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フェノール

フェノール 化学構造式
108-95-2
CAS番号.
108-95-2
化学名:
フェノール
别名:
フェノール;4-ヒドロキシベンゼン;パオスクレー;石炭酸;グリヘノブルーMB;カルボ-ル;フェノール標準原液;フェノール(結晶);フェノール試薬;フェノール STANDARD;フェノール(破砕結晶);フェノール, 結晶;フェノール標準品;パンディ試薬;フェノール 溶液;液体フェノール;フェノール Standard, 2.0 mg/mL in Dichloromethane;フェノール Standard, 5.0 mg/mL in MeOH;消毒用フェノール;液状フェノール
英語化学名:
Phenol
英語别名:
Izal;PhOH;Fenol;Fenolo;PHENOL;NA 2821;Paoscle;Phenole;BENZENOL;PhenolGr
CBNumber:
CB4362168
化学式:
C6H6O
分子量:
94.11124
MOL File:
108-95-2.mol

フェノール 物理性質

融点 :
40-42 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
182 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
1.071 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
蒸気密度:
3.24 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
0.09 psi ( 55 °C)
屈折率 :
n20/D 1.53
FEMA :
3223 | PHENOL
闪点 :
175 °F
貯蔵温度 :
2-8°C
溶解性:
H2O: 50 mg/mL at 20 °C, clear, colorless
外見 :
liquid
酸解離定数(Pka):
9.89(at 20℃)
色:
faintly yellow
比重:
1.071
PH:
3.0-6.0 (25℃, 0.5M in H2O)
臭い (Odor):
Sweet, medicinal odor detectable at 0.06 ppm
爆発限界(explosive limit):
1.3-9.5%(V)
水溶解度 :
8 g/100 mL
凝固点 :
41℃
Sensitive :
Air & Light Sensitive
Merck :
14,7241
JECFA Number:
690
BRN :
969616
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA skin 5 ppm (~19 mg/m3 ) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); 10-hour TWA 5.2 ppm (~20 mg/m3 ) (NIOSH); ceiling 60 mg (15 minutes) (NIOSH); IDLH 250 ppm (NIOSH).
InChIKey:
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS データベース:
108-95-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Phenol(108-95-2)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Phenol(108-95-2)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  T,C,F,Xn
Rフレーズ  23/24/25-34-48/20/21/22-68-40-39/23/24/25-11-36-20/21/22-24/25
Sフレーズ  26-36/37/39-45-36/37-28A-28-24/25-1/2-36-16-7
RIDADR  UN 2821 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 SJ3325000
8-23
自然発火温度 715 °C
TSCA  Yes
国連危険物分類  6.1
容器等級  II
HSコード  29071100
有毒物質データの 108-95-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 orally in rats: 530 mg/kg (Deichmann, Witherup)
化審法 (3)-481 優先評価化学物質
安衛法 特化則 特定化学物質(第3類)
PRTR法 第一種指定化学物質
毒劇物取締法 劇物
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H225 引火性の高い液体および蒸気 引火性液体 2 危険 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H227 引火性液体 引火性液体 4 警告 P210, P280, P370+P378, P403+P235,P501
H301 飲み込むと有毒 急性毒性、経口 3 危険 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H311 皮膚に接触すると有毒 急性毒性、経皮 3 危険 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H312 皮膚に接触すると有害 急性毒性、経皮 4 警告 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H314 重篤な皮膚の薬傷?眼の損傷 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 1A, B, C 危険 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 吸入すると有害 急性毒性、吸入 4 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H340 遺伝性疾患のおそれ 生殖細胞変異原性 1A, 1B 危険
H341 遺伝性疾患のおそれの疑い 生殖細胞変異原性 2 警告 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H360 生殖能または胎児への悪影響のおそれ 生殖毒性 1A, 1B 危険
H370 臓器の障害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害のおそれ 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 2 警告 P260, P314, P501
H401 水生生物に毒性 水生環境有害性、急性毒性 2 P273, P501
H411 長期的影響により水生生物に毒性 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 2
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P261 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーの吸入を避ける こと。
P273 環境への放出を避けること。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P301+P310 飲み込んだ場合:直ちに医師に連絡すること。
P303+P361+P353 皮膚(または髪)に付着した場合:直ちに汚染された衣 類をすべて脱ぐこと/取り除くこと。皮膚を流水/シャワー で洗うこと。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P310 ただちに医師に連絡すること。

