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PERCHLORIC ACID

Description References
PERCHLORIC ACID
PERCHLORIC ACID structure
CAS No.
7601-90-3
Chemical Name:
PERCHLORIC ACID
Synonyms
Perchlorsure;NEOPRENE RUBBER;PERCHLORIC ACID;Fraude's reagent;acideperchlorique;Hyperchloric acid;PerchloricAcid0.1N;PerchloricAcidGr70%;PerchloricAcid60%Gr;Perchloric acid,PCA
CBNumber:
CB4348487
Molecular Formula:
ClHO4
Formula Weight:
100.46
MOL File:
7601-90-3.mol

PERCHLORIC ACID Properties

Melting point:
-18 °C
Boiling point:
203 °C
Density 
1.664 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density 
~2.1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
6.8 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
refractive index 
1.419
Flash point:
104 °F
storage temp. 
Flammables area
form 
Solution
color 
APHA: ≤10
Specific Gravity
approximate 1.54
Odor
Odorless
PH
0.1 (H2O, 20°C)
Water Solubility 
Miscible with water.
Merck 
14,7153
Stability:
Stable. Avoid heat. May form explosive peroxides. Incompatible with a wide variety of substances, including organic materials, alcohols, amines, strong acids, strong bases, acid anhydrides, finely powdered metals, strong reducing agents. Contact with wood, paper and other celullose products may lead to explosion, as may contact with a vari
InChIKey
VLTRZXGMWDSKGL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
7601-90-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Perchloric acid(7601-90-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
Perchloric acid(7601-90-3)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  C,O,Xi
Risk Statements  5-8-35-10-34-36/38
Safety Statements  23-26-36-45-36/37/39
RIDADR  UN 2920 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  SC7500000
3
Autoignition Temperature 485 °C
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  3822 00 00
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II
Hazardous Substances Data 7601-90-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 oral (rat) 1100 mg/kg
LD50 oral (dog) 400 mg/kg
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidiser Oxidising liquids;Oxidising solids Category 1 Danger P210, P220, P221, P280, P283,P306+P360, P371+P380+P375,P370+P378, P501
H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer Oxidising liquids;Oxidising solids Category 2
Category 3
Danger
Warning
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H290 May be corrosive to metals Corrosive to Metals Category 1 Warning P234, P390, P404
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H312 Harmful in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 4 Warning P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles/…
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P283 Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P371+P380+P375 in case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P405 Store locked up.

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
3 3
OX
HEALTH   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
FIRE  0 Materials that will not burn under typical fire conditions, including intrinsically noncombustible materials such as concrete, stone, and sand. Materials that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 820 °C (1,500 °F) for a period of 5 minutes.(e.g. Carbon tetrachloride)
REACT   3 Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked (e.g. ammonium nitrate, cesium, hydrogen peroxide)
SPEC. HAZ.  OX

(NFPA, 2010)

PERCHLORIC ACID price More Price(34)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 244252 Perchloric acid ACS reagent, 70% 7601-90-3 1l $93 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 244252 Perchloric acid ACS reagent, 70% 7601-90-3 2.5l $412 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010983 Perchloric acid, 70%, 99.9985% (metals basis) 7601-90-3 5ml $38 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010983 Perchloric acid, 70%, 99.9985% (metals basis) 7601-90-3 50ml $58.6 2018-11-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 311413 Perchloric acid ACS reagent, 60% 7601-90-3 100ml $62.9 2018-11-13 Buy

PERCHLORIC ACID Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Perchloric acid (chemical formula: HClO4) is a kind of mineral acid which is highly corrosive to metals and tissues. It is even stronger than sulfuric and nitric acid. It is useful in the manufacture of perchlorate salts such as ammonium perchlorate, which is an important rocket fuel component. It also has many applications in etching of liquid crystal displays and chrome, critical electronics applications, ore extraction and analytic chemistry. As a strong acid, it is useful eluent in ion-exchange chromatography due to its stability against hydrolysis. It can also be used for electropolishing/etching of aluminum, molybdenum, and other metals. In industry, it can be produced by two routes: (1) treatment of sodium perchlorate with hydrochloric acid; (2) anodic oxidation of aqueous chlorine at a platinum electrode. 

References

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/perchloric_acid#section=Top
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perchloric_acid

Chemical Properties

Perchloric acid, HCIO4, also known as Fraude's reagent,is a colorless, fuming,hygroscopic liquid that boils at 16°C(61OF). It is a strong oxidizer and is soluble in water. Cold dilute perchloric acid reacts with metals such as zinc and iron to yield hydrogen gas and the metallic perchlorate. Perchloric acid is used in electrolytic baths, electropolishing, explosives, analytical chemistry, and medicine.

Uses

Perchloric acid salts are used as explosivesand in metal plating. They are also used as anoxidizer and as a reagent in chemical analysis. These salts are produced by distillingpotassium chlorate with concentrated H2SO4under reduced pressure..

Uses

The acid in analytical chemistry as an oxidizer and for separation of potassium from sodium. Its salts for explosives and for plating of metals.

General Description

A clear colorless odorless aqueous solution. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Closed containers may rupture violently under prolonged exposure to heat.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble with heat generation.

Reactivity Profile

PERCHLORIC ACID is a solution of a strong oxidizing acid. May react vigorously or deflagrate when mixed with oxidizable material [Merck]. This includes (but is not limited to) alcohols, amines, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick 1979. p.174]. Perchloric acid ignites on contact with sulfinyl chloride. (Bailar, 1973, Vol. 2, 1442).

