Antimalarial drugs

Antimalarials are able to kill or inhibit the malaria parasite and the process of plasmodium propagation, being drugs for the prevention and treatment of malaria. On as early as the 1st, 2nd century (AD), there had been already records about the antimalarial effect of antifebrile dichroa in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic."

The earliest applied natural antimalarial drug, quinine, was the antimalarial component in the cinchona bark used by Indian for the treatment of fever. In 1907, Rabe had clarified its chemical structure. Subsequently, people had been actively engaged in the research of synthesizing antimalarial drugs. In 1926, Schulemann had for the first time synthesized the artificial antimalarial-plasmochin, also known as pamaquine. Atebrine and chloroquine have also successively come out. In 1944, Woodward had successfully performed de novo synthesis of quinine and confirmed its structure. During the World War II, people had successfully synthesized primaquine and pentaquine to replace the pamaquine; starting from the antagonism of biochemical metabolism, people had successfully synthesized proguanil and pyrimethamine.

In early 1960, the emergence of the resistance of plasmodium to chloroquine had set off a new climax to identify the novel antimalarial drugs. Because of the foreign-depth study of the structure-activity relationship of quinine, people had developed novel antimalarial drugs, quinoline-methanols with the representative being the meqloquine. Starting from the study of the structure-activity relationship of the 4-amino-quinoline drugs, people had synthesized amodiaquine-type or hydroxypiperaquine-type drugs such as bis-pyroquilon (M6407), pyracrine and pyronaridine which have bilateral side chain of pyrrolidine and methyl aminophenol. They not only have lower cardiac toxicity than chloroquine and also have varying degrees of anti-arrhythmia effects.

Chinese scientists have discovered Radix dichroa), Hydrangea umbellate and Brucea javanicaL.Merr from Chinese herbs. Through analysis, people have clarified the chemical structure of the Febrifugine. At early 1970s, people have further isolated artemisinin from Artemisia annua. Animal experiments and clinical observations had confirmed that its antimalarial effects are more excellent than chloroquine and it can be used to rescue dangerous type of malaria. The analysis results of chemical structure have demonstrated that it is a kind of sesquiterpene containing the peroxide bridge, being a totally new type in the anti-malarial drugs. People have realized the de novo total synthesis of this kind of peroxide bridges sesquiterpene lactones in 1982. Chinese scholars have also found another kind of sesquiterpene containing the peroxide bridge, yingzhaosu A, from the Artabotrys hexapetalus. Artemisinin and its derivatives also have significant anti-schistosome effect.

In addition, the antibiotic clindamycin and tetracyclines also have antimalarial effect. However, due to the slow effect, they are generally not used alone. There are also clindamycin which can be used in combination with quinine to treat falciparum malaria and so on.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Cinchonine Cinchonine 118-10-5 C19H22N2O
Artemisinin Artemisinin 63968-64-9 C15H22O5
Artemether Artemether 71963-77-4 C16H26O5
Lumefantrine Lumefantrine 82186-77-4 C30H32Cl3NO
8-Hydroxyquinoline 8-Hydroxyquinoline 148-24-3 C9H7NO
Quinine Quinine 130-95-0 C20H24N2O2
Pyrimethamine Pyrimethamine 58-14-0 C12H13ClN4
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate Hydroxychloroquine sulfate 747-36-4 C18H28ClN3O5S
DHQHS 2 DHQHS 2 71939-50-9 C15H24O5
Artesunate Artesunate 88495-63-0 C19H28O8
Quinine sulfate dihydrate Quinine sulfate dihydrate 6119-70-6 C20H26N2O6S
HYDROQUININE (ANTHRAQUINONE-1 4-DIYL) HYDROQUININE (ANTHRAQUINONE-1 4-DIYL) 176097-24-8 C54H56N4O6
artesunate artesunate 83507-69-1
4-[2-[(1S,2R,4aS,7S,8aR)-4a-[(Acetyloxy)methyl]-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-7-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-dimethyl-1-naphthalenyl]ethyl]-2(5H)-furanone 4-[2-[(1S,2R,4aS,7S,8aR)-4a-[(Acetyloxy)methyl]-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-7-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-dimethyl-1-naphthalenyl]ethyl]-2(5H)-furanone 125675-09-4 C22H32O6
Tesmilifene Tesmilifene 98774-23-3 C19H25NO
QUINACRINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE QUINACRINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 69-05-6 C23H32Cl3N3O
Chloroquine diphosphate Chloroquine diphosphate 50-63-5 C18H32ClN3O8P2
CINCHONINE HYDROCHLORIDE CINCHONINE HYDROCHLORIDE 5949-11-1 C19H23ClN2O
4,4'-(1,3-Propanediyldi-4,1-piperazinediyl)bis(7-chloroquinoline) phosphate 4,4'-(1,3-Propanediyldi-4,1-piperazinediyl)bis(7-chloroquinoline) phosphate 85547-56-4 C29H32Cl2N6.H3PO4
MEFLOQUINE MEFLOQUINE 53230-10-7 C17H16F6N2O
Hsdb 7458 Hsdb 7458 91487-94-4 C19H28O8
Primaquine Primaquine 90-34-6 C15H21N3O
Naphthoquine Phosphate Naphthoquine Phosphate
Primaquine diphosphate Primaquine diphosphate 63-45-6 C15H27N3O9P2
3-Aminocarbonyl-1-Boc-pyrrolidine 3-Aminocarbonyl-1-Boc-pyrrolidine 122684-34-8 C10H18N2O3
QUININE HCL QUININE HCL 130-89-2 C20H25ClN2O2
NAPHTHOQUINE PHOSPHATE NAPHTHOQUINE PHOSPHATE 173531-58-3 C24H34ClN3O9P2
Mepacrine hydrochloride Mepacrine hydrochloride 6151-30-0 C23H36Cl3N3O3
Malaridine Malaridine 121836-29-1 C16H23N3O3
alpha-Dihydroartemisinin alpha-Dihydroartemisinin 81496-81-3 C15H24O5
Dihydroartemisinin Dihydroartemisinin 81496-82-4 C15H24O5
Chlorguanide Hydrochloride Chlorguanide Hydrochloride 637-32-1 C11H17Cl2N5
HALOFANTRINE HALOFANTRINE 69756-53-2 C26H30Cl2F3NO
2-[[4-[(7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]pentyl](ethyl)amino]ethanol 2-[[4-[(7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]pentyl](ethyl)amino]ethanol 118-42-3 C18H26ClN3O
pamaquine pamaquine 635-05-2 C42H45N3O7
Piperaquine Piperaquine 83764-65-2 C29H32Cl2N6
CHLOROQUINE CHLOROQUINE 54-05-7 C18H26ClN3
N-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-N'-(ISOPROPYL)-IMIDODICARBONIMIDIC DIAMIDE N-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-N'-(ISOPROPYL)-IMIDODICARBONIMIDIC DIAMIDE 500-92-5 C11H16ClN5
CINCHONINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE HYDRATE  9& CINCHONINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE HYDRATE 9& 312695-48-0 C19H27ClN2O3
Halofantrine hydrochloride Halofantrine hydrochloride 36167-63-2 C26H30Cl2F3NO.ClH
Lumefrantrine Lumefrantrine
Amodiaquine Amodiaquine 86-42-0 C20H22ClN3O
Quinine dihydrochloride Quinine dihydrochloride 60-93-5 C20H26Cl2N2O2
Piperaquinoline Piperaquinoline 4085-31-8 C29H32Cl2N6
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