フェノール 価格 もっと(110)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0116-1736 フェノール(破砕結晶) 99.0+% (C6H6O) (mass/mass) (GC)
Phenol 99.0+% (C6H6O) (mass/mass) (GC)
108-95-2 25g ¥2300 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ACSAPP-9-179-20X フェノール Standard
Phenol Standard , 2.0 mg/mL in Dichloromethane
108-95-2 1mL ¥7400 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 P1610 フェノール >99.5%(GC)
Phenol >99.5%(GC)
108-95-2 500g ¥4300 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 P1610 フェノール >99.5%(GC)
Phenol >99.5%(GC)
108-95-2 25g ¥2000 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 14934-1A フェノール
Phenol
108-95-2 1kg ¥8800 2018-12-13 購入

フェノール 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

白色〜わずかにうすい赤色, 塊

定義

本品は、次の化学式で表される芳香族化合物である。

溶解性

水及びエタノールにやや溶けやすい。エタノール及びジエチルエーテルに極めて溶けやすく、水にやや溶けやすい。

用途

消毒剤、歯科用麻酔剤、染料中間物原料

用途

DNA, RNAの抽出精製用。

用途

汎用試薬、試液調製原料、有機合成原料。

用途

たん白質分解時のアミノ酸保護剤。

用途

上水中等のフェノール類の試験用フェノール標準液調製用。

用途

フェノールは、ベンゼンから合成されるヒドロキシル基を持つ芳香族化合物で、フェノール樹脂の原料として、またエポキシ樹脂の原料であるビスフェノールAの合成に使用される他、各種化学薬品の原料として使用される。
フェノール樹脂の原料として、また、エポキシ樹脂の原料であるビスフェノールAの合成として使用される他、染料 界面活性剤 殺菌剤,農薬、医薬、その中間体等々、幅広い化学薬品の原料として使用される。

用途

汎用試薬、試液調製原料、有機合成原料、消毒薬。

用途

消毒剤、歯科用(局部麻酔剤)、ピクリン酸?サルチル酸?フェナセチン?染料中間物の製造、合成樹脂及び可塑剤、合成香料、ビスフェノールA,アニリン、2,6-キシレノール、農薬、安定剤、界面活性剤の原料、化粧品原料(変性剤、消臭剤、防腐剤)

用途

汎用試薬、調製液原料。

用途

薄層クロマトグラフィー、ペーパークロマトグラフィーの展開溶媒。

化粧品の成分用途

変性剤、剥離剤、防腐剤、抗菌剤、口腔衛生剤、殺菌剤、外用鎮痛剤、香料、消臭剤

効能

鎮痛薬, 口腔麻酔薬, 鎮痒薬, 殺菌消毒薬, 痔疾用薬 (皮膚硬化薬), 保存剤

特徴

フェノールは、ベンゼンから合成されるヒドロキシル基を持つ芳香族化合物で、室温では固体で、特有の薬品臭がある。

特長

和光特級品(167-01022, 161-01025)は溶融後固まった塊であるが、本品は小塊で、取り扱い、取出し、秤量に便利である。

主な用途/役割

溶剤型接着剤に使用される。

商品名

カルボール (アグサジャパン); グリヘノブルー (本草製薬); パオスクレー (鳥居薬品); フェノール (司生堂製薬); フェノール (大成薬品工業); フェノール (小堺製薬); フェノール (日興製薬); フェノール (日興製薬); フェノール (東海製薬); フェノール (東豊薬品); 消毒用フェノール (司生堂製薬); 液状フェノール (健栄製薬); 液状フェノール (司生堂製薬); 液状フェノール (大成薬品工業); 液状フェノール (山善製薬); 液状フェノール (日医工); 液状フェノール (日興製薬); 液状フェノール (日興製薬); 液状フェノール (東海製薬); 液状フェノール (東豊薬品); 液状フェノール (東豊薬品)

使用上の注意

不活性ガス封入

説明

Phenol is a stable chemical substance and appear as colourless/white crystals with a characteristic, distinct aromatic/acrid odour. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidising agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. Phenol is flammable and may discolour in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertiliser, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also extensively used as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries.

