Pancreatic hormone and blood sugar regulation

Pancreas is one of the largest digestive glands in the body, with both endocrine and exocrine functions. Islets are the cell populations interspersed among pancreatic acini, the number of which gradually increase from the head of the pancreas to the tail. Islet contains four different cells.
A cells: secreting glucagon;
B cells: smaller than A cells, secreting insulin, proinsulin and C peptide;
D cells: secreting somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide;
F cells: secreting pancreatic polypeptide.

Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis, inhibits glycogen breakdown and gluconeogenesis, promotes the use of sugar and fat synthesis, inhibits lipolysis; promotes protein synthesis, inhibits protein decomposition; promotes the synthesis of DNA, RNA and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

C-peptide (C-P) has no biological activity, is one of the indicators of pancreatic islet function.
The physiological role of proinsulin is similar to insulin, but has weaker action intensity than insulin.

Glucagon promotes decomposition to ensure the energy supply between two meals, promotes liver gluconeogenesis, increases blood glucose, promotes lipolysis, inhibits the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, increases the secretion of bile and intestinal; stimulates the secretion of insulin, growth hormone, calcitonin and thyroxine.

Insulin antibodies can counteract insulin in the blood, delay the degradation of insulin and activate alexin.

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) inhibit of gallbladder contraction, reduces bile output, inhibits pancreatic enzyme release, inhibit the secretion of motilin.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Canagliflozin Canagliflozin 842133-18-0 C24H25FO5S
Mitiglinide calcium dihydrate Mitiglinide calcium dihydrate 207844-01-7 C38H52CaN2O8
Miglitol Miglitol 72432-03-2 C8H17NO5
Empagliflozin Empagliflozin 864070-44-0 C23H27ClO7
Flibanserin Flibanserin 167933-07-5 C20H21F3N4O
Mitiglinide calcium Mitiglinide calcium 145525-41-3 (C19H24NO3)2.Ca
Nateglinide Nateglinide 105816-04-4 C19H27NO3
Metformin hydrochloride Metformin hydrochloride 1115-70-4 C4H12ClN5
Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone 122320-73-4 C18H19N3O3S
Glimepiride Glimepiride 93479-97-1 C24H34N4O5S
Repaglinide Repaglinide 135062-02-1 C27H36N2O4
PF-04971729 PF-04971729 1210344-57-2 C22H25ClO7
Pioglitazone hydrochloride Pioglitazone hydrochloride 112529-15-4 C19H21ClN2O3S
Glibenclamide Glibenclamide 10238-21-8 C23H28ClN3O5S
Voglibose Voglibose 83480-29-9 C10H21NO7
Gliclazide Gliclazide 21187-98-4 C15H21N3O3S
Glipizide Glipizide 29094-61-9 C21H27N5O4S
Sermaglutide Sermaglutide 910463-68-2 C187H291N45O59
GLP-1 GLP-1 87805-34-3 C186H275N51O59
INSULIN INSULIN 11070-73-8 C254H377N65O75S6
Butoxamine hydrochloride Butoxamine hydrochloride 5696-15-1 C15H26ClNO3
BuforMin Hydrochloride BuforMin Hydrochloride 1190-53-0 C6H16ClN5
Metformin Metformin 657-24-9 C4H11N5
Gliquidone Gliquidone 33342-05-1 C27H33N3O6S
ACETOHEXAMIDE ACETOHEXAMIDE 968-81-0 C15H20N2O4S
insulin glargine insulin glargine 160337-95-1 C267H404N72O78S6
Glibornuride Glibornuride 26944-48-9 C18H26N2O4S
TOLRESTAT TOLRESTAT 82964-04-3 C16H14F3NO3S
INSULIN INSULIN 12584-58-6 C256H381N65O76S6
Acarbose Acarbose 56180-94-0 C25H43NO18
Phenformin hydrochloride Phenformin hydrochloride 834-28-6 C10H16ClN5
Liraglutide Liraglutide 204656-20-2 C172H265N43O51
Levemir (tn) Levemir (tn) 169148-63-4 C267H402N64O76S6
Glucagon, hydrochloride Glucagon, hydrochloride 11140-85-5 C6H9ClO5
Maropitant Citrate Maropitant Citrate 359875-09-5 C32H40N2O.C6H8O7.H2O
INSULIN INSULIN 9004-10-8 C256H381N65O77S6
TOLBUTAMIDE TOLBUTAMIDE 64-77-7 C12H18N2O3S
D-Glucitol, 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-epithio-1-C-[5-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)Methyl]-2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenyl]-, (1S)- D-Glucitol, 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-epithio-1-C-[5-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)Methyl]-2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenyl]-, (1S)- 898537-18-3 C23H30O6S
Rosiptor Rosiptor 782487-28-9 C20H35NO2
TRYPSIN FROM BOVINE PANCREAS TRYPSIN FROM BOVINE PANCREAS
carbutamide carbutamide 339-43-5 C11H17N3O3S
Albiglutide Albiglutide 782500-75-8 C148H223N39O46
Glucagon Glucagon 16941-32-5 C153H225N43O49S
Epalrestat Epalrestat 82159-09-9 C15H13NO3S2
Phenformin Phenformin 114-86-3 C10H15N5
Insulin degludec Insulin degludec 844439-96-9 C274H411N65O81S6
INSULIN INSULIN 11061-68-0 C257H383N65O77S6
1-butylbiguanide  1-butylbiguanide 692-13-7 C6H15N5
1,5-dideoxy-1,5-[[2-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]ethyl]imino]-D-glucitol 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-[[2-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]ethyl]imino]-D-glucitol 80879-63-6 C17H25NO7
[2(S)-cis]-Octahydro-gamma-oxo-alpha-(phenylmethyl)-2H-isoindole-2-butanoic acid [2(S)-cis]-Octahydro-gamma-oxo-alpha-(phenylmethyl)-2H-isoindole-2-butanoic acid 145375-43-5 C19H25NO3
CHLORPROPAMIDE CHLORPROPAMIDE 94-20-2 C10H13ClN2O3S
TOFOGLIFLOZIN TOFOGLIFLOZIN 1201913-82-7 C22H28O7
TOLAZAMIDE TOLAZAMIDE 1156-19-0 C14H21N3O3S
(MET(O)27)-GLUCAGON (1-29) (HUMAN, BOVINE, PORCINE) (MET(O)27)-GLUCAGON (1-29) (HUMAN, BOVINE, PORCINE) 75217-63-9 C153H225N43O50S
InsulinZincProtamine InsulinZincProtamine
TRYPSIN 1:250 FROM PORCINE PANCREAS CELL TRYPSIN 1:250 FROM PORCINE PANCREAS CELL
Flibaserin Flibaserin
Butaxamine Butaxamine
glymidine sodium glymidine sodium 3459-20-9 C13H14N3NaO4S
InsulinZincGlobin InsulinZincGlobin
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