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Cephalexin

Description Indications Mechanism of Action Brand Name(s) in US Pharmacodynamics Interactions Uses Dosing Information Elimination Side effects Safety Precautions
Cephalexin
Cephalexin structure
CAS No.
15686-71-2
Chemical Name:
Cephalexin
Synonyms
cex;s6437;syncl;oracef;oroxin;keforal;larixin;CEPOREX;Cefadal;Cefadin
CBNumber:
CB1210543
Molecular Formula:
C16H17N3O4S
Formula Weight:
347.39
MOL File:
15686-71-2.mol

Cephalexin Properties

Melting point:
196-198°C
alpha 
[α]D20 +144~+158° (c=0.5, H2O) (Calculated on dehydrous basis)
Density 
1.3040 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.6320 (estimate)
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
NH4OH 1 M: 50 mg/mL, clear, yellow
form 
neat
pka
5.2, 7.3(at 25℃)
PH
pH (5g/l, 25℃) 3.5~5.5
Merck 
13,1986
InChIKey
AVGYWQBCYZHHPN-CYJZLJNKSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
15686-71-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  42/43
Safety Statements  22-36/37-45
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  XI0350000
HS Code  29419000
Hazardous Substances Data 15686-71-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P342+P311 IF experiencing respiratory symptoms: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.

Cephalexin price More Price(13)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 33989 Cefalexin VETRANAL 15686-71-2 100mg-r $87 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich C4895 Cephalexin hydrate first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic 15686-71-2 5g $121 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar J63172 Cephalexin hydrate, 97+% 15686-71-2 25g $224 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar J63172 Cephalexin hydrate, 97+% 15686-71-2 5g $59.6 2018-11-13 Buy
Cayman Chemical 9002009 Cephalexin ≥95% 15686-71-2 1g $25 2018-11-19 Buy

Cephalexin Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic that is used to examine the impact of binding, expression, and inhibition of PBP3 as well as additional penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) on the cell wall during bacterial mucopeptide synthesis. Cephalexin is used for the treatment of infection-causing bacteria that may induce ear, respiratory, urinary tract, and skin infections. Bacteria that are defenseless against Cephalexin may include Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Haemophilus influenza. Cephalexin is also referred to as Keflex (brand name), and it does not relieve viral infections such as flu or colds.

Indications

Cephalexin is prescribed for the treatment of otitis media, genitourinary, bone, respiratory, and skin structure infections.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Cephalexin resembles that of penicillin where it inhibits synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, its absence influences death as a result of bacterial lysis. Cell lysis is further mediated by autolytic enzymes particular to the bacterial cell wall, which includes autolysis. Research indicates that there is a probability that Cephalexin impedes the functionality of an autolysin inhibitor.

Brand Name(s) in US

Keflex and generic forms

Pharmacodynamics

Cephalexin is a 1st generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is widely prescribed for the treatment of external infections that may arise from complications associated with lacerations or minor wounds. The drug is effective in fighting a majority of gram-positive bacteria.
Cephalexin illustrates vitro activity that opposes methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, a notable pathogen in osteoarticular infections. However, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are inadequately defined in children.

Interactions

Cephalexin may minimize the impact of typhoid and BCG vaccines. Notably, these three drugs should not be administered at the same time. Patients are also advised to take the drug on an empty stomach at least 1-2 hours after meals.

Uses

Cephalexin is administered to minimize the development of bacteria that are resistant to drugs. To maintain the overall effectiveness of Cephalexin, the drug should be prescribed as a treatment for infections that can be attributed to bacteria. The availability of susceptibility and culture information should be put into consideration while making modifications to antibacterial therapy. The absence of such information may be backed by susceptibility and epidemiology patterns to influence verifiable adoption of treatment.
In some cases, Cephalexin is used for the treatment of patients who are allergic to penicillin and may have a heart condition at the time when they are undergoing a procedure on their respiratory tract, to inhibit the development of infection on their heart valves.

Dosing Information

A standard dose of Cephalexin should be administered orally in 250mg every 6 hours. Alternatively, in 12 hours, a dose of 500mg should be administered to the patient during the 7-14days treatment period. In instances where the infections are severe, higher doses up to 4g should be administered in 2-4 equal does every day.
For pediatric patients, the appropriate daily dose of Cephalexin is 25-40mg/kg administered in equal doses for a period of 7-14days. Severe infections may necessitate 50-100mg/kg administered in equal doses.
The treatment of Otitis media necessitates 75-100mg/kg in equal doses of Cephalexin. For patients with renal impairments, the dosage requirements may be adjusted accordingly for both pediatric and adult patients.

Elimination

Cephalexin undergoes tubular secretion and glomerular filtration before it is eliminated in urine. Studies indicate that about 90% of Cephalexin is eliminated in its unaltered form in urine within 8 hours.

Side effects

Allergic reactions to Cephalexin may result in respiratory issues, swelling of the tongue, lips, face, or the throat, and hives. Nonetheless, one may need to consult a doctor if they experience watery diarrhea or intense stomach pains, unusual bleeding or easy bruising, minimal or no urination, hallucinations, confusion or agitation, and severe skin reaction.
Common side effects associated with Cephalexin include vaginal discharge or itching, skin rash, fever, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, headache, feeling of exhaustion, dizziness, or diarrhea.

Safety Precautions

A patient should inform the pharmacist or doctor of any allergic reactions to Cephalexin, associated cephalosporin antibiotics, and additional ingredients or medications. The patient should also indicate any nutritional supplements, vitamins, herbal products or medications they are taking or they are planning to take. It is important to notify the doctor of a preexisting liver, kidney or gastrointestinal disease, especially colitis, if one is either pregnant or planning on getting pregnant, and if they conceive while taking Cephalexin.
If Cephalexin is prescribed to a patient with no clear indications of a bacterial infection, there are minimal chances that the drug will benefit the patient. Instead, it will increase the patient’s chances of developing drug-resistant bacteria.
Using Cephalexin over extended periods of time may induce the overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Doctors should examine their patients for superinfections during therapy for the implementation of appropriate treatment measures.

