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強アンモニア

強アンモニア 化学構造式
7664-41-7
CAS番号.
7664-41-7
化学名:
強アンモニア
别名:
アンモニア (約4%メタノール溶液, 約2.0mol/L);アミン;アンモニア;ニトロ-シル;アンモニア塩;液体アンモニア;アンモニア溶液(メタノール性);アンモニアガス;アンモニア (約4%イソプロピルアルコール溶液, 約2.0mol/L);アンモニア (約4%エタノール溶液, 約2.0mol/L);アンモニア SOLUTION 0.5 M IN DIOXANE;アンモニア SOLUTION 2.0 M IN イソプロパノール;アンモニア SOLUTION 2.0 M IN エタノール;アンモニア SOLUTION 2.0 M IN メタノール;アンモニア SOLUTION 7 N IN メタノール;2MOL/Lアンモニア・エタノール溶液;2MOL/Lアンモニア・メタノール溶液;2MOL/Lアンモニア・2-プロパノール溶液;アンモニア 溶液;強アンモニア
英語化学名:
Ammonia
英語别名:
NH3;r717;am-fol;amoniak;AMMONIA;ammoniac;ammoniak;ammonia00;ammoniaca;Nitro-Sil
CBNumber:
CB9854275
化学式:
H3N
分子量:
17.03
MOL File:
7664-41-7.mol

強アンモニア 物理性質

融点 :
−78 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
60 °C
比重(密度) :
1.023 g/mL at 25 °C
蒸気密度:
0.6 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
8.75 atm ( 21 °C)
FEMA :
4494 | AMMONIA (ALSO INCLUDES AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)
闪点 :
52 °F
貯蔵温度 :
0-6°C
溶解性:
Miscible with ethanol (95%) and water.
酸解離定数(Pka):
38(at 25℃)
外見 :
Liquid
色:
Colorless
臭い (Odor):
Intense pungent odor detectable at 17 ppm
爆発限界(explosive limit):
25%
水溶解度 :
soluble
Sensitive :
Hygroscopic
Merck :
14,492
BRN :
3587154
Henry's Law Constant:
1.31 at 0 °C, 2.92 at 20 °C (droplet train apparatus, Shi et al., 1999)
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 25 ppm (~18 mg/m3) (ACGIH and MSHA), 50 ppm (OSHA); STEL 35 ppm; IDLH 500 ppm (NIOSH).
安定性::
Stable. Hygroscopic. Flammable. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents. May react violently with acids, aldehydes, alkylene oxides, amides, boron, boron halides, calcium, chlorine azide, chloric acid, chlorine monoxide, chlorites, halogens, heavy metals and many other materials - check the complete data sheet before use!
CAS データベース:
7664-41-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Ammonia(7664-41-7)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Ammonia(7664-41-7)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  F,N,T,Xn
Rフレーズ  11-20-36/37/38-67-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-10-50-34-23-36-66-40-36/37-19
Sフレーズ  26-7-45-36/37/39-16-9-61-36/37
RIDADR  UN 1219 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 BO0875000
自然発火温度 690 °C
TSCA  Yes
国連危険物分類  3
容器等級  II
HSコード  28141000
有毒物質データの 7664-41-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat) 2000 ppm (4 h)
PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
消防法 危-4-A-II
化審法 (1)-391
安衛法 有機則 第二種有機溶剤等 特化則 特定化学物質(第3類)
毒劇物取締法 III
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H225 引火性の高い液体および蒸気 引火性液体 2 危険 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 飲み込むと有毒 急性毒性、経口 3 危険 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H311 皮膚に接触すると有毒 急性毒性、経皮 3 危険 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 重篤な皮膚の薬傷?眼の損傷 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 1A, B, C 危険 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 吸入すると有毒 急性毒性、吸入 3 危険 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H334 吸入するとアレルギー、喘息または、呼吸困難 を起こすおそれ 感作性、呼吸器 1 危険 P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
H340 遺伝性疾患のおそれ 生殖細胞変異原性 1A, 1B 危険
H341 遺伝性疾患のおそれの疑い 生殖細胞変異原性 2 警告 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H360 生殖能または胎児への悪影響のおそれ 生殖毒性 1A, 1B 危険
H361 生殖能または胎児への悪影響のおそれの疑い 生殖毒性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 臓器の障害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害のおそれ 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 2 警告 P260, P314, P501
H401 水生生物に毒性 水生環境有害性、急性毒性 2 P273, P501
H412 長期的影響により水生生物に有害 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 3 P273, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P202 全ての安全注意を読み理解するまで取り扱わないこ と。
P233 容器を密閉しておくこと。
P240 容器を接地すること/アースをとること。
P264 取扱い後は皮膚をよく洗うこと。
P264 取扱い後は手や顔をよく洗うこと。
P270 この製品を使用する時に、飲食または喫煙をしないこ と。
P271 屋外または換気の良い場所でのみ使用すること。
P284 呼吸用保護具を着用すること。
P304+P340 吸入した場合:空気の新鮮な場所に移し、呼吸しやすい 姿勢で休息させること。

