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과염소산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
Perchlorsure;NEOPRENE RUBBER;PERCHLORIC ACID;Fraude's reagent;acideperchlorique;Hyperchloric acid;PerchloricAcid0.1N;PerchloricAcidGr70%;PerchloricAcid60%Gr;Perchloric acid,PCA
포뮬러 무게:
MOL 파일:

과염소산 속성

-18 °C
끓는 점
203 °C
1.664 g/mL at 25 °C
증기 밀도
~2.1 (vs air)
6.8 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
104 °F
저장 조건
Flammables area
물리적 상태
APHA: ≤10
Specific Gravity
approximate 1.54
0.1 (H2O, 20°C)
Miscible with water.
Stable. Avoid heat. May form explosive peroxides. Incompatible with a wide variety of substances, including organic materials, alcohols, amines, strong acids, strong bases, acid anhydrides, finely powdered metals, strong reducing agents. Contact with wood, paper and other celullose products may lead to explosion, as may contact with a vari
CAS 데이터베이스
7601-90-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
Perchloric acid(7601-90-3)
Perchloric acid(7601-90-3)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,O,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 5-8-35-10-34-36/38
안전지침서 23-26-36-45-36/37/39
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2920 8/PG 2
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 SC7500000
F 고인화성물질 3
자연 발화 온도 485 °C
HS 번호 3822 00 00
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
유해 물질 데이터 7601-90-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 oral (rat) 1100 mg/kg
LD50 oral (dog) 400 mg/kg
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H271 화재 또는 폭발을 일으킬 수 있음; 강산화제 산화성 액체;산화성 고체 구분 1 위험 P210, P220, P221, P280, P283,P306+P360, P371+P380+P375,P370+P378, P501
H272 화재를 강렬하게 함; 산화제 산화성 액체;산화성 고체 구분 2
구분 3
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H312 피부와 접촉하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 4 경고 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P221 가연성 물질과 혼합되지 않도록 조치하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P283 방화복 또는 방열복을 입으시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P371+P380+P375 대형 화재 시 폭발의 위험이 있으므로, 주변 지역의 사람을 대피시키고 거리를 유지하면서 불을 끄시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

과염소산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Perchloric acid, HCIO4, also known as Fraude's reagent,is a colorless, fuming,hygroscopic liquid that boils at 16°C(61OF). It is a strong oxidizer and is soluble in water. Cold dilute perchloric acid reacts with metals such as zinc and iron to yield hydrogen gas and the metallic perchlorate. Perchloric acid is used in electrolytic baths, electropolishing, explosives, analytical chemistry, and medicine.

물리적 성질

Perchloric acid, HClO4, is a colorless liquid soluble in water. It is a strong acid comparable in strength to sulfuric and nitric acids. It is useful for preparing perchlorate salts, but it is also dangerously corrosive and readily forms explosive mixtures. Perchloric acid is produced by the treatment of sodium perchlorate with sulfuric acid and by the electrochemical oxidation of aqueous chlorine.


Perchloric acid salts are used as explosivesand in metal plating. They are also used as anoxidizer and as a reagent in chemical analysis. These salts are produced by distillingpotassium chlorate with concentrated H2SO4under reduced pressure..


The acid in analytical chemistry as an oxidizer and for separation of potassium from sodium. Its salts for explosives and for plating of metals.

일반 설명

A clear colorless odorless aqueous solution. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Closed containers may rupture violently under prolonged exposure to heat.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble with heat generation.

반응 프로필

PERCHLORIC ACID is a solution of a strong oxidizing acid. May react vigorously or deflagrate when mixed with oxidizable material [Merck]. This includes (but is not limited to) alcohols, amines, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick 1979. p.174]. Perchloric acid ignites on contact with sulfinyl chloride. (Bailar, 1973, Vol. 2, 1442).


Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.


Concentrated perchloric acid is a highly corrosive substance that can produce burns on skin contact. It is also a severe irritant tothe eyes and mucous membranes. The toxicity of this compound is moderate. The toxicsymptoms from ingestion include excitement, decrease in body temperature, and distress in breathing. An oral LD50 value in dogsis reported as 400 mg/kg (NIOSH 1986)..


Perchloric acid is a highly corrosive substance that causes severe burns on contact with the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. The acute toxicity of perchloric acid is moderate. This substance is a severe irritant to the eyes, mucous membranes, and upper respiratory tract. Perchlorates are irritants to the body wherever they contact it. Perchloric acid has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans


These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.


Perchloric acid is noncombustible. The anhydrous (dehydrated) acid presents a serious explosion hazard. It is unstable and can decompose explosively at ordinary temperatures or in contact with many organic compounds.
Many heavy metal perchlorates and organic perchlorate salts are extremely sensitive explosives; the ammonium, alkali metal, and alkali earth perchlorates are somewhat less hazardous. Mixtures of perchlorates with many oxidizable substances are explosive.