化学的特性

Phenol, C6H5OH, also known as carbolic acid and phenylic acid, is a white poisonous crystalline solid that melts at 43 °C (110 OF) and boils at 182°C (360 OF). Phenol has a sharp burning taste,a distinctive odor, and it irritates tissue. It is toxic not only by ingestion or inhalation, but also by skin absorption. Phenol is soluble in water,alcohol,and ether. It is used in the production of resins,germicides,weedkillers,pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in the refining of lubricating oils.

化学的特性

Phenol is a stable chemical substance of colorless/white crystals with a characteristically distinct aromatic/acrid odor. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. It is flammable and discolors in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertilizer, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also used extensively as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries. Phenol is a systemic poison and constitutes a serious health hazard. The risks of using it in the laboratory must be fully assessed before work begins. Typical MEL 2 ppm; typical OEL 1 ppm.

化学的特性

Phenol is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid. Sweet, acrid odor. Phenol liquefies by mixing with about 8% water. The Odor Threshold in air is 0.04 ppm and in water is 7.9 ppm.

化学的特性

Phenol occurs as colorless to light pink, caustic, deliquescent needleshaped crystals or crystalline masses with a characteristic odor. When heated gently phenol melts to form a highly refractive liquid. The USP 32 permits the addition of a suitable stabilizer; the name and amount of substance used for this purpose must be clearly stated on the label.

化学的特性

Phenol has a strong odor that is sickeningly sweet and irritating. Phenol has powerful disinfectant and sanitizing qualities. It has been used as a topical anesthetic and antiseptic preservative, reagent and chemical reactant. Its use for direct addition to food is limited to a role as a flavoring ingredient in a few foods at a maximum level below 10 ppm.

物理的性質

Phenol is a colorless or white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water. Phenol is the simplest of the large group of organic chemicals known as phenols, which consist of compounds where a carbon in the phenyl aromatic group (C6H5) is directly bonded to hydroxyl, OH.

天然物の起源

It is reported found in over 150 natural products including apricot, sour cherry, black currant, bilberry, cranberry, other berries, grapes, guava fruit, peach, pineapple, asparagus, onion, cooked potato, tomato, cinnamon bark, cassia leaf, ginger, pennyroyal oil, many cheeses, butter, milk, milk powder, boiled egg, fish and fish oil, cooked and cured meats, beer, wheaten bread, crisp bread, cognac, rose wine, cocoa, coffee, tea, whiskies, roasted filbert, roasted peanut, soybean, pecans, honey, avocado, Arctic bramble, passion fruit, beans, mushrooms, burley tobacco, cooked beef and chicken, fermented soy sauce, trassi, roasted almonds, sesame seed, fenugreek, mango, tamarind, Brazil nut, rice, rhubarb, licorice, buckwheat, watercress, malt, wort, dried bonito, loquat, myrtle berry, rosemary, Tahiti and Bourbon vanilla, endive, shrimp, crab, crayfish, clam, squid, truffle and Chinese quince.

来歴

Phenol’s first prominent use was by Joseph Lister (1827–1912) as an antiseptic. Throughout human history,infection often resulted in death,even when the wound could be surgically treated.A broken bone piercing the skin, which today is a painful but not life-threatening injury,historically resulted in infection and possible amputation or death. Lister was inspired by Louis Pasteur’s (1822–1895) germ theory of disease,and he began to use antiseptic methods during routine surgery during the 1860s.

使用

The predominant use of phenol today is for phenolic resins.it is a powerful bactericide,phenol can be found in numerous consumer products includingmouthwashes,antiseptic ointments,throat lozenges,air fresheners,eardrops,and lipbalms.
Phenol continues to be a primary chemical used to make thermoset resins.These resinsare made by combining phenol with aldehydes such as formaldehyde.More than 4 billionpounds of phenolic resins are used annually in the United States.Phenolic resins findtheir widest use in the construction industry.They are used as binding agents and fillers inwood products such as plywood,particleboard,furniture, and paneling.Phenolic resins areimpregnated into paper,which,after hardening,produces sheets that can be glued togetherto form laminates for use in wall paneling and countertops.Decking in boats and docksare made from phenolic resin composites.Phenolic resins are used as sealing agents andfor insulation. Because phenolic resins have high heat resistance and are good insulators,they are used in cookware handles.Because they are also good electrical insulators,they areused in electrical switches,wall plates, and for various other electrical applications.In theautomotive industry,phenolic resins are used for parts such as drive pulleys,water pumphousings, brakes,and body parts.
In addition to the construction industry,phenol has many other applications.It isused in pharmaceuticals,in herbicides and pesticides,and as a germicide in paints.It can beused to produce caprolactam,which is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6.Another important industrial compound produced from phenol is bisphenol A,which ismade from phenol and acetone.Bisphenol A is used in the manufacture of polycarbonateresins.Polycarbonate resins are manufactured into structural parts used in the manufactureof various products such as automobile parts,electrical products,and consumer appliances.Items such as compact discs, reading glasses,sunglasses,and water bottles are made frompolycarbonates.