強アンモニア 価格 もっと(24)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0101-1982 2mol/lアンモニア・エタノール溶液
2mol/l Ammonia Ethanol Solution
7664-41-7 100mL ¥7000 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0101-1982 2mol/lアンモニア・エタノール溶液
2mol/l Ammonia Ethanol Solution
7664-41-7 500mL ¥18000 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 A2236 アンモニア (約4%エタノール溶液, 約2.0mol/L)
Ammonia (ca. 4% in Ethanol, ca. 2.0mol/L)
7664-41-7 500mL ¥9700 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 A1884 アンモニア (約4%メタノール溶液, 約2.0mol/L)
Ammonia (ca. 4% in Methanol, ca. 2.0mol/L)
7664-41-7 500mL ¥10700 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 13371-1A アンモニア溶液(メタノール性)
Ammonia solution in methanol
7664-41-7 25mL ¥7100 2018-12-13 購入

強アンモニア MSDS


Ammonia

強アンモニア 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水、エタノール及びアセトンに混和する。

用途

農業用の液体肥料、窒素質肥料、化学繊維。

用途

化学原料 アンモニアは硝酸などの基礎化学品、硫安などチッソ肥料の原料となるため、工業的に極めて重要な物質である。 液化したアンモニアはバーチ還元の溶媒として使用される。
火力発電用燃料 前述のようにアンモニアは条件次第で燃焼し、燃やしても代表的な温暖化ガスである二酸化炭素が発生しない。このためアンモニアを火力発電用燃料として使う技術開発が行われている。
環境に有害な窒素酸化物の発生を抑制するために火力発電所のボイラーなどに設置される、選択触媒還元脱硝装置の還元剤として使用される。

効能

溶解剤, アンモニア原料

使用上の注意

不活性ガス封入

説明

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas that is one of the most important industrial inorganic chemicals. It is widely used in fertilizers, refrigerants, explosives, cleaning agents, and as a feedstock to produce numerous other chemicals. Ammonia ranks as one of the top 10 chemicals produced annually.

化学的特性

Strong ammonia solution occurs as a clear, colorless liquid having an exceedingly pungent, characteristic odor. The PhEur 6.0 states that concentrated ammonia solution contains not less than 25.0% and not more than 30.0% w/w of ammonia (NH3). The USP32– NF27 states that strong ammonia solution contains not less than 27.0% and not more than 31.0% w/w of ammonia (NH3).

化学的特性

Ammonia is a colorless, strongly alkaline, and extremely soluble gas with a pungent, suffocating odor.

化学的特性

Ammonia, NH3, is a colorless gaseous alkaline compound. It is very soluble in water, has a highly characteristic pungent odor, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic materials. Anhydrous ammonia, a major commercial chemical, is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, HN03, acrylonitrile, and other products, and as an electrolytic solvent.

物理的性質

Colorless gas with a penetrating, pungent, suffocating odor. An experimentally determined odor threshold concentration of 45.8 ppmv was reported by Leonardos et al. (1969). A detection odor threshold concentration of 11.6 mg/m3 (16.7 ppmv) was experimentally determined by Nishida et al. (1974).

来歴

During the Middle Ages ammonia was produced by the distillation of animal dung, hooves, and horn. Its preparation from horn gave it another name: spirit of hartshorn. Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) isolated ammonia in 1774 and called the compound alkaline air. The modern name ammonia was given to the compound in 1782 by the Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman (1735–1784). The exact chemical composition was determined by Claude-Louis Berthollet (1748–1822) in 1785. During the 19th century ammonia was obtained from the distillation of coal tar. The importance of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture was established during the mid-1800s, and this coupled with the growth of the chemical industry provided incentive to find a method for fixing nitrogen.

