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Nitrogen

History Occurance Uses
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
CAS No.
7727-37-9
Chemical Name:
Nitrogen
Synonyms
Diazyne;NITROGEN;netrogen;nitrogeno;Dinitrogen;Stickstoff;nitrogen-14;nitrogengas;molnitrogen;Nitrogen gas
CBNumber:
CB2159243
Molecular Formula:
N2
Formula Weight:
28.01
MOL File:
7727-37-9.mol

Nitrogen Properties

Melting point:
−210 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
−196 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.2506
vapor density 
0.97 (vs air)
solubility 
At 20 °C and at a pressure of 101 kPa, 1 volume dissolves in about 62 volumes of water and about 10 volumes of ethanol (96 per cent).
form 
colorless gas
Water Solubility 
slightly soluble H2O; insoluble alcohol [HAW93]
Merck 
13,6634
CAS DataBase Reference
7727-37-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Nitrogen(7727-37-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Nitrogen(7727-37-9)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Safety Statements  38
RIDADR  UN 1066 2.2
WGK Germany  -
RTECS  QW9700000
4.5-31
HazardClass  2.2
Hazardous Substances Data 7727-37-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H280 Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated Gases under pressure Compressed gas
Liquefied gas
Dissolved gas
Warning P410+P403
Precautionary statements:
P410+P403 Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.

Nitrogen price More Price(1)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 295574 Nitrogen ≥99.998% 7727-37-9 56l $242 2018-11-20 Buy

Nitrogen Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

History

Nitrogen was discovered independently in 1772 by Swedish chemist Carl Scheele and Scottish botanist Daniel Rutherford. Priestly, Cavendish, and Lavoisier also obtained nitrogen independently more or less around the same time. Nitrogen was recognized first as an element by Lavoisier, who named it “azote”, meaning “without life.” The element was named nitrogen in 1790 by Chaptal. The name derived from the Greek name ‘nitre’ for potassium nitrate which contains nitrogen.

Occurance

Nitrogen is the principal component of air. The earth’s atmosphere constitutes about 78% nitrogen by volume. Nitrogen also occurs as nitrates in several minerals such as Chile saltpeter (sodium nitrate), niter or saltpeter (potassium nitrate) and minerals containing ammonium salts. Nitrogen is contained in many complex organic molecules including proteins and amino acids that occur in all living organisms.

Uses

Gaseous nitrogen has numerous uses in chemical, food, metal, and electrical industries. Nitrogen is needed in commercial production of ammonia (Haber process) and in preparation of many nitrides. It also is the starting material in making cyanamide salts, cyanides, and nitrogen oxides for producing nitric acid. Other applications are in gas chromatrography, as a carrier gas, to provide an inert atmosphere in chemical reactions, to prevent oxidation reactions, to reduce fire or explosion hazards, and to dilute a reacting gas.
In the food industry nitrogen is used to prevent mold growth, spoilage from oxidation, and insect infestation.
Other miscellaneous applications of nitrogen gas include pressurizing cable jackets, preventing carburization in welding and soldering, inflating balloons, agitating liquid baths, and cooling catalytic reactors in petroleum refining.

Chemical Properties

Nitrogen is a nonflammable, stable, odorless, cryogenic liquid or a compressed gas.

Chemical Properties

Colourless, odourless gas.

History

Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, but Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley, and others about the same time studied “burnt or dephlogisticated air,” as air without oxygen was then called. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air, by volume. The atmosphere of Mars, by comparison, is 2.6% nitrogen. The estimated amount of this element in our atmosphere is more than 4000 trillion tons. From this inexhaustible source it can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. Nitrogen molecules give the orange-red, blue-green, blue-violet, and deep violet shades to the aurora. The element is so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning without life, yet its compounds are so active as to be most important in foods, poisons, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen can be also easily prepared by heating a water solution of ammonium nitrite. Nitrogen, as a gas, is colorless, odorless, and a generally inert element. As a liquid it is also colorless and odorless, and is similar in appearance to water. Two allotropic forms of solid nitrogen exist, with the transition from the α to the β form taking place at –237°C. When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium; when mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms first nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (NO2); when heated under pressure with a catalyst with hydrogen, ammonia is formed (Haber process). The ammonia thus formed is of the utmost importance as it is used in fertilizers, and it can be oxidized to nitric acid (Ostwald process). The ammonia industry is the largest consumer of nitrogen. Large amounts of gas are also used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during production of such components as transistors, diodes, etc. Large quantities of nitrogen are used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products. The drug industry also uses large quantities. Nitrogen is used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods. Liquid nitrogen is also used in missile work as a purge for components, insulators for space chambers, etc., and by the oil industry to build up great pressures in wells to force crude oil upward. Sodium and potassium nitrates are formed by the decomposition of organic matter with compounds of the metals present. In certain dry areas of the world these saltpeters are found in quantity. Ammonia, nitric acid, the nitrates, the five oxides (N2O, NO, N2O3, NO2, and N2O5), TNT, the cyanides, etc. are but a few of the important compounds. Nitrogen gas prices vary from 2¢ to $2.75 per 100 ft3 (2.83 cu. meters), depending on purity, etc. Production of elemental nitrogen in the U.S. is more than 9 million short tons per year. Natural nitrogen contains two isotopes, 14N and 15N. Ten other isotopes are known.

