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염화에틸

염화에틸
염화에틸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
75-00-3
한글명:
염화에틸
동의어(한글):
에틸클로라이드;염화에틸;염화에틸;클로로에탄;염화 에틸;염산에테르
상품명:
CHLOROETHANE
동의어(영문):
F160;R160;Kelene;C2H5Cl;Chelen;Chloryl;Dublofix;freon160;Aethylis;Anodynon
CBNumber:
CB5227785
분자식:
C2H5Cl
포뮬러 무게:
64.51
MOL 파일:
75-00-3.mol

염화에틸 속성

녹는점
−139 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
12.3 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.89 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
2.22 (vs air)
증기압
32.29 psi ( 55 °C)
굴절률
1.3676
인화점
<−30 °F
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
Soluble in ethanol, ether (U.S. EPA, 1985); miscible with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethane.
물리적 상태
Colorless gas
냄새
Ethereal; pungent, ethereal; ether-like.
수용성
5.074g/L(20 ºC)
Merck
14,3782
Henry's Law Constant
7.59, 9.58, 11.0, 12.1(x 10-3 atm?m3/mol), and 14.3 at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively (EPICS, Ashworth et al., 1988)
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 1000 ppm (~2600 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, NIOSH, and OSHA); IDLH 20,000 ppm (NIOSH).
안정성
Stable. Highly flammable - may form explosive mixtures with air. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alkali metals and their alloys.
CAS 데이터베이스
75-00-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC
3 (Vol. 52, 71) 1999
EPA
Chloroethane (75-00-3)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F+,Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 45-11-20/21/22-36/37/38-52/53-40-12-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-67-66-22-19-38
안전지침서 9-16-33-36/37-61-45-7-29-36/37/39-26-53
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1993 3/PG 2
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 KH7525000
F 고인화성물질 4.5-31
자연 발화 온도 966 °F
위험 등급 2.1
포장분류 II
독성 LC50 (inhalation) for mice 146 gm/m3/2-h, rats 160 gm/m3/2-h (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H220 극인화성 가스 인화성 가스 구분 1 위험 P210, P377, P381, P403
H224 극인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 1 위험
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 고압가스; 가열시 폭발할 수 있음 고압가스 압축가스
액화가스
용존 가스
경고 P410+P403
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 2회 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H372 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P202 모든 안전 조치 문구를 읽고 이해하기 전에는 취급하지 마시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P233 용기를 단단히 밀폐하시오. 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 보관하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P270 이 제품을 사용할 때에는 먹거나, 마시거나 흡연하지 마시오.
P271 옥외 또는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에서만 취급하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.
P410+P403 직사광선을 피하고 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.
NFPA 704
4
2 0

염화에틸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

colourless gas

화학적 성질

Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas or liquid (below 12℃) with a pungent, ethereal odor and a burning taste. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

물리적 성질

Clear, colorless gas or liquid with a pungent or faint, sweetish ether-like odor. When spilled, ethyl chloride evaporates quickly. Odor threshold concentration is 4.2 ppm (quoted, Amoore and Hautala, 1983).

용도

Ethyl chloride is used as a refrigerant, as asolvent, in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead,and as an alkylating agent. It is also used asa topical anesthetic.

용도

Ethyl chloride is used as synthetic gums and thickeners in the lacquer and plastics industries. Ethyl chloride is also used in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene and other aromatics. Additional uses include solvent, refrigerant, heat-transfer medium, aerosol propellant and anesthetic.

용도

Refrigerant, solvent, alkylating agent, starting point in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead: US 1907701 (1933).

정의

A highly reactive manmade volatile organic com- pound that is highly reactive in the atmosphere. It readily reacts with oxidizing agents to release the chlorine atoms which, circulate and cause tropo- spheric ozone to decompose.

정의

A gaseous compound made by the addition of hydrogen chloride to ethene. It is used as a refrigerant and a local anesthetic.

Indications

Chlorethane (ethyl chloride) is a highly flammable liquid that acts as a topical vapocoolant to control pain associated with minor surgical procedures.When applied as a spray, the product produces freezing of superficial tissues to ?20?C, which results in insensitivity of peripheral nerve endings and local anesthesia that is maintained up to 1 minute. Other coolant sprays can be used with the same effect.

생산 방법

Ethyl Chloride can be synthesized by treatment of ethyl alcohol with HCl, cleavage of diethylether with HCl in the presence of a catalyst (ZnCl2), chlorination of ethane or hydrochlorination of ethylene. The latter is the choice of industry. The reaction is carried out at 125 °F and 125 psi in the presence of AlCl3, which is dissolved in ethyl chloride.

일반 설명

A clear colorless gas with a pungent odor. Flash point -58°F. Boiling point 54°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket.Ethyl chloride is used as a solvent for oils,resins,and waxes. It is used in medicine and as an intermediate in synthesis.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

CHLOROETHANE is heat sensitive. CHLOROETHANE will hydrolyze in the presence of alkalis and water. CHLOROETHANE reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. CHLOROETHANE can also react vigorously with oxidizing materials. The vapor forms highly flammable mixtures with air. A mixture of CHLOROETHANE with potassium is shock-sensitive. Contact with chemically active metals such as Na, K, Ca, powdered Al, Zn and Mg may result in violent reactions.