使用

Ammonia is a large-tonnage industrial product and finds its major use in the manufacture of nitric acid and fertilizers. It is the most commonly used refrigerant, particularly for large industrial installations.

使用

Fertilizer, corrosion inhibitor, purification of water supplies, component of household cleaners, as refrigerant. manufacture of nitric acid, explosives, synthetic fibers, fertilizers. In pulp and paper, metallurgy, rubber, food and beverage, textile and leather industries.

使用

Reagent for chemical vapor deposition of TiN.1

使用

Ammonia is a major feedstock for fertilizer, explosives, plastics, and other chemicals. The primary use of ammonia is in the production of fertilizers, with approximately 70% of ammonia being used for this purpose. Major fertilizers produced include ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and urea.

使用

NH3 (ammonia) is produced in the so-called Haber Bosch process. This industrial process uses finely divided iron as catalyst and a reaction temperature of around 450 °C at a pressure of 50 atm. Ammonia is used to produce fertilisers, nitric acid, nylon and many more products important to our modern life style.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)

使用

Ammonia is used in the manufacture of nitricacid, hydrazine hydrate, and acrylonitrile, aswell as fertilizers, explosives, and syntheticfibers. It is also used in refrigeration.

定義

ChEBI: An azane that consists of a single nitrogen atom covelently bonded to three hydrogen atoms.

調製方法

The Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia is based on the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen: N2(g) + 3H2(g) ? 2NH3(g). Nitrogen in the reaction is obtained by separating nitrogen from air through liquefaction, and hydrogen is obtained from natural gas by steam reforming: CH4(g) + H2O(g) → H2(g) + CO(g) According to Le Chatelier’s principle, the production of ammonia is favored by a high pressure and a low temperature. The Haber process is typically carried out at pressures between 200 and 400 atmospheres and temperatures of 500°C. In the commercial production of ammonia, NH3 is continually removed as it is produced.

定義

A colorless gas with a characteristic pungent odor. On cooling and compression it forms a colorless liquid, which becomes a white solid on further cooling. Ammonia is very soluble in water (a saturated solution at 0°C contains 36.9% of ammonia): the aqueous solution is alkaline and contains a proportion of free ammonia. Ammonia is also soluble in ethanol. It occurs naturally to a small extent in the atmosphere, and is usually produced in the laboratory by heating an ammonium salt with a strong alkali. Ammonia is synthesized industrially from hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen by the Haber process.
The compound does not burn readily in air but ignites, giving a yellowish-brown flame, in oxygen. It will react with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of platinum or a heavy metal catalyst – a reaction used as the basis of the commercial manufacture of nitric acid, which involves the oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen monoxide and then to nitrogen dioxide. Ammonia coordinates readily to form ammines and reacts with sodium or potassium to form inorganic amides and with acids to form ammonium salts; for example, it reacts with hydrogen chloride to form ammonium chloride:
NH3(g) + HCl(g) → NH4Cl(g)
Ammonia is also used commercially in the manufacture of fertilizers, mainly ammonium nitrate, urea, and ammonium sulfate. It is used to a smaller extent in the refrigeration industry. Liquid ammonia is an excellent solvent for certain substances, which ionize in the solutions to give ionic reactions similar to those occurring in aqueous solutions. Ammonia is marketed as the liquid, compressed in cylinders (‘anhydrous ammonia’), or as aqueous solutions of various strengths. See also ammonium hydroxide.

定義

ammonia: A colourless gas, NH3, with a strong pungent odour; r.d. 0.59 (relative to air); m.p. –77.7°C; b.p. –33.35°C. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. The compound may be prepared in the laboratory by reacting ammonium salts with bases such as calcium hydroxide, or by the hydrolysis of a nitride. Industrially it is made by the Haber process and over 80 million tonnes per year are used either directly or in combination. Major uses are the manufacture of nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, and urea (the last three as fertilizers), explosives, dyestuffs and resins.
Liquid ammonia has some similarity to water as it is hydrogen bonded and has a moderate dielectric constant, which permits it to act as an ionizing solvent. It is weakly selfionized to give ammonium ions, NH4+and amide ions, NH2-. It also dissolves electropositive metals to give blue solutions, which are believed to contain solvated electrons. Ammonia is extremely soluble in water giving basic solutions that contain solvated NH3 molecules and small amounts of the ions NH4+ and OH-. The combustion of ammonia in air yields nitrogen and water. In the presence of catalysts NO, NO2, and water are formed; this last reaction is the basis for the industrial production of nitric acid. Ammonia is a good proton acceptor (i.e. it is a base) and gives rise to a series of ammonium salts, e.g.NH3 + HCl → NH4+ + Cl-.
It is also a reducing agent.
The participation of ammonia in the nitrogen cycle is a most important natural process. Nitrogen-flxing bacteria are able to achieve similar reactions to those of the Haber process, but under normal conditions of temperature and pressure. These release ammonium ions, which are converted by nitrifying bacteria into nitrite and nitrate ions.

