DNA damage

DNA damage refers to the changes of structure of the cell DNA in the body caused by the physical  or chemical contamination factors around the environment. There are many types of chemicals can cause DNA damage , for example, nitrosamines firstly metabolize and break down in the body , resulting in an alkylating agent - diazoalkane,which leads to the DNA alkylation , causing the carrier of genetic information to produce irreparable changes and resulting in carcinogenic effects .  Another example is Benzo (a) pyrene of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) , which in mixed function oxidase activation,can form the compound having structure that may have an affinity for the electron - epoxide. Such epoxides can combine with DNA and other intracellular macromolecules nucleophilic groups ,which  will cause DNA damage. When such damage can not be repaired or there are repair errors, it is possible to make cells cancerous. Some metals such as nickel, beryllium, chromium and other carcinogens, it is possible to form a stable complex with RNA complex residues, resulting in carcinogenesis.

DNA repair
DNA repair refers to the recovery phenomenon of structure after the DNA molecule  inside living cells is  damaged. It is the result of action of many enzymes within the cells of the body. In 1968, American scholar J • E • Cleaver first discovered that the autosomal recessive cancerous actinic  disease in human  ,which is xeroderma pigmentosum disease , is caused by excision and repair kinetic energy defect which results from  a gene mutation D NA .  The discovery not only provides an important molecular evidence for the mechanism of cancer  , but also  makes study about  DNA damage and repair into the medical field. On the14th International Genetics Conference in 1979 held in Moscow  DNA damage and repair is listed as one of the important issues, the DNA repair research has become an important research topic of molecule genetics and medical genetics and oncology.

There are several types of DNA molecular damage , such as the formation of thymine dimers which is the major manner that UV damages DNA molecules ;  x-ray, the r-ray irradiating cell, can make hydrogen bonds between double-stranded DNA molecule break , it can also cause single-stranded or double-strand breaks; mitomycin C can cause cross-linking between  single-stranded DNA molecule ,cross-linked chains of DNA molecules can cause breakage; DNA molecules can also occur individual base or nucleotide or the like change. DNA damage repair methods include optical resurrection, excision repair,   repair after replication , adaptive restoration, repair of strand breaks, cross links repair. Studys on DNA damage repair mechanisms  can help to understand gene mutations, cancer and aging reasons, and can also be applied to detect cancer-causing environmental factors.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Olaparib Olaparib 763113-22-0 C24H23FN4O3
4-iodo-3-nitrobenzamide 4-iodo-3-nitrobenzamide 160003-66-7 C7H5IN2O3
Veliparib Veliparib 912444-00-9 C13H16N4O
Flupirtine maleate Flupirtine maleate 75507-68-5 C19H21FN4O6
Procarbazine hydrochloride Procarbazine hydrochloride 366-70-1 C12H20ClN3O
Nedaplatin Nedaplatin 95734-82-0 C2H6N2O3Pt
7-Nitroindole-2-carboxylic acid 7-Nitroindole-2-carboxylic acid 6960-45-8 C9H6N2O4
PF-01367338 PF-01367338 459868-92-9 C19H21FN3O5P
T0070907 T0070907 313516-66-4 C12H8ClN3O3
KU-55933 KU-55933 587871-26-9 C21H17NO3S2
3-Amino-6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-N-phenyl-2-pyrazinecarboxamide 3-Amino-6-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-N-phenyl-2-pyrazinecarboxamide 1232410-49-9 C18H16N4O3S
Amonafide Amonafide 69408-81-7 C16H17N3O2
A-966492 A-966492 934162-61-5 C18H17FN4O
FidaxoMicin FidaxoMicin 873857-62-6 C52H74Cl2O18
PJ-34 PJ-34 344458-15-7 C17H17N3O2HCl
KU57788(NU7441) KU57788(NU7441) 503468-95-9 C25H19NO3S
NU1025 NU1025 90417-38-2 C9H8N2O2
KU 0060648 KU 0060648 881375-00-4 C33H34N4O4S
BMN 673 BMN 673 1207456-01-6 C19H14F2N6O
AZ20 AZ20 1233339-22-4 C21H24N4O3S
SCR7 SCR7 1533426-72-0 C18H14N4OS
PJ-34 PJ-34 344458-19-1 C17H17N3O2
5-(2-Oxo-2-phenylethoxy)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one 5-(2-Oxo-2-phenylethoxy)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one 1048371-03-4 C17H13NO3
VE 822 VE 822 1232416-25-9 C24H25N5O3S
KU-60019 KU-60019 925701-49-1 C30H33N3O5S
CX-5461 CX-5461 1138549-36-6 C27H27N7O2S
AZD2461 AZD2461 1174043-16-3 C22H22FN3O3
YK-4-279 YK-4-279 1037184-44-3 C17H13Cl2NO4
Imidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-7(4H)-one, 2-[4-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl]-5,6-dihydro- Imidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-7(4H)-one, 2-[4-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl]-5,6-dihydro- 328543-09-5 C19H20N4O
ETP46464 ETP46464 1345675-02-6 C30H22N4O2
ME0328 ME0328 1445251-22-8 C19H19N3O2
BMH21 BMH21 896705-16-1 C21H20N4O2
NU7026 NU7026 154447-35-5 C17H15NO3
Triapine Triapine 200933-27-3 C7H9N5S
CP466722 CP466722 1080622-86-1 C17H15N7O2
Voreloxin Voreloxin 175414-77-4 C18H19N5O4S
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