使用

Phenol is used in the manufacture of variousphenolic resins; as an intermediate in the production of many dyes and pharmaceuticals;as a disinfectant for toilets, floors, and drains;as a topical antiseptic; and as a reagentin chemical analysis. It has been detectedin cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust.Smoke emitted from a burning mosquito coil(a mosquito repellent) has been found to con-tain submicron particles coated with phenoland other substances; a lengthy exposure canbe hazardous to health (Liu et al. 1987).

使用

phenol is frequently used for medical chemical face peels. It may trap free radicals and can act as a preservative. Phenol, however, is an extremely caustic chemical with a toxicity potential. It is considered undesirable for use in cosmetics. even at low concentrations, it frequently causes skin irritation, swelling, and rashes.

使用

Purified for molecular genetics applications

定義

ChEBI: An organic hydroxy compound that consists of benzene bearing a single hydroxy substituent. The parent of the class of phenols.

調製方法

Phenol was prepared before World War I through the distillation of coal tar. The firstsynthetic process involved the sulfonation of benzene followed by desulfonation with abase.
The most common current method of phenol production is from the cumene hydroperoxiderearrangement process.In this process,benzene reacts with propylene to produce cumene.Cumene is oxidized to cumene hydroperoxide.When cumene hydroperoxide is treated withdilute sulfuric acid,it rearranges and splits into phenol and acetone. Because the reactants areinexpensive and the process is simple,the acidic oxidation of cumene is used to produce morethan 95% of the world’s supply of phenol.

調製方法

Historically, phenol was produced by the distillation of coal tar. Today, phenol is prepared by one of several synthetic methods, such as the fusion of sodium benzenesulfonate with sodium hydroxide followed by acidification; the hydrolysis of chlorobenzene by dilute sodium hydroxide at high temperature and pressure to give sodium phenate, which on acidification liberates phenol (Dow process); or the catalytic vapor-phase reaction of steam and chlorobenzene at 500°C (Raschig process).

定義

1. (carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, C6H5OH) A white crystalline solid used to make a variety of other organic compounds.
2. A type of organic compound in which at least one hydroxyl group is bound directly to one of the carbon atoms of an aromatic ring. Phenols do not show the behavior typical of alcohols. In particular they are more acidic because of the electron-withdrawing effect of the aromatic ring. The preparation of phenol itself is by fusing the sodium salt of the sulfonic acid with sodium hydroxide:
C6H5SO2.ONa + 2NaOH → C6H5ONa
+ Na2SO3 + H2O
The phenol is then liberated by sulfuric acid:
2C6H5ONa + H2SO4 → 2C6H5OH + Na2SO4
Reactions of phenol include:
1. Replacement of the hydroxyl group with a chlorine atom using phosphorus(V) chloride.
2. Reaction with acyl halides to form esters of carboxylic acids. 3. Reaction with haloalkanes under alkaline conditions to give mixed alkyl–aryl ethers.
In addition phenol can undergo further substitution on the benzene ring. The hydroxyl group directs other substituents into the 2- and 4-positions.

製造方法

Phenol is formed in dry distillation of wood, peat and coal; coal tar is one of the commercial sources of phenol and its homologues.

brand name

3p maid;Agre-gola;Anbesol;Apralan;Benamine;Carbolic acid;Cepastat;Chloraseptic dm;Derma cas;Ego psoryl;Egomycol;Epivetol;Fenicado;Hydroxybenzene;Izal germicide;Merastat;Monophenol;Pao sole;Pernomol;Phenylic acid;Poscle;Pregine;Protaphane hm insulin;Sarna;Sedaural;Vaopin.

