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Maleic anhydride

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Lastest Price from Maleic anhydride manufacturers

  • Maleic anhydride
  • US $10.00 / KG
  • 2019-08-07
  • CAS:108-31-6
  • Min. Order: 1KG/CTN
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: 20 mt
  • Maleic anhydride
  • US $1.00 / kg
  • 2019-07-06
  • CAS: 108-31-6
  • Min. Order: 1g
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: 100KG
Maleic anhydride Basic information
Product Name:Maleic anhydride
Product Categories:Miscellaneous;Organics;-;Building Blocks;Carbonyl Compounds;Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides;Chemical Synthesis;Organic Building Blocks;Heterocycles;Intermediates & Fine Chemicals;Pharmaceuticals
Mol File:108-31-6.mol
Maleic anhydride Structure
Maleic anhydride Chemical Properties
Melting point 51-56 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 200 °C(lit.)
density 1.48
vapor density 3.4 (vs air)
vapor pressure 0.16 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 1.4688 (estimate)
Fp 218 °F
storage temp. Store at RT.
form powder
color White
PH0.8 (550g/l, H2O, 20℃)Hydrolysis
explosive limit1.4-7.1%(V)
Water Solubility 79 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
Merck 14,5704
BRN 106909
Henry's Law Constant(atm?m3/mol): Not applicable - reacts with water
Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: TWA 1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3), IDLH 10 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.25 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.25 ppm with an intended change of 0.1 ppm.
Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with water, strong oxidizing agents, alkali metals, strong bases, amines, most common metals, polymerization catalysts and accelerators.
CAS DataBase Reference108-31-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference2,5-Furandione(108-31-6)
EPA Substance Registry System2,5-Furandione(108-31-6)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C
Risk Statements 22-34-42/43
Safety Statements 22-26-36/37/39-45
RIDADR UN 2215 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 1
RTECS ON3675000
Autoignition Temperature870 °F
HS Code 2917 14 00
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup III
Hazardous Substances Data108-31-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: 1090 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit 2620 mg/kg
MSDS Information
ACROS English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Maleic anhydride Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionMaleic anhydride (butenedioic anhydride , toxilic anhydride , 2,5- dioxofuran ) is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O. It is the acid anhydride of maleic acid and in its pure state it is a colourless or white solid with an acrid odour.
Chemical PropertiesMaleic anhydride is colorless needles, white lumps, or pellets. Irritating, choking odor.
Chemical PropertiesWhite solid
Physical propertiesWhite, hydroscopic crystals (usually shipped as briquettes). Odor threshold concentration is 0.32 ppm (quoted, Amoore and Hautala, 1983).
UsesMaleic Anhydride is heterocyclic compound used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins. Maleic Anhydride has a wide range of other applications; it is used in synthetic tensides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.
UsesIn Diels-Alder syntheses (as a dienophile), manufacture of alkyd-type of resins, dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals (maleic hydrazide, malathion), in copolymerization reactions.
DefinitionChEBI: A cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride that is the cyclic anhydride of maleic acid.
Production MethodsMaleic anhydride was traditionally manufactured by the oxidation of benzene or other aromatic compounds. As of 2006, only a few smaller plants continue to use benzene; due to rising benzene prices, most maleic anhydride plants now use n-butane as a feedstock.
In both cases, benzene and butane are fed into a stream of hot air, and the mixture is passed through a catalyst bed at high temperature. The ratio of air to hydrocarbon is controlled to prevent the mixture from catching on fire. Vanadium pentoxide and molybdenum trioxide are the catalysts used for the benzene route, whereas vanadium and phosphorus oxides are used for the butane route.
2 CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 7 O2 → 2 C2H2(CO)2O + 8 H2O.
Definitionmaleic anhydride: A colourlesssolid, C4H2O3, m.p. 53°C, the anhydrideof cis-butenedioic acid (maleicacid). It is a cyclic compound with aring containing four carbon atomsand one oxygen atom, made by thecatalytic oxidation of benzene or itsderivatives at high temperatures. It isused mainly in the manufacture ofalkyd and polyester resins andcopolymers.
ReactionsThe chemistry of maleic anhydride is very rich, reflecting its ready availability and bifunctional reactivity. It hydrolyzes, producing maleic acid, cis-HOOC–CH=CH–COOH. With alcohols, the halfester is generated, e.g., cis-HOOC–CH=CH–COOCH3.