Definition

Nitrogen, N2, is a colorless,odorless, inert gas that comprises 80%of the earth's atmosphere. It serves as a diluent and controls natural burning and respiration rates, which would be much faster in higher concentrations of oxygen. Nitrogen is soluble in water and alcohol, but is essentially insoluble in most other liquids. It is essential to practically all forms of life and its compounds serve as foods or fertilizers. Nitrogen is used in the manufacture of ammonia and nitric acid. Nitrogen is essentially an inert gas at ambient and moderate temperatures. Therefore, it is easily handled by most metals.At elevated temperatures, nitrogen can be aggressive to metals and alloys.

Uses

In manufacture of ammonia, nitric acid, nitrates, cyanides, etc.; in manufacture of explosives; in filling high-temp thermometers, incandescent bulbs; to form an inert atm for preservation of materials, for use in dry boxes or glove bags. Liquid nitrogen in food-freezing processes; in the laboratory as a coolant. Pharmaceutic aid (air displacement).

General Description

A colorless odorless gas. Noncombustible and nontoxic. Makes up the major portion of the atmosphere, but will not support life by itself. Used in food processing, in purging air conditioning and refrigeration systems, and in pressurizing aircraft tires. May cause asphyxiation by displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat containers may rupture violently and rocket.

Air & Water Reactions

Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

These substances undergo no chemical reactions under any known circumstances except those under extreme conditions (liquid Nitrogen reacts violently in mixture with magnesium powder when a fuse is lit. Due to formation of magnesium nitride). Otherwise, they are nonflammable, noncombustible and nontoxic. They can asphyxiate.

Hazard

Asphyxiant.

Health Hazard

Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground.

Fire Hazard

Non-flammable gases. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.

Safety Profile

Low toxicity. In high concentrations it is a simple as-p~h yxiant. The release of nitrogen from solution in the blood, with formation of small bubbles, is the cause of most of the symptoms and changes found in compressed air illness (caisson disease). It is a narcotic at hgh concentration and hgh pressure. Both the narcotic effects and the bends are hazards of compressed air atmospheres such as found in underwater dving. Nonflammable gas. Can react violently with lithium, neodymium, titanium under the proper condtions. See also ARGON.

Potential Exposure

Nitrogen is present in the air we breathe. Health effects may occur at concentrations above 80%. It has many medical and industrial uses including the quick freezing of food. The gas is used for purging, heat treating; food freezing; annealing, cooling, oil recovery; in the inert blanketing of sensitive materials and as a reactant in chemical synthesis of ammonia.

First aid

Inhalation: Move person to fresh air. Give oxygen or artificial respiration as necessary. Skin: Remove liquid-soaked clothing after allowing to thaw. If frostbite has occurred, seek medical attention immediately; do NOT rub the affected areas or flush them with water. In order to prevent further tissue damage, do NOT attempt to remove frozen clothing from frostbitten areas. If frostbite has NOT occurred, immediately and thoroughly wash contaminated skin with soap and water. Seek medical attention. Eyes: Seek immediate medical attention if contact with liquid occurs. Ingestion: Seek medical attention as necessary.

Shipping

UN1066 Nitrogen, compressed, Hazard Class:, Hazard Class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2-Nonflammable compressed gas; UN1977 Nitrogen, refrigerated liquid cryogenic liquid, Hazard Class:, Hazard Class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2- Nonflammable compressed gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Purification Methods

Cylinder N2 can be freed from oxygen by passage through Fieser's solution [which comprises 2g sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and 15g sodium hydrosulfite dissolved in 100mL of 20% KOH; see Fieser, J Am Chem Soc 46 2639 1924] followed by scrubbing with saturated lead acetate solution (to remove any H2S generated by the Fieser solution), conc H2SO4 (to remove moisture), then soda-lime (to remove any H2SO4 and CO2). Alternatively, after passage through Fieser's solution, N2 can be dried by washing with a solution of the metal ketyl from benzophenone and Na wire in absolute diethyl ether. [If ether vapour in N2 is undesirable, the ketyl from liquid Na-K alloy under xylene can be used.] Another method for removing O2 is to pass the nitrogen through a long, tightly packed column of Cu turnings, the surface of which is constantly renewed by scrubbing it with ammonia (sg 0.880) solution. The gas is then passed through a column packed with glass beads moistened with conc H2SO4 (to remove ammonia), through a column of packed KOH pellets (to remove H2SO4 and to dry the N2), and finally through a glass trap packed with chemically clean glass wool immersed in liquid N2. Nitrogen has also been purified by passage over Cu wool at 723oK and Cu(II) oxide [prepared by heating Cu(NO3)2.6H2O at 903oK for 24hours] and then into a cold trap at 77oK. A typical dry purification method consists of a mercury bubbler (as trap), followed by a small column of silver and gold turnings to remove any mercury vapour, towers containing anhydrous CaSO4, dry molecular sieves or Mg(ClO4)2, a tube filled with fine Cu turnings and heated to 400o by an electric furnace, a tower containing soda-lime, and finally a plug of glass wool as filter. Variations include tubes of silica gel, traps containing activated charcoal cooled in a Dry-ice bath, copper on Kieselguhr heated to 250o, and Cu and Fe filings at 400o. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 458-460 1963.]

Incompatibilities

Containers may explode when heated. Liquid nitrogen is very unreactive, nonflammable, noncombustible and nontoxic. Contact with water may result in vigorous or violent boiling and extremely rapid vaporization. If the water is hot, there is the possibility that a liquid “superheat” explosion may occur. Pressures may build to dangerous levels if the liquid contacts water in a closed container.

Waste Disposal

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Vent to atmosphere.

Nitrogen Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Nitrogen Suppliers

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