Health Hazard

Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Health Hazard

Concentrated perchloric acid is a highly corrosive substance that can produce burns on skin contact. It is also a severe irritant tothe eyes and mucous membranes. The toxicity of this compound is moderate. The toxicsymptoms from ingestion include excitement, decrease in body temperature, and distress in breathing. An oral LD50 value in dogsis reported as 400 mg/kg (NIOSH 1986)..

Health Hazard

Perchloric acid is a highly corrosive substance that causes severe burns on contact with the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. The acute toxicity of perchloric acid is moderate. This substance is a severe irritant to the eyes, mucous membranes, and upper respiratory tract. Perchlorates are irritants to the body wherever they contact it. Perchloric acid has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans

Fire Hazard

These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Fire Hazard

Perchloric acid is noncombustible. The anhydrous (dehydrated) acid presents a serious explosion hazard. It is unstable and can decompose explosively at ordinary temperatures or in contact with many organic compounds.
Many heavy metal perchlorates and organic perchlorate salts are extremely sensitive explosives; the ammonium, alkali metal, and alkali earth perchlorates are somewhat less hazardous. Mixtures of perchlorates with many oxidizable substances are explosive.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. A severe irritant to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. A powerful oxidlzer. A severe explosion hazard; the anhydrous form can explode spontaneously. Potentially explosive reaction with acetic anhydride + acetic acid + organic materials, acetic anhydride + organic materials + transition metals (e.g., chromium, iron, nickel), acetonitrile, alcohols, azo dyes + orthoperiodic acid, bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate + ethanol + ethylene glycol, bismuth (above 1 10°C), antimony (above llO°C), carbon, charcoal + chromium trioxide + heat, cellulose and derivatives + heat, combustible materials, dehydrating agents, dichloromethane + dimethylsulfoxide, dethyl ether, dimethyl ether, dloxane + nitric acid + heat, fecal material + nitric acid, graphitic carbon + nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid + structural materials, ironQI) sulfate, nitric acid + organic matter + heat, nitric acid + pyridme + sulfuric acid, nitrogenous epoxides, organic materials + sodmm hydrogen carbonate (above 2OO0C), phenyl acetylene (at -78OC), sodmm phosphinate + heat, sulfuric acid + organic materials, sulfur trioxide. Reacts to form explosive products with anline + formaldehyde, ethylbenzene + thallium triacetate (at 65℃), fluorine (forms fluorine perchlorate), glycerol + lead oxide, hydrogen + heat, hydrogen halides, phosphine, pyridme, sulfoxides. Violent reaction or igmtion with acetic acid, acetic acid + acetic anhydride, acetic anhydride, acetic anhydride + carbon tetrachloride + 2-methyl cyclohexanone, antimony compounds, azo pigments, bis1,2-diaminopropane-cis-dichlorochromium(ⅡI) perchlorate, carbon, 1,3-bis(di-ncyclopentadtenyl iron) -2-propen1 -one, CH3OH, CC4, copper dichromium tetraoxide (at 120℃), DNA, dibutyl sulfoxide, dunethyl sulfoxide, ethylbenzene, glycol ethers, glycols, HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, hypophosphttes, iron sulfate, iodides, ketones, PbO + glycerin, methanol + triglycerides, 2-methylpropene + metal oxides, 2-methyl cyclohexanone, NI3, nitrogenous epoxides, nitrosophenol, operiodlc acid, oleic acid, organophosphorus compounds, paper, PzOj + CHCl3, PzOj, PzZns, sodium iodde + hydroiodic acid, solum phosphtnate, steel, sulfinyl chloride, so3, trichloroethylene, vegetable matter, wood, zinc phosphide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES.

storage

Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling perchloric acid, and containers of the acid should be stored in a well-ventilated location separated from organic substances and other combustible materials. Work with >85% perchloric acid requires special precautions and should be carried out only by specially trained personnel.

Purification Methods

The 72% acid is been purified by double distillation from silver oxide under vacuum: this frees the acid from metal contamination. Distillation at atmospheric pressure is dangerous and explosive. The anhydrous acid is obtained by adding gradually 400-500mL of oleum (20% fuming H2SO4) to 100-120mL of 72% HClO4 in a reaction flask cooled in an ice-bath. The pressure is reduced to 1mm (or less), with the reaction mixture at 20-25o. The temperature is gradually raised during 2hours to 85o; the distillate is collected in a receiver cooled in Dry-ice. For further details of the distillation apparatus see Smith [J Am Chem Soc 75 184 1953]. It is HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE; a strong protective screen should be used at all times. [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 318-320 1963.]

Incompatibilities

Cold 70% perchloric acid is a strong acid but is not considered to be a strong oxidizing agent; however, more concentrated solutions are good oxidizers. Temperature increases the oxidizing power of perchloric acid, and hot concentrated solutions are very dangerous. Evaporation of a spill of the 70% solution may lead to the formation of more dangerous concentrations. Reaction of 70% perchloric acid with cellulose materials such as wood, paper, and cotton can produce fires and explosions. Oxidizable organic compounds including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, and dialkyl sulfoxides can react violently with concentrated perchloric acid. All perchlorates are potentially hazardous when in contact with reducing agents.

Flammability and Explosibility

Perchloric acid is noncombustible. The anhydrous (dehydrated) acid presents a serious explosion hazard. It is unstable and can decompose explosively at ordinary temperatures or in contact with many organic compounds.
Many heavy metal perchlorates and organic perchlorate salts are extremely sensitive explosives; the ammonium, alkali metal, and alkali earth perchlorates are somewhat less hazardous. Mixtures of perchlorates with many oxidizable substances are explosive.

Waste Disposal

Excess perchloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines.

PERCHLORIC ACID Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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