Maleic anhydride is a potent dienophile in Diels-Alder reactions. It is also a ligand for low-valent metal complexes, examples being Pt(PPh3)2(MA) and Fe(CO)4(MA).
Maleic anhydride dimerizes in a photochemical reaction to form cyclo butane tetra carboxylic dianhydride (CBTA). This compound is used in the production of polyimides and as an alignment film for liquid crystal displays.
General DescriptionColorless crystalline needles, flakes, pellets, rods, briquettes, lumps or a fused mass. Melts at 113°F. Shipped both as a solid and in the molten state. Vapors, fumes and dusts strong irritate the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Flash point 218°F. Autoignition temperature 890°F. Used to make paints and plastics and other chemicals.
Air & Water ReactionsSoluble in water. Reacts slowly with water to form maleic acid and heat.
Reactivity ProfileMaleic anhydride react vigorously on contact with oxidizing materials. Reacts exothermically with water or steam. Undergoes violent exothermic decomposition reactions, producing carbon dioxide, in the presence of strong bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium), aliphatic amines (dimethylamine, trimethylamine), aromatic amines (pyridine, quinoline) at temperatures above 150° C [Vogler, C. A. et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1963, 8, p. 620]. A 0.1% solution of pyridine (or other tertiary amine) in Maleic anhydride at 185°C gives an exothermic decomposition with rapid evolution of gas [Chem Eng. News 42(8); 41 1964]. Maleic anhydride is known as an excellent dienophile in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce phthalate ester derivatives. These reactions can be extremely violent, as in the case of 1-methylsilacyclopentadiene [J. Organomet., Chem., 1979, 179, c19]. Maleic anhydride undergoes a potentially explosive exothermic Diels-Alder reaction with 1-methylsilacyclopenta-2,4-diene at 150C [Barton, T. J., J. Organomet. Chem., 1979, 179, C19], and is considered an excellent dieneophile for Diels-alder reactions [Felthouse, Timothy R. et al. "Maleic anhydride , Maleic Acid, and Fumaric Acid." Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005].
HazardIrritant to tissue. Dermal and respiratory sensitization. Questionable carcinogen.
Health HazardInhalation causes coughing, sneezing, throat irritation. Skin contact causes irritation and redness. Vapors cause severe eye irritation; photophobia and double vision may occur.
Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: When heated above 300°F in the presence of various materials may generate heat and carbon dioxide. Will explode if confined.
Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Can cause pulmonary edema. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. A pesticide. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously on contact with oxidizing materials. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts with water or steam to produce heat. Violent reaction with bases (e.g., sodmm hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), dkah metals (e.g., sodium, potassium), amines (e.g., dimethylamine, triethylamine), lithium, pyridine. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. Incompatible with cations. When heated to decomposition (above 150℃) it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ANHYDRIDES.
Potential ExposureMaleic anhydride is used in unsaturated polyester resins; Agricultural chemical, and lubricating additives; in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins; in the manufacture of fumaric acid; in alkyd resin manufacture; in the manufacture of pesticides e.g., malathion, maleic hydrazide, and captan).
Environmental fateChemical/Physical. Reacts with water forming maleic acid (Bunton et al., 1963). Anticipated products from the reaction of maleic anhydride with ozone or OH radicals in the atmosphere are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, aldehydes, and esters (Cupitt, 1980).
Solubility in organics(wt % at 25 °C):
Acetone (227), benzene (50), carbon tetrachloride (0.60), chloroform (52.5), ethyl acetate (112), ligroin (0.25), toluene (23.4), o-xylene (19.4) (Windholz et al., 1983). Soluble in alcohol and 1,4- dioxane (Hawley, 1981).
ShippingUN2215 Maleic anhydride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
Purification MethodsCrystallise it from *benzene, CHCl3, CH2Cl2 or CCl4. Sublime it under reduced pressure. [Skell et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 6300 1986, Beilstein 17 III/IV 5897, 17/11 V 55.]
IncompatibilitiesReacts slowly with water (hydrolyzes) to form maleic acid, a medium-strong acid. Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Reacts with strong oxidizers, oil, water, alkali metals; strong acids; strong bases. Violent reaction with alkali metals and amines above 66C. Dangerous reaction with oxidizers, amines, alkali metals, and hydroxides. Compounds of the carboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic and organic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water and a salt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds (releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammable gases), thiosulfates and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfate and oxides of sulfur)
Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Controlled incineration: care must be taken that complete oxidation to nontoxic products occurs.
Tag:Maleic anhydride(108-31-6) Related Product Information
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