調製方法

Ammonia is obtained commercially chiefly by synthesis from its constituent elements, nitrogen and hydrogen, which are combined under high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst. Ammonia solution is produced by dissolving ammonia gas in water.

空気と水の反応

Soluble in water with evolution of heat. The amount of heat generated may be large.

反応プロフィール

AMMONIA is a base. Reacts exothermically with all acids. Violent reactions are possible. Readily combines with silver oxide or mercury to form compounds that explode on contact with halogens. When in contact with chlorates Ammonia forms explosive ammonium chlorate [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 2, 1978, p. 470]. Reacts violently or produces explosive products with fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine and some of the interhalogen compounds (bromine pentafluoride, chlorine trifluoride). Mixing of bleaching powder (hypochlorite solution) with ammonia solutions produces toxic/explosive ammonia trichloride vapors. Undergoes potentially violent or explosive reactions on contact with 1,2-dichloroethane (with liquid ammonia), boron halides, ethylene oxide (polymerization), perchlorates or strong oxidants (chromyl chloride, chromium trioxide, chromic acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorates, fluorine, nitrogen oxide, liquid oxygen). Reacts with silver chloride, silver oxide, silver nitrate or silver azide to form the explosive silver nitride. May react with some heavy metal compounds (mercury, gold(III) chloride) to produce materials that may explode when dry. [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1553].

危険性

Inhalation of concentrated fumes may be fatal. Moderate fire risk, explosive limits in air 16– 25%. Forms explosive compounds in contact with silver or mercury. Eye damage and upper respiratory tract irritant.

健康ハザード

Ammonia is intensely irritating to the eyes,nose, and respiratory tract. Toxic effectsinclude lachrymation, respiratory distress,chest pain, and pulmonary edema. A concentration of 10 ppm may be detected by odor;irritation of eyes and nose is perceptible atabout 200 ppm. A few minutes of exposureto 3000 ppm can be intolerable, causing seri ous blistering of the skin, lung edema, andasphyxia, leading to death. It is corrosive toskin because it reacts with moisture to formcaustic ammonium hydroxide. Long expo sure may result in destruction of tissues
LC50 value, inhalation (mice): 4200 ppm/hr.

健康ハザード

Vapors cause irritation of eyes and respiratory tract. Liquid will burn skin and eyes. Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with liquid may cause frostbite.

火災危険

Mixing of ammonia with several chemicals can cause severe fire hazards and/or explosions. Ammonia in container may explode in heat of fire. Incompatible with many materials including silver and gold salts, halogens, alkali metals, nitrogen trichloride, potassium chlorate, chromyl chloride, oxygen halides, acid vapors, azides, ethylene oxide, picric acid and many other chemicals. Mixing with other chemicals and water. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.

