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니트로에탄
니트로에탄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
79-24-3
한글명:
니트로에탄
동의어(한글):
나이트로에테인;니트로에탄
상품명:
Nitroethane
동의어(영문):
C2H5NO2;Nitroetan;NITROETHANE;nitro-ethan;Nitroethaan;Ethane,nitro-;Nitroparaffin;2-Nitroethane;1-Nitroethane;Nitroethane,95%
CBNumber:
CB9854402
분자식:
C2H5NO2
포뮬러 무게:
75.07
MOL 파일:
79-24-3.mol

니트로에탄 속성

녹는점
-90 °C
끓는 점
114-115 °C(lit.)
밀도
1.045 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
2.58 (vs air)
증기압
15.6 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.391(lit.)
인화점
87 °F
저장 조건
Flammables area
용해도
acetone: soluble(lit.)
산도 계수 (pKa)
8.5(at 25℃)
수소이온지수(pH)
6 (1g/l, H2O, 25℃)
폭발한계
3.4%(V)
수용성
4.6 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Merck
14,6596
BRN
1209324
Henry's Law Constant
3.50 at 20.00 °C, 5.86 at 30.00 °C, 9.38 at 40.00 °C, 15.7 at 50.00 °C (inert gas stripping, Bene? and Dohnal, 1999)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (310 mg/m3), IDLH 1,000 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 100 ppm (adopted).
안정성
Stability Contact with a variety of materials may cause fire or explosion, especially if heated. Incompatible with amines, strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, combustible materials, metal oxides, strong bases, alkalies.
CAS 데이터베이스
79-24-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Ethane, nitro-(79-24-3)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 45-10-20/22-68
안전지침서 9-23-41-25-45-36/37-53
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2842 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 KI5600000
자연 발화 온도 778 °F
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 3
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29042090
유해 물질 데이터 79-24-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 Acute oral LD50 for mice 860 mg/kg, rats 1,100 mg/kg (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H332 흡입하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 4 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H341 유전적인 결함을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 생식세포 유전독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 생식세포 변이원성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H350 암을 일으킬 수 있음 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.

니트로에탄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

colourless oily liquid with an unpleasant odour

화학적 성질

Nitroethane is a colorless, oily liquid with a mild, fruity odor. The Odor Threshold is 163 ppm.

물리적 성질

Colorless, very flammable liquid with a fruity odor. Odor threshold concentration is 2.1 ppm (quoted, Amoore and Hautala, 1983). Concentrated mixtures usually contain 98 wt % nitroethane and 2 wt % moisture.

용도

Solvent, artificial fingernail glue remover; in organic syntheses. Experimentally as liquid propellant.

생산 방법

Industrial production of nitroethane is by vapor-phase nitration of propane with nitric acid, followed by fractional distillation (Baker and Bollmeier 1978). U.S. production was greater than 454 kg in 1975 (HSDB 1988).

정의

ChEBI: A nitroalkane that is ethane substituted by a nitro group.

일반 설명

A colorless oily liquid with a pleasant odor. Flash point of 82°F. Decomposes above 350°F. Density 1.052 g / cm3. Vapors much heavier than air. and insoluble in water. Vapors may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion. Used as a propellant and as a solvent.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. Water soluble.

반응 프로필

The nitroparaffins, nitromethane, nitropropane, etc. form salts with inorganic bases such as calcium hydroxide. The dry salts are explosive [Chem. Eng. News 30:2344. 1952]. Nitroethane and other nitro compounds are mild oxidizers and should not be heated with easily oxidizable hydrocarbons under confinement [Chem. Eng. News 30:2344. 1940].

위험도

Moderate fire risk.Upper respiratory tract irritant, central nervous system impairment, and liver damage.

건강위험

Inhalation causes moderate irritation of respiratory tract. Ingestion causes irritation of mouth and stomach. Contact with liquid causes irritation of eyes and mild irritation of skin.

건강위험

Nitroethane is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (HSDB 1988), however, there have been no reports of serious toxic effects of the chemical in humans.

화재위험

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic oxides of nitrogen may form in fire.

공업 용도

Nitroethane is used as a solvent for cellulose esters, vinyl and other resins and waxes and as a solvent in batteries (Baker and Bollmeier 1978).

Safety Profile

Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Causes injury to liver and hdneys. An eye and mucous membrane irritant. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat, sparks, flame, or oxidizers. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical; water can blanket fire. Incompatible with Ca(OH)2, hydrocarbons, hydroxides, inorganic bases, KOH, NaOH, metal oxides, Explodes when heated. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITRO COMPOUNDS.

잠재적 노출

Nitroethane is used as solvent for polymers, cellulose esters; vinyl, waxes, fats, dyestuffs, and alkyd resins; as a stabilizer. It has been used as a rocket propellant. It is used as an intermediate in pharmaceutical manufacture and in pesticide manufacture.

환경귀착

Chemical/Physical. 2-Nitroethane will not hydrolyze because it does not contain a hydrolyzable functional group.

신진 대사

Nitroethane was partially excreted by the lungs when given to rabbits intravenously (1 g) or orally (1 or 2 g/kg). It was eliminated from the blood within 30 h after the intravenous dose (Machle et al 1942). A peak blood nitroethane concentration of 1.10 mg/ml was recorded after oral administration of 1.26 g/kg to rabbit. Following inhalation exposure of rabbits to about 13,500 p.p.m. or 2,700 p.p.m., peak nitroethane blood concentrations were 2.70 mg/ml after 360 min, and 0.36 mg/ml after 500 min, respectively. Blood nitrite and nitrate concentrations increased during the exposures, indicating that nitrite was formed as a result of the metabo-lism of nitroethane, and was oxidized to nitrate (Scott 1943). Absorption of nitroethane during inhalation exposure occurs in both the upper (URT) and lower (LRT) respiratory tract of rats (Stott and McKenna 1984). The isolated URT, LRT and intact respiratory tract absorbed 65, 71 and 58%, respectively, of the nitroethane presented at a rate comparable to a normal respiratory minute volume for rats. The absorption of nitroethane by the URT was linear over a 10-fold exposure range. During exposures only 2.8 and 2.0% of nitroethane was excreted from the URT and LRT, respectively.
Porter and Bright (1977) showed that nitroethane is readily converted by glucose oxidase in vitro to acetaldehyde, nitrite, nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and dinitroethane. However, the role of this enzyme in vivo is unknown. Bray and James (1958) recovered a small amount of a mercapturic acid metabolite from the urine of rabbits dosed with nitroethane.

운송 방법

UN2842 Nitroethane, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.

Purification Methods

Purify it as described for nitromethane below. A spectroscopic impurity can be removed by shaking it with activated alumina, decanting and distilling it rapidly. [Beilstein 1 IV 170.]

비 호환성

A nitroparaffin, nitroethane forms explosive mixture with air. Explodes when heated or when shocked; in confined area, with elevated temperatures. A strong reducing agent. Violent reaction with oxidizers, hydrocarbons, other combustibles; amines, metal oxides. Forms shock-sensitive compounds with strong acids; strong alkalis. Attacks some plastics and coatings.

폐기물 처리

Incineration: large quantities of material may require nitrogen oxide removal by catalytic or scrubbing processes.

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