Chemical Properties

White cryst. powder

Uses

Antibacterial.

Definition

ChEBI: A semisynthetic first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic having methyl and beta-(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido groups at the 3- and 7- of the cephem skeleton, respectively. It is effective against both Gram-negative and G am-positive organisms, and is used for treatment of infections of the skin, respiratory tract and urinary tract.

brand name

Keflex (Panixine (Ranbaxy).

Antimicrobial activity

It is resistant to staphylococcal β-lactamase. Gram-positive rods and fastidious Gram-negative bacilli, such as Bordetella spp. and H. influenzae, are relatively resistant. It is active against a range of enterobacteria, but it is degraded by many enterobacterial β-lactamases. Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Providencia and Serratia spp. are all resistant. Gram-negative anaerobes other than B. fragilis are susceptible. Because of its mode of action it is only slowly bactericidal to Gram-negative bacilli.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption: >90%
Cmax 500 mg oral: c. 10–20 mg/L after 1 h
Plasma half-life: 0.5–1 h
Volume of distribution: 15 L
Plasma protein binding: 10–15%
Absorption and distribution
It is almost completely absorbed when given by mouth, the peak concentration being delayed by food. Intramuscular preparations are not available: injection is painful and produces delayed peak plasma concentrations considerably lower than those obtained by oral administration.
In synovial fluid, levels of 6–38 mg/L have been described after a 4 g oral dose, but penetration into the CSF is poor. Useful levels are achieved in bone (9–44 mg/kg after 1 g orally) and in purulent sputum. Concentrations of 10–20 mg/L have been found in breast milk. Concentrations in cord blood following a maternal oral dose of 0.25 g were minimal.
Metabolism and excretion
It is not metabolized. Almost all the dose is recoverable from the urine within the first 6 h, producing urinary concentrations exceeding 1 g/L. The involvement of tubular secretion is indicated by the increased plasma peak concentration and reduced urinary excretion produced by probenecid. Renal clearance is around 200 mL/min and is depressed in renal failure, although a therapeutic concentration is still obtained in the urine. It is removed by peritoneal and hemodialysis. Some is excreted in the bile, in which therapeutic concentrations may be achieved.

Clinical Use

Cephalexin, 7α-(D-amino-α-phenylacetamido)-3-methylcephemcarboxylicacid (Keflex, Keforal), was designed purposelyas an orally active, semisynthetic cephalosporin. Theoral inactivation of cephalosporins has been attributed to twocauses: instability of the β-lactam ring to acid hydrolysis(cephalothin and cephaloridine) and solvolysis or microbialtransformation of the 3-methylacetoxy group (cephalothin,cephaloglycin). The α-amino group of cephalexin renders itacid stable, and reduction of the 3-acetoxymethyl to a methylgroup circumvents reaction at that site.
Cephalexin occurs as a white crystalline monohydrate. Itis freely soluble in water, resistant to acid, and absorbed wellorally. Food does not interfere with its absorption. Becauseof minimal protein binding and nearly exclusive renal excretion,cephalexin is recommended particularly for the treatmentof urinary tract infections. It is also sometimes used forupper respiratory tract infections. Its spectrum of activity isvery similar to those of cephalothin and cephaloridine.Cephalexin is somewhat less potent than these two agentsafter parenteral administration and, therefore, is inferior tothem for the treatment of serious systemic infections.

Clinical Use

As for group 2 cephalosporins . It should not be used in infections in which H. influenzae is, or is likely to be, implicated. It should not be used as an alternative to penicillin in syphilis.

Side effects

Nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort are relatively common. Pseudomembranous colitis has been described and overgrowth of Candida with vaginitis may be troublesome. Otherwise, mild hypersensitivity reactions and biochemical changes common to cephalosporins occur. Very rare neurological disturbances have been described, particularly in patients in whom very high plasma levels have been achieved. There are rare reports of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

There are no approved cephalexin products for veterinary use in the USA. However, it has been used clinically in dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, ferrets, and birds, particularly for susceptible Staphylococcal infections.

Cephalexin Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Cephalexin Suppliers

Global( 224)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 Abel@chembj.com CHINA 3203 55
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817
info@dakenchem.com CHINA 21957 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20676 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32452 55
Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd.
+8615102730682; +8618874586545
02783214688 bruce@xrdchem.cn CHINA 539 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 25796 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
86-531-88032799
+86 531 8582 1093 export@haihangchem.com CHINA 8267 58
QUALITY CONTROL CHEMICALS INC.
(323) 306-3136
(626) 453-0409 orders@qcchemical.com United States 8407 58
Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
18631714998
sales@czwytech.com CHINA 307 58
Shanghai Boyle Chemical Co., Ltd. Mr Qiu:021-50182298(Demestic market) Miss Xu:021-50180596(Abroad market)
+86-21-57758967 sales@boylechem.com China 2214 55

View Lastest Price from Cephalexin manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-12-25 Cephalexin
15686-71-2
US $7.00 / kg 1kg 99% 100kg career henan chemical co
2019-04-11 Cephalexin
15686-71-2
US $1.00 / g 10g 99% 5 Ton/Tons per Month Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
2018-09-21 Cephalexin Manufacturer CAS:15686-71-2
15686-71-2
US $10.00-100.00 / G 10UG 99% 10KG Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd.

Cephalexin Spectrum


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