인화성 및 폭발성

Perchloric acid is noncombustible. The anhydrous (dehydrated) acid presents a serious explosion hazard. It is unstable and can decompose explosively at ordinary temperatures or in contact with many organic compounds.
Many heavy metal perchlorates and organic perchlorate salts are extremely sensitive explosives; the ammonium, alkali metal, and alkali earth perchlorates are somewhat less hazardous. Mixtures of perchlorates with many oxidizable substances are explosive.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. A severe irritant to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. A powerful oxidlzer. A severe explosion hazard; the anhydrous form can explode spontaneously. Potentially explosive reaction with acetic anhydride + acetic acid + organic materials, acetic anhydride + organic materials + transition metals (e.g., chromium, iron, nickel), acetonitrile, alcohols, azo dyes + orthoperiodic acid, bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate + ethanol + ethylene glycol, bismuth (above 1 10°C), antimony (above llO°C), carbon, charcoal + chromium trioxide + heat, cellulose and derivatives + heat, combustible materials, dehydrating agents, dichloromethane + dimethylsulfoxide, dethyl ether, dimethyl ether, dloxane + nitric acid + heat, fecal material + nitric acid, graphitic carbon + nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid + structural materials, ironQI) sulfate, nitric acid + organic matter + heat, nitric acid + pyridme + sulfuric acid, nitrogenous epoxides, organic materials + sodmm hydrogen carbonate (above 2OO0C), phenyl acetylene (at -78OC), sodmm phosphinate + heat, sulfuric acid + organic materials, sulfur trioxide. Reacts to form explosive products with anline + formaldehyde, ethylbenzene + thallium triacetate (at 65℃), fluorine (forms fluorine perchlorate), glycerol + lead oxide, hydrogen + heat, hydrogen halides, phosphine, pyridme, sulfoxides. Violent reaction or igmtion with acetic acid, acetic acid + acetic anhydride, acetic anhydride, acetic anhydride + carbon tetrachloride + 2-methyl cyclohexanone, antimony compounds, azo pigments, bis1,2-diaminopropane-cis-dichlorochromium(ⅡI) perchlorate, carbon, 1,3-bis(di-ncyclopentadtenyl iron) -2-propen1 -one, CH3OH, CC4, copper dichromium tetraoxide (at 120℃), DNA, dibutyl sulfoxide, dunethyl sulfoxide, ethylbenzene, glycol ethers, glycols, HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, hypophosphttes, iron sulfate, iodides, ketones, PbO + glycerin, methanol + triglycerides, 2-methylpropene + metal oxides, 2-methyl cyclohexanone, NI3, nitrogenous epoxides, nitrosophenol, operiodlc acid, oleic acid, organophosphorus compounds, paper, PzOj + CHCl3, PzOj, PzZns, sodium iodde + hydroiodic acid, solum phosphtnate, steel, sulfinyl chloride, so3, trichloroethylene, vegetable matter, wood, zinc phosphide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES.


Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling perchloric acid, and containers of the acid should be stored in a well-ventilated location separated from organic substances and other combustible materials. Work with >85% perchloric acid requires special precautions and should be carried out only by specially trained personnel.

Purification Methods

The 72% acid is been purified by double distillation from silver oxide under vacuum: this frees the acid from metal contamination. Distillation at atmospheric pressure is dangerous and explosive. The anhydrous acid is obtained by adding gradually 400-500mL of oleum (20% fuming H2SO4) to 100-120mL of 72% HClO4 in a reaction flask cooled in an ice-bath. The pressure is reduced to 1mm (or less), with the reaction mixture at 20-25o. The temperature is gradually raised during 2hours to 85o; the distillate is collected in a receiver cooled in Dry-ice. For further details of the distillation apparatus see Smith [J Am Chem Soc 75 184 1953]. It is HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE; a strong protective screen should be used at all times. [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 318-320 1963.]

비 호환성

Cold 70% perchloric acid is a strong acid but is not considered to be a strong oxidizing agent; however, more concentrated solutions are good oxidizers. Temperature increases the oxidizing power of perchloric acid, and hot concentrated solutions are very dangerous. Evaporation of a spill of the 70% solution may lead to the formation of more dangerous concentrations. Reaction of 70% perchloric acid with cellulose materials such as wood, paper, and cotton can produce fires and explosions. Oxidizable organic compounds including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, and dialkyl sulfoxides can react violently with concentrated perchloric acid. All perchlorates are potentially hazardous when in contact with reducing agents.

폐기물 처리

Excess perchloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines.

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