Endocrinology & Hormones

Endocrine system is an in vivo message delivery system composed of endocrine glands and endocrine cells scattered in some tissues and organs of the body. Hormone is a kind of high-efficiency biological active substances secreted from endocrine glands or scattered endocrine cells. It can act as a kind of messenger.

Endocrine glands mainly include pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, testes, ovaries and adrenal glands. Hormones secreted from them mainly regulate physiological functions, blood pressure, loss of appetite, development and breeding and some other physiological effects. Hormones can be roughly divided into two categories - peptide / amino acid-derived hormones and steroids with most of them being derived from cholesterol. Peptide hormone can generally bind to the cell surface receptor, triggering the initiation of signal transduction cascade reaction while steroid hormones are membrane permeable hormone, acting on the intracellular receptors associated with transcriptional regulation. Major diseases caused by the endocrine glands dysfunction include diabetes (pancreas), Graves' disease (thyroid), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (thyroid), and Addison's disease (adrenal gland).

There are mainly two types of hormones, steroids and peptide hormones. Steroid hormone mainly includes the female reproductive hormones (estrogen and progesterone) which are secreted by the ovaries, male reproductive hormones (androgens) and adrenal metabolic hormones (glucocorticoids and aldosterone) secreted by the testes. The adrenal glands of both male and female can also secrete trace amount of important androgens, it can be converted to the estrogen through the metabolism of aromatase enzyme.

Most kinds of hormones are loaded and transported by blood to distant target tissue or target cells to exert their functions; this way is called as remote secretion (telecrine); certain hormones may be transported without the blood, instead acting only in neighboring cells through diffusion in the tissue liquid, this action of mode is called as paracrine; if the hormones secreted by endocrine cells, after the local diffusion process, returns back to exert their effects on the original endocrine cells to play a feedback effect; this way is called as autocrine (au-bdm); in addition, many of the neurons in the hypothalamus can synthesize and secret hormones and these hormones are called as neurohormones. Neurohormones can flow through axoplasm along the axons to peripheral to be released; this way is called as neurocrine.

Hormones participate in many function including control and integration such as the balance of cycle, water and electrolytes, food digestion and absorption, the metabolism of organic matter and energy balance, reproduction, and response to stress. The main hormone inside the body and its role; this chapter mainly introduces hormone action related to matter and energy metabolism which significant affects the working capability of muscles as well as the motive hormone reaction and adaption process.

Starting from amino acids, we can derive amines and peptide hormones. Amine hormone is derived from tyrosine and is secreted by the thyroid and adrenal glands. Peptide hormone composed of amino acids connected through peptide bond and is secreted by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland as well as the parathyroid glands and digestive organs. Peptide hormones can bind to the membrane specific receptor and can alter the cellular activity through regulating the cellular signal transduction pathways. Peptide hormones include insulin, insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1) and prolactin. Insulin is a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas and can participate into the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, controlling the blood sugar balance and promoting the liver and skeletal muscle to convert the blood glucose into glycogen. Insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1) is a hormone that is very similar in structure to insulin and can regulate the growth hormone (GH) which affects the body's cell growth and development. Prolactin is a peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.

Other important proteins receptors also include estrogen-related receptor -γ (ERRγ) - one kind of the protein receptor sharing similarities with estrogen receptor. However, it does not form complexes with estradiol. Aromatic hydrocarbons (ARH) receptor, although it remains unclear whether there exist any natural ligands that can bind to it, but there is evidence that the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor system plays an important role in the regulation of cell stress response.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Aliskiren hemifumarate Aliskiren hemifumarate 173334-58-2 C30H53N3O6
Equol Equol 531-95-3 C15H14O3
Flumethasone Flumethasone 2135-17-3 C22H28F2O5
Desonide Desonide 638-94-8 C24H32O6
Temocapril hydrochloride Temocapril hydrochloride 110221-44-8 C23H28N2O5S2.ClH
Gestodene Gestodene 60282-87-3 C21H26O2
Epiandrosterone Epiandrosterone 481-29-8 C19H30O2
Eprosartan mesylate Eprosartan mesylate 144143-96-4 C24H28N2O7S2
Dienogestrel Dienogestrel 65928-58-7 C20H25NO2
Dydrogesterone Dydrogesterone 152-62-5 C21H28O2
Enzalutamide Enzalutamide 915087-33-1 C21H16F4N4O2S
AHU-377 AHU-377 149709-62-6 C24H29NO5
Raloxifene hydrochloride Raloxifene hydrochloride 82640-04-8 C28H28ClNO4S
Toremifene citrate Toremifene citrate 89778-27-8 C32H36ClNO8
Altrenogest Altrenogest 850-52-2 C21H26O2
Loteprednol etabonate Loteprednol etabonate 82034-46-6 C24H31ClO7
Depofemin Depofemin 313-06-4 C26H36O3
Andarine Andarine 401900-40-1 C19H18F3N3O6
2-(4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl)phenoxy)ethanol 2-(4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl)phenoxy)ethanol 128607-22-7 C24H23ClO2
(S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide 841205-47-8 C19H14F3N3O3
TAK875 TAK875 1374598-80-7 C58H66O15S2
Galeterone Galeterone 851983-85-2 C26H32N2O
Azilsartan Medoxomil Azilsartan Medoxomil 863031-21-4 C30H24N4O8
Erteberel (LY500307) Erteberel (LY500307) 533884-09-2 C18H18O3
AZD3514 AZD3514 1240299-33-5 C25H32F3N7O2
PD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate PD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate 130663-39-7 C31H32N4O3
ENALAPRILAT DIHYDRATE ENALAPRILAT DIHYDRATE 84680-54-6 C18H28N2O7
Eflone Eflone 3801-06-7 C24H31FO5
Ulipristal Ulipristal 159811-51-5 C28H35NO3
MOEXIPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE MOEXIPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE 82586-52-5 C27H35ClN2O7
GW9508 GW9508 885101-89-3 C22H21NO3
7-Methyl-5-[(3-piperazin-1-ylMethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl-]-2-[4-(trifluoroMethoxy)benzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one Methanesulphonate 7-Methyl-5-[(3-piperazin-1-ylMethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl-]-2-[4-(trifluoroMethoxy)benzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one Methanesulphonate 802904-66-1 C19H17ClN2O3S
LCZ696 LCZ696 936623-90-4 C48H58N6O8
GSK1292263 GSK1292263 1032823-75-8 C23H28N4O4S
OC000459 OC000459 851723-84-7 C21H17FN2O2
1H-Indol-5-ol, 1-[[4-[2-(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-, hydrochloride (1:1) 1H-Indol-5-ol, 1-[[4-[2-(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-, hydrochloride (1:1) 198480-56-7 C30H35ClN2O3
ARN-509 ARN-509 956104-40-8 C21H15F4N5O2S
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