燃焼性と爆発性

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

农业用途

Anhydrous ammonia is an ammonium fertilizer made by the Haber-Bosch process, by reacting hydrogen with nitrogen in the ratio of 3: 1 at high temperatures (450 to 500'C) and pressure (about 500 atm) in the presence of an iron catalyst promoted by potassium and alumina. The nitrogen derived from air and the hydrogen obtained from (a) synthesis gas, (b) steam reforming of naptha, coal or coke (c) lignite, or (d) electrolysis of water, are purified by standard procedures before use. The anhydrous ammonia thus produced can be directly used as a fertilizer. It can also be converted to ammonium salts which are important fertilizers, by reacting ammonia with nitric, sulphuric and phosphoric acids. Anhydrous ammonia is also reacted with carbon dioxide to get urea which is another important source of nitrogen.
Anhydrous ammonia is an important fluid fertilizer and is the cheapest nitrogen source, having the highest nitrogen content (about 82 %) among nitrogenous fertilizers. However, because of safety and environmental considerations, many dealers and users are now switching over to other sources of nitrogen.
Anhydrous liquid ammonia can cause dehydration of tissue and severe damage to the skin, lungs and eyes by its freezing and caustic action. Because of the low vapor pressure (6 bar at lO℃, 9 bar at 20℃ and 12 bar at 3O℃), anhydrous ammonia must be stored and transported in pressure vessels.
Due to the volatile nature of anhydrous ammonia it has to be injected with an applicator 15 to 30 cm below the soil surface to be effective and to reduce ammonia loss. Ammonia loss depends on the soil type, its moisture content, and the depth to which the applicator is injected.
Ammonia applicators range in size from small 5-row rigs to large rigs that have a swath width of upto 20 m (65 feet) and are pulled by high-powered tractors. Anhydrous ammonia is usually metered by a variable orifice-type meter or by a piston pump.
Physical properties of anhydrous ammonia are somewhat similar to other liquids under pressure like butane or propane gas. Because of the difficulties in handling anhydrous ammonia, water solutions of ammonia, urea, ammonium phosphate or other soluble solid nitrogen materials are used widely. Anhydrous ammonia is also used in the preparation of protein feeds for cattle and sheep, and as a defoliant to hasten the shedding of cotton leaves to facilitate mechanical harvesting.

农业用途

Anhydrous ammonia is the basic building block of almost all nitrogen fertilizer materials. Most of the world's ammonia is produced synthetically by a direct reaction of the elements by the Haber-Bosch process. The process involves an exothermic and reversible reaction that proceeds with a concurrent decrease in volume.
There are certain conditions for the above reaction to proceed optimally. These are: (a) temperature of 500℃, (b) pressure of 270 to 350 atmospheres, (c) a catalyst containing finely divided iron with molybdenum or calcium as a promoter, finely divided osmium or uranium, fmely divided nickel over pumice stone or ferric oxide with traces of silica and potassium oxide, and (d) pure gases (as otherwise the catalyst gets poisoned).
Free ammonia is extremely toxic to micro-organisms, animals and higher plants. Ammonia produced as a part of normal metabolism is immediately converted into a less harmful substance like urea and is excreted in urine. Ammonia can readily penetrate cell membranes whereas the ammonium ion is impermeable. There is a close relationship between the pH and the concentration of the free ammonium (NH4+) ion. The capacity of soil to retain ammonia increases with increasing soil moisture and clay content.
Ammonia is the least expensive and most widely used nitrogen fertilizer. It is used in the manufacture of other fertilizers like urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride.
Ammonia is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid, hydrazine hydrate, urethane, acrylonitrile and sodium carbonate (Solvay process). In addition, ammonia is used as a refrigerant, in nitriding of steels, in the petroleum industry, in the manufacture of explosives and rocket fuel, as a yeast nutrient, etc.
Anhydrous ammonia, which has great affity for water, contains approximately 82% nitrogen. This is the highest nitrogen content that any nitrogen fertilizer can have. As anhydrous ammonia is a gas at atmospheric pressure, to avoid its loss to the atmosphere during application, ammonia is injected at least 7 to 20 cm below the soil.
The simplest nitrogen solution is aqua ammonia which contains 25 to 29% ammonia by weight. Since ammonia volatilizes above 10°C, aqua ammonia is injected into the soil to a depth of 5 to 10 cm.

応用例(製薬)

Ammonia solution is typically not used undiluted in pharmaceutical applications. Generally, it is used as a buffering agent or to adjust the pH of solutions. Most commonly, ammonia solution (the concentrated form) is used to produce more dilute ammonia solutions.
Therapeutically, dilute ammonia solution is used as a reflex stimulant in ‘smelling salts’, as a rubefacient, and as a counterirritant to neutralize insect bites or stings.

工業用途

Ammonia (NH3) is an alkaline gas with a sharp, penetrating odor. Reacting nitrogen and hydrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst, produces ammonia. Gaseous ammonia is flammable in air at concentrations of 15–28% by volume. Anhydrous liquid ammonia is a colorless liquid with a strong odor. Ammonia, because of its unique chemical properties to metal ions, is primarily used in hydrometallurgical processing. In the mineral processing industry, ammonia is rarely used as a pH regulator. There was only one operating plant in the world that used ammonia as a pH regulator in treatment of a copper/zinc ore.