위험도

Highly flammable, severe fire and explosion risk; flammable limits in air 3.8–15.4%. Irritant to eyes. Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

Vapor causes drunkenness, anesthesia, possible lung injury. Liquid may cause frostbite on eyes and skin.

건강위험

Exposure to high levels of ethyl chloride cancause stupor, eye irritation, incoordination,abdominal cramps, anesthetic effects, cardiacarrest, and unconsciousness. No toxic effectswere noted at a concentration of 10,000 ppm.A 45-minute exposure to a 4% concentrationof ethyl chloride in air was lethal to guineapigs. A brief exposure for 5 to 10 minutes toa concentration of 10% of the gas was notfatal to the test animals but caused kidneyand liver damage. In humans narcotic effectsmay occur after a few inhalations of 5–10%concentrations of the gas. Irritant effectson the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract aremild. Skin contact with the liquid can causefrostbite due to cooling by rapid evaporation.
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 60,000 ppm/2 hr.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mildly toxic by inhalation. An irritant to sh, eyes, and mucous membranes. The liquid is harmful to the eyes and can cause some irritation. In the case of guinea pigs, the symptoms attending exposure are similar to those caused by methyl chloride, except that the signs of lung irritation are not as pronounced. It gives some warning of its presence because it is irritating, but it is possible to tolerate exposure to it until one becomes unconscious. It is the least toxic of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons. It can cause narcosis, although the effects are usually transient. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to flame. Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Incompatible with potassium. To fight fire, use carbon dioxide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.

잠재적 노출

Ethyl chloride is used as an ethylating agent in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead, dyes, drugs, and ethyl cellulose; as a pharmaceutical, solvent; alkylating agent; as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic (freezing).

Carcinogenicity

The EPA has not made a carcinogenicity assessment as yet. However, the State of California reviewed the carcinogenicity information.
CalEPA, using the NTP study, developed a cancer potency estimate of 4.7E-3 per mg/kg/day and defined a No Significance Risk Level (NSRL) of 1 50 μg/day.
Increased cancer of the uterus of female mice has been produced by exposure to 15,000 ppm, but lower concentrations have not been studied. Rats and mice were exposed to 0 or 15,000 ppm of ethyl chloride in an NTP 2-year study with mixed results. Results in male rats were considered equivocal based on a combined total of five skin tumors versus none in the control male rats. Likewise, female rats’ results were considered equivocal because three astrocytomas were found versus none in the female control rats. The male mouse group had such poor survival that it was deemed an inadequate study although combined alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas were reported (10/48 versus 5/50 in the control male rats). Female mice exposed to 15,000 ppm had clear evidence of an effect, for 43/50 mice had endometrial uterine carcinomas versus 0/49 in the female control mice. In addition, there was a suggestion of an increase in combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the female mice (8/48 exposed versus 3/49 control). There is clear evidence for carcinogenicity in female B6C3F1 mice and equivocal evidence in male and female F344/N rats (high incidence of uterine carcinomas.)

환경귀착

Photolytic. The rate constant for the reaction of chloroethane and OH radicals in the atmosphere at 300 K is 2.3 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec (Hendry and Kenley, 1979). At 296 K, a photooxidation rate constant of 3.9 x 10-13 cm3/molecule?sec was reported (Howard and Evenson, 1976). The estimated tropospheric lifetime is 14.6 d (Nimitz and Skaggs, 1992).
Chemical/Physical. Under laboratory conditions, chloroethane hydrolyzed to ethanol (Smith and Dragun, 1984). An estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25 °C and pH 7 is 38 d, with ethanol and HCl being the expected end-products (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Based on a measured hydrolysis rate constant of 5.1 x 10-7 at 25 °C and pH 7, the half-life is 2.6 yr (Jeffers and Wolfe, 1996).
In air, formyl chloride is the initial photooxidation product (U.S. EPA, 1985). In the presence of water, formyl chloride hydrolyzes to HCl and carbon monoxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971).
Burns with a smoky, greenish flame releasing hydrogen chloride (Windholz et al., 1983).
In the laboratory, the evaporation half-life of chloroethane (1 mg/L) from water at 25 °C using a shallow-pitch propeller stirrer at 200 rpm at an average depth of 6.5 cm was 23.1 min (Dilling, 1977).
At influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities at pH 5.3 were 0.59, 0.07, and 0.007 mg/g, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).

Solubility in water

Soluble in ethanol, ether (U.S. EPA, 1985); miscible with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethane.

운송 방법

UN1037 Ethyl chloride, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Purification Methods

Pass ethyl chloride through absorption towers containing, successively, conc H2SO4, NaOH pellets, P2O5 on glass wool, or soda-lime, CaCl2, P2O5. Condensed it into a flask containing CaH2 and fractionally distil it. It has also been purified by illumination in the presence of bromine at 0o using a 1000W lamp, followed by washing, drying and distilling. [Beilstein 1 IV 124.]

비 호환성

Flammable gas. Slow reaction with water; forms hydrogen chloride gas. Contact with moisture (water, steam) forms hydrochloric acid and/or fumes of hydrogen chloride. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. May form explosive mixture with air. Contact with chemically active metals: aluminum, lithium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc may cause fire and explosions. Attacks some plastics and rubber.

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

염화에틸 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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