世界保健機関(WHO)

Phenol became widely used as an antiseptic following demonstration of its germicidal activity in 1867. It is an intensely corrosive substance and percutaneous absorption can produce serious systemic toxicity. It has been withdrawn from pharmaceutical preparations by at least one national regulatory authority. However, it is still used widely in concentrations of the order of 1.4% in proprietary preparations for the relief of soreness of the mouth and throat.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 5.5 ppm. Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: medicinal, creosote, smoky, spicy, phenolic, leatherlike with notes of fried meat and coffee.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 3 ppm: spicy, phenolic, tobacco, musty, woody, medicinal, smoky, tarlike and slightly spicy clovelike.

一般的な説明

A solid melting at 110°F. Colorless if pure, otherwise pink or red. Flash point 175°F. Density 9.9 lb / gal. Vapors are heavier than air Corrosive to the skin (turning skin white) but because of its anesthetic quality numbs rather than burn. Lethal amounts can be absorbed through the skin. Used to make plastics and adhesives.

空気と水の反応

Decomposes slowly in air. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Soluble in water

反応プロフィール

PHENOL is a weak acid. Reacts exothermically with bases. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes when heated to decomposition. Undergoes, in the presence of aluminum chloride, potentially explosive reactions with nitromethane, butadiene, formaldehyde, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxosulfuric acid, and sodium nitrite . Reacts violently with sodium nitrate in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 770]. May corrode lead, aluminum and its alloys, certain plastics, and rubber. Phenol may explode in contact with peroxodisulfuric acid (Dns, J. Ber., 1910, 43, 1880; Z. Anorg. Chem., 1911, 73, 1911.) or peroxomonosulfuric acid. (Sidgwick, 1950, 939)

健康ハザード

Toxic hazard rating is very toxic: probable oral lethal dose (human) is 50-500 mg/kg. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to humans. Lethal amounts may be absorbed through skin or inhaled. Industrial contact can cause chronic poisoning with kidney and liver damage. Persons affected with hepatic or kidney diseases are at a greater risk.

健康ハザード

Exposures to phenol cause adverse health effects and poisoning. Phenol is absorbed very rapidly through surfaces of the skin, lungs, and stomach. The symptoms of prolonged exposures and poisoning include, but are not limited to, vomiting, diffi culty in swallowing, diarrhea, lack of appetite, headache, fainting, dizziness, mental disturbances, and skin rash. Direct contact with phenol causes burning of the mouth, irritation to the eyes, nose, and dermatitis, discoloration of the skin, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Exposure to phenol in different concentrations is known to cause mental disturbances, depression of the CNS, and coma.

健康ハザード

Phenol is a corrosive and moderately toxic substance that affects the central nervous system and can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Phenol is irritating to the skin but has a local anesthetic effect, so that no pain may be felt on initial contact. A whitening of the area of contact generally occurs, and later severe burns may develop. Phenol is rapidly absorbed through the skin, and toxic or even fatal amounts can be absorbed through relatively small areas. Exposure to phenol vapor can cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Acute overexposure by any route may lead to nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and coma. Contact of phenol with the eyes may cause severe damage and possibly blindness. Ingestion of phenol leads to burning of the mouth and throat and rapid development of digestive disturbances and the systemic effects described above. As little as 1 g can be fatal to humans. Phenol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.
Chronic exposure to phenol may cause vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, difficulty in swallowing, headache, skin discoloration, and injury to the liver. Phenol has not been shown to be a carcinogen in humans. There is some evidence from animal studies that phenol may be a reproductive toxin.