安全性

Ingestion of strong solutions of ammonia is very harmful and causes severe pain in the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract as well as severe local edema with cough, vomiting, and shock. Burns to the esophagus and stomach may result in perforation. Inhalation of the vapor causes sneezing, coughing, and, in high concentration, pulmonary edema. Asphyxia has been reported. The vapor is irritant to the eyes. Strong solutions are harmful when applied to the conjunctiva and mucous membranes. Topical application of even dilute ammonia solutions, used to treat insect bites, has caused burns, particularly when used with a subsequent dressing.
When used as an excipient, ammonia solution is generally present in a formulation in a highly diluted form.

職業ばく露

Ammonia is used as a nitrogen source for many nitrogen-containing compounds. It is used in the production of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate for fertilizers; and in the manufacture of nitric acid, soda; synthetic urea, synthetic fibers; dyes; and plastics. It is also utilized as a refrigerant and in the petroleum refining and chemical industries. It is used in the production of many drugs and pesticides. Other sources of occupational exposure include the silvering of mirrors, gluemaking, tanning of leather; and around nitriding furnaces. Ammonia is produced as a by-product in coal distillation and by the action of steam on calcium cyanamide, and from the decomposition of nitrogenous materials.

Source

Ammonia is released as a combustion product of coal, fuel oil, natural gas, wood, butane, and propane (quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
Ammonia naturally occurs in soybean (8,600 ppm), evening-primrose seeds (2,300–2,455 ppm), lambsquarter, and tobacco leaves (Duke, 1992).

環境運命予測

Chemical/Physical. Reacts violently with acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride (Patnaik, 1992).
Reacts with acids forming water soluble ammonium salts.

貯蔵

All work with ammonia should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Cylinders of ammonia should be stored in locations appropriate for compressed gas storage and separated from incompatible compounds such as acids, halogens, and oxidizers. Only steel valves and fittings should be used on ammonia containers; copper, silver, and zinc should not be permitted to come into contact with ammonia.

貯蔵

On exposure to the air, ammonia solution rapidly loses ammonia. Ammonia solution should be stored in a well-closed container, protected from the air, in a cool, dry place. The storage temperature should not exceed 208℃.

輸送方法

Shipped in tank cars, tank trucks, barges, and steel cylinders. Labeling and restrictions vary with concentration: NA1005 Ammonia, anhydrous, Hazard Class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2-Nonflammable compressed gas, Domestic (U.S.), Inhalation Hazard (Special Provision 13). UN1005 Ammonia, anhydrous, Hazard Class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poison Gas, 8-Corrosive material International, Inhalation Hazard Zone D. UN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 @ 15 C in water, with .10 % but NOT . 35 % ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN2073 Ammonia solution, relative density less than 0.880 @ 15 C in water, with . 35% but NOT . 50% ammonia, Hazard Class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2-Nonflammable compressed gas. Note: Also used for Ammonium hydroxide, CAS1336-21-6, Record A:0110.

純化方法

Dry the liquid, and store it, with sodium in a steel cylinder, then distil and condense it by means of liquid air, the non-condensable gases being pumped off. In order to obtain liquid NH3 from a cylinder, turn the cylinder upside-down (i.e. with the valve at the bottom, use a metal stand to secure it in this position) and lead a plastic tube from the tap to a measuring cylinder placed in an efficient fume cupboard which is kept running. Turn the tap on and allow the ammonia to be released. At first, gas and liquid will splatter out (make sure that the plastic tube is secure), but soon the liquid will drip into the measuring cylinder. The high latent heat of evaporation will cool the ammonia so that the liquid will remain cool and not boil vigorously. If the ammonia is required dry, the necessary precautions should be taken, i.e. the gas is allowed to flow through tubes packed with coarse CaO pellets. AMMONIA (gas, liquid or aqueous solution) is very irritating and should not be inhaled in any quantity as it can lead to olfactory paralysis (temporary or permanent).

不和合性

Violent reaction with strong oxidizers and acids. Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with gold, halogens, mercury, mercury oxide, and silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by trimethylammonium amide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride, selenium difluoride dioxide, boron halides, mercury, chlorine, iodine, bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach, amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin, and aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics, rubber, copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, tin, zinc, and their alloys.

不和合性

Ammonia solution reacts vigorously with sulfuric acid or other strong mineral acids and the reaction generates considerable heat; the mixture boils.

廃棄物の処理

Dilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer. Recovery is an option to disposal which should be considered for paper manufacture, textile treating, fertilizer manufacture and chemical process wastes.

規制状況(Regulatory Status)

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral suspensions, topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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