detection of autoreceptor-induced dopamine release.
[Purification Methods]

Dry the lactone over anhydrous CaSO4, then fractionally distil it. Handle it in a fume cupboard due to its TOXICITY. [Beilstein 17 V 7.]
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Chemical properties]

Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a colorless oily liquid. It is miscible with water and the general organic and slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. GBL has been characterized as having an intense bitter taste with faint to pleasant odor.

Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common solvent found in paint strippers, nail polish removers, stain removers and circuit board cleaners. It is also a common intermediate in industrial chemistry including the manufacture of pyrrolidones and in some pharmaceuticals.
Gamma-Butyrolactone is an important organic synthesis intermediate which can be used to synthesize indole butyric acid, butyric acid, succinic acid, α-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone, acetyl-γ-butyrolactone, cyclopropylamine, ciprofloxacin, vitamin B1, chlorophyll and so on;
It is a non-toxic high boiling point solvent with high solubility and safe and convenient usage and management;
It is used as an extractant for butadiene, aromatic, advanced grease petroleum processing;
It is used as an acrylonitrile fiber spinning solvent in the chemical fiber industry.
It is a thinner and curing agent commonly used in wool, nylon, acrylonitrile and other fiber dyeing auxiliaries and other chemical industries.

Maleic anhydride hydrogenation method is an advanced technology developed in 1970s. It can produce tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in any proportion with a hydrogenation reaction, and the usual ratio is tetrachlorofuran: γ-butyrolactone = 3-4:1.
There are many production enterprises, but usually in small scale. The average level is 300t/a. The production capacity account for 30% of the total domestic production capacity.  2.1, 4-butanediol dehydrogenation reactor is a tube array reactor, filled with flake copper catalyst (with zinc oxide as the carrier). The reaction temperature is controlled at 230-240 ° C. The yield of the product is obtained by reduced pressure distillation of and the yield is above 77%.

Flammable substance
[Toxicity grading]

[Acute toxicity]

oral-rat LD50: 1540 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 1720 mg/kg
[Hazardous characteristics of the explosive]

Explosible when react with butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and sodium hydroxide
[Flammability hazard]

Flammable in case of heat, open flame; being able to react with oxidant; releasing toxic pungent smoke when in the process of pyrolysis.
[Storage and transportation properties]

Make sure ventilating, low temperature and drying in the warehouse; separate from the oxidant; prevent fires.
[Extinguishing agent]

Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Gamma Butyrolactone(96-48-0)MS
Gamma Butyrolactone(96-48-0)1HNMR
Gamma Butyrolactone(96-48-0)13CNMR
Gamma Butyrolactone(96-48-0)IR1
Gamma Butyrolactone(96-48-0)Raman
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