健康ハザード

Phenol is a corrosive substance with mod-erate to high toxicity. The acute poisoning effects are high in most animals. In humans,ingestion of 5–10 g of solid can cause death.The toxic symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscular pain, dark urine,cyanosis, tremor, convulsions, and kidneyand liver damage. In addition, it is an irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat and cancause skin burn and dermatitis. Inhalation ofits vapors or absorption of the solid solutionor vapor through skin can produce similartoxic effects. Phenol vapors can readily beabsorbed through the skin.
Absorption of phenol through intact skin,as determined from the blood phenol levelsin the test animals, depended on the surfacearea of applications rather than its concentrations in the test solutions (Pullin 1978). Theanimals (swines) showed the signs of twitching and tremors within a few minutes ofapplications, which were followed by salivation, nasal discharge, and labored breathing.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 270 mg/kg
LC50 value, inhalation (mice): 177 mg/kg
Krajnovic-Ozretic and Ozretic (1988)investigated the effects of water pollutionby phenol on fish. An 8-day exposure to7.5 mg/L of phenol produced damage tothe gills, gallbladder, liver, and kidney ingray mullet. A higher concentration, above10 mg/L, was lethal in several hours, while alower level of 0.5 mg/L was nontoxic duringan 8-day exposure.
Snails (Indoplanorbis exustus) secretedmucus and developed hemorrhage in a highlyconcentrated phenol environment. A 96-hourmedian lethal concentration was determinedas 125.75 mg/L (Agrawal 1987).
Suppiah and Perry (2005) have reporteda case history of phenol-induced hepatitisin a male patient. The patient was admittedwith jaundice six days after phenol-injectionschlerotherapy for haemorrhoids.

火災危険

Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.

火災危険

Flammable vapors when heated. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases and cause pollution. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Avoid aluminum chloride/nitrobenzene mixture, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxomonosulfuric acid and strong oxidizing agents. Decomposes slowly on air contact. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents.

燃焼性と爆発性

Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.

応用例(製薬)

Phenol is used mainly as an antimicrobial preservative in parenteral pharmaceutical products. It has also been used in topical pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics;
Phenol is widely used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and therapeutic agent, although it should not be used to preserve preparations that are to be freeze-dried.

工業用途

Phenol is the simplest member of a class oforganic compounds possessing a hydroxylgroup attached to a benzene ring or to a morecomplex aromatic ring system.
Also known as carbolic acid or monohydroxybenzene,phenol is a colorless to whitecrystalline material of sweet odor, having thecomposition C6H5OH, obtained from the distillationof coal tar and as a by-product ofcoke ovens.
Phenol has broad biocidal properties, anddilute aqueous solutions have long been usedas an antiseptic. At higher concentrations itcauses severe skin burns; it is a violent systemicpoison. It is a valuable chemical raw materialfor the production of plastics, dyes, pharmaceuticals,syntans, and other products.
Phenol is one of the most versatile industrialorganic chemicals. It is the starting point formany diverse products used in the home andindustry. A partial list includes nylon, epoxyresins, surface active agents, synthetic detergents,plasticizers, antioxidants, lube oil additives,phenolic resins (with formaldehyde, furfural,and so on), cyclohexanol, adipic acid,polyurethanes, aspirin, dyes, wood preservatives,herbicides, drugs, fungicides, gasolineadditives, inhibitors, explosives, and pesticides.

安全性プロファイル

Human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A severe eye and skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Absorption of phenolic solutions through the skin may be very rapid, and can cause death within 30 minutes to several hours by exposure of as little as 64 square inches of skin. Lesser exposures can cause damage to the ladneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen, and edema of the lungs. Ingestion can cause corrosion of the lips, mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, and gangrene. Ingestion of 1.5 g has lulled. Chronic exposures can cause death from liver and kidney damage. Dermatitis resulting from contact with phenol or phenol-containing products is fairly common in industry. A common air contaminant.Combustible when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum chloride + nitromethane (at 1 10°C/lOO bar), formaldehyde, perijxydisulfuric acid, peroxymonosulfuric acid, sodium nitrite + heat. Violent reaction with aluminum chloride + nitrobenzene (at 120℃), sodium nitrate + trifluoroacetic acid, butadiene. Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

安全性

Phenol is highly corrosive and toxic, the main effects being on the central nervous system. The lethal human oral dose is estimated to be 1 g for an adult.
Phenol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and mucous membranes, and is metabolized to phenylglucuronide and phenyl sulfate, which are excreted in the urine.
Although there are a number of reports describing the toxic effects of phenol, these largely concern instances of accidental poisoning or adverse reactions during its use as a therapeutic agent.Adverse reactions associated with phenol used as a preservative are less likely owing to the smaller quantities that are used; however, it has been suggested that the body burden of phenol should not exceed 50 mg in a 10-hour period.This amount could be exceeded following administration of large volumes of phenolpreserved medicines.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.11 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 0.3 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, skin): 0.85 g/kg
LD50 (rat, skin): 0.67 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 0.32 g/kg
LD50 (rat, SC): 0.46 g/kg

職業ばく露

Phenol is used as a pharmaceutical, in the production of fertilizer; coke, illuminating gas; lampblack, paints, paint removers; rubber, asbestos goods; wood preservatives; synthetic resins; textiles, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations; perfumes, bakelite, and other plastics (phenolformaldehyde resins); polymer intermediates (caprolactam, bisphenol-A and adipic acid). Phenol also finds wide use as a disinfectant and veterinary drug.

応急処置

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. If concentrated phenol gets on a large area of the skin, immediately rush victim to shower and use at full blast; remove all contaminated clothing; scrub the contaminated area with soap for at least 10 minutes—water alone may be harmful. If polyethyleneglycol-300 is available, swab exposed area with cotton soaked in it. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Rinse mouth. Give plenty of water and/or vegetable oil to drink. Do not allow the consumption of alcohol. Induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.

貯蔵

Because of its corrosivity and ability to penetrate the skin, all work with phenol and its solutions should be conducted while wearing impermeable gloves, appropriate protective clothing, and splash goggles. Operations with the potential to produce dusts or aerosols of phenol or its solutions should be carried out in a fume hood.

貯蔵

When exposed to air and light, phenol turns a red or brown color, the color being influenced by the presence of metallic impurities. Oxidizing agents also hasten the color change. Aqueous solutions of phenol are stable. Oily solutions for injection may be sterilized in hermetically sealed containers by dry heat. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed, light-resistant container at a temperature not exceeding 15°C.

輸送方法

UN1671 Phenol, solid, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2312 Molten phenol, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2821 Phenol solutions, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

純化方法

Steam is passed through a boiling solution containing 1mole of phenol and 1.5-2.0moles of NaOH in 5L of H2O until all non-acidic material has distilled. The residue is cooled, acidified with 20% (v/v) H2SO4, and the phenol is separated, dried with CaSO4 and fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. It is then fractionally crystallised several times from its melt [Andon et al. J Chem Soc 5246 1960]. Purification via the benzoate has been used by Berliner, Berliner and Nelidow [J Am Chem Soc 76 507 1954]. The benzoate,(m 70o, b 314o/760mm), is crystallised from 95% EtOH, then hydrolysed to the free phenol by refluxing with two equivalents of KOH in aqueous EtOH until the solution becomes homogeneous. It is acidified with HCl and extracted with diethyl ether. The ether layer is freed from benzoic acid by thorough extraction with aqueous NaHCO3, and, after drying and removing the ether, the phenol is distilled. Phenol has also been crystallised from a 75% w/w solution in water by cooling to 11o and seeding with a crystal of the hydrate. The crystals are centrifuged off, rinsed with cold water (0-2o), saturated with phenol, and dried. It can be crystallised from pet ether [Berasconi & Paschalis J Am Chem Soc 108 2969 1986]. Draper and Pollard [Science 109 448 1949] added 12% water, 0.1% aluminium (can also use zinc) and 0.05% NaHCO3 to phenol, and distilled it at atmospheric pressure until the azeotrope was removed, The phenol was then distilled at 25mm. Phenol has also been dried by distillation from the *benzene solution to remove the water/*benzene azeotrope and the excess *benzene, followed by distillation of the phenol at reduced pressure under nitrogen. Processes such as this are probably adequate for analytical grade phenol which has as its main impurity water. Phenol has also been crystallised from pet ether/*benzene or pet ether (b 40-60o). The purified material is stored in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or CaSO4. [Beilstein 6 IV 531.]

不和合性

Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. The aqueous solution is a weak acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium hypochlorite; aluminum chloride. acids. Reacts with metals.

不和合性

Phenol undergoes a number of chemical reactions characteristic of alcohols; however, it possesses a tautomeric enol structure that is weakly acidic. It will form salts with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, but not with their carbonates or bicarbonates.
Phenol is a reducing agent and is capable of reacting with ferric salts in neutral to acidic solutions to form a greenish-colored complex. Phenol decolorizes dilute iodine solutions, forming hydrogen iodide and iodophenol; stronger solutions of iodine react with phenol to form the insoluble 2,4,6-triiodophenol.
Phenol is incompatible with albumin and gelatin as they are precipitated. It forms a liquid or soft mass when triturated with compounds such as camphor, menthol, thymol, acetaminophen, phenacetin, chloral hydrate, phenazone, ethyl aminobenzoate, methenamine, phenyl salicylate, resorcinol, terpin hydrate, sodium phosphate, or other eutectic formers. Phenol also softens cocoa butter in suppository mixtures.

廃棄物の処理

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration.

予防処置

Acute poisoning of phenol by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact may lead to death. Phenol is readily absorbed through the skin. It is highly toxic by inhalation. It is corrosive and causes burns and severe irritation effects. During use and handling of phenol, occupational workers should be very careful. Workers should use protective clothing, rubber boots, and goggles to protect the eyes from vapors and spillage.

規制状況(Regulatory Status)

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (injections). Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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(4-クロロ-2-メチルフェノキシ)酢酸 (3-クロロ-4-フェノキシフェニル)アミン ナトリウムフェノキシド 三水和物 テトラブロモフェノールブルー ビサコジル 3-フェノキシプロピオン酸 2,4,6-トリ-tert-ブチルフェノール 4,4'-イソプロピリデンジフェノールジメタクリラート p-ニトロフェノキシベンゼン 2,4,6-トリクロロフェノール フタル酸 ジフェニル 4-フェノキシ酪酸 4-クロマノン 2-フェノキシプロピオン酸 リン酸 トリス(イソプロピルフェニル) 3-(3,5-ジ-tert-ブチル-4-ヒドロキシフェニル)プロピオン酸ステアリル 2,4-ジ-tert-ブチルフェノール 亜りん酸トリス(2,4-ジ-tert-ブチルフェニル) 3-フェノキシアニリン 4'-フェノキシアセトフェノン ペンタクロロフェノールナトリウム trans-p-クマル酸 ロキサチジン酢酸エステル (RS)-α-シアノ-3-フェノキシベンジル2,2,3,3-テトラメチルシクロプロパンカルボキシラート 4tertブチルフェノル·ホルムアルデヒド重 3-[[2,2'-ジメチル-4'-[[4-[[(4-メチルフェニル)スルホニル]オキシ]フェニル]アゾ]-1,1'-ビフェニル-4-イル]アゾ]-4-ヒドロキシ-2,7-ナフタレンジスルホン酸二ナトリウム 4'-ヒドロキシバレロフェノン セラトロダスト DL-4-ヒドロキシマンデル酸一水和物 キサンテン ニトロフェン

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108-95-2(フェノール)キーワード:


  • 108-95-2
  • Phenol equilibrated, stablilized
  • Phenol water-saturated, stabilised and with separate Tris buffer solution
  • PHENOL LOOSE XTL
  • AKOS BBS-00004229
  • BIOPHENOL
  • BENZENOL
  • CARBOLIC ACID
  • CARBOLIC ACID SOLID
  • KJELDAHL PHENOL REAGENT
  • HYDROXYBENZENE
  • HYDROXY BENZENE SOLID
  • FEMA 3223
  • LIQUIFIED PHENOL
  • Phenol detached crystals
  • Phenol liquified 80% w/w in water
  • Phenol water saturated solution,DNase,RNase,Protease free,stab.
  • Phenol, MB Grade (1.07632)
  • Phenol, Molecular Biology Grade
  • PHENOL ICE CRYSTAL(HYDROXY BENZENE-PHENOL)
  • PHENOL ICE CRYSTAL
  • PHENOL(CRYSTAL)
  • PHENOL CRYSTALS
  • PHENOL (HYDROXY BENZEN)C6H5OH
  • Phenol water saturated sol., DNAse, RNAse, Protease free,stab., free of oxides, for molecular biology
  • Phenol, extra pure, 99%
  • Phenol, for analysis ACS, 99+%
  • Phenol, loose crystals, for biochemistry, 99+%
  • Phenol, loose crystals, unstabilized, extra pure, 99.5%
  • Phenol/Chloroform/Isoamylalcohol, water sat. sol., DNAse, RNAse and Protease free, stab., pH 7.8-8.2, for molecular biology
  • Phenol/TRIS saturated sol., stabilized, DNAse, RNAse and Protease free, for molecular biology
  • フェノール
  • 4-ヒドロキシベンゼン
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  • フェノール標準原液
  • フェノール(結晶)
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  • フェノール標準品
  • パンディ試薬
  • フェノール 溶液
  • 液体フェノール
  • フェノール Standard, 2.0 mg/mL in Dichloromethane
  • フェノール Standard, 5.0 mg/mL in MeOH
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