Insecticides

Insecticides refer a class of agents with the capability of poisoning and killing insects which causes damage to the crops, fruit trees, trees, vegetables, warehousing and sanitation as well as both the external and internal parasite in livestock and poultry.

Insecticides can be divided into two categories bio-sources and chemical synthesis.
Biological insecticides include:
1. formulation with the active insecticidal ingredients extracted from higher plants such as natural pyrethrin, rotenone, etc;
2. Insecticides made from the living microorganisms, mainly including three categories: fungi (e.g. Beauveria bassiana), bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and viruses (such as bacillus cereus);
3. Physiologically active substances of insect such as pheromones and so on;

Synthetic chemical Insecticides mainly include: inorganic Insecticides (such as arsenic trioxide As2O3, Na2SiF6, sodium fluoride silicate, etc.), organochlorine Insecticides (such as chlordane, BHC, DDT, toxaphene, etc.), organic phosphorus Insecticides (such as dichlorvos, trichlorfon, dimethoate, malathion and fenitrothion, etc.), carbamate Insecticides (such as carbaryl and metolcarb, etc.) and pyrethroid insecticides agents (such as fenvalerate and cypermethrin, etc.).

Toxicity of insecticides against pests mainly through the following mechanisms:
1. contact-killing agent and penetrate through the skin of the pests to enter into the body to exert its effect, causing poisoning and death of the pests.
2. stomach poisoning agent can cause the death of the pests after being eaten by pests and further directly absorption through the gastrointestinal tract;
3. some fumigation drugs has a big volatility with its vapor entering into the body of the pests through the respiratory tract, leading to the poisoning and death of the pests;
4. systematic drugs is first absorbed by the crops and transmitted throughout the whole plant; when the pests eat or suck the crops, it is poisoned and dead.

For example, pyrethroids have a strong contact-killing effect with fenitrothion and carbaryl having contact-killing and stomach poisoning effect. For dimethoate, 1059, etc, in addition the contact-killing action, the more prominent is the suction effect. The application of Insecticides is a modern technology for controlling pests with advantages of being convenient, rapid, highly efficient and economic. Over the last decade, in addition to the application of species (for example, pyrethroid insecticides) that is highly efficient, low toxic and causes small environmental pollution, new varies including the microbial insecticides, insect growth regulator, insect behavior control agents have also been developed and gotten applications.

Insecticides have certain biological activity against insect, people with more or less toxicity on human, livestock and other animals (see toxicity Insecticides). This toxicity is divided into acute and chronic toxicity.

Acute toxicity means single-time oral administration, skin contact or ingestion breathe of certain dose of Insecticides that can cause acute toxicity pathological response in a short time. Acute oral toxicity, although is the most important in the acute toxicity but the production poisoning, skin contact or respiration intake upon application of Insecticides is often more important.

Chronic toxicity refers to the toxicity upon long-term continuous consumption, contact or inhalation of Insecticide at a dose that is lower than the dose causing acute poisoning, thus leading to chronic pathological reaction. The most noteworthy risk upon chronic toxicity is the risk of teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic.

Some varieties of organochlorine Insecticides can be accumulated in the human body, resulting in cumulative poisoning; some organophosphate Insecticides, instead, has delayed neurotoxicity, which belongs to chronic toxicity.

After the application of Insecticides, most of them will be degraded into non-toxic substance under the influence of various kinds of physical, chemical and biological factors. However, within a certain time, there are still traces of the Insecticides residues in agricultural products and the environment, including soil, water, atmospheric and other animals and plants. These residual insecticides may also cause potential harm on human, animal or other animals. In agriculture and livestock products, upon excessive residues of Insecticides, it may also affect the human health in the case of long-term consumption. With the progress of science and technology, the understanding of the toxicity of the Insecticide has been also getting deepened. For example, some varieties of conventional Insecticides may be considered as “low toxic” from the perspective of acute toxicity; however, later it was found that itself, or the impurities during the process of original drug production as well as its metabolites has certain chronic toxicity, and thereby has been banned and eliminated. Toxicity issue is a difficult point during the process of studying and development of new kinds of Insecticides. Chronic toxicity has been become the key issue about whether the current Insecticides species can continue to be used.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Thiacloprid Thiacloprid 111988-49-9 C10H9ClN4S
METHOPRENE METHOPRENE 40596-69-8 C19H34O3
Flufenoxuron Flufenoxuron 101463-69-8 C21H11ClF6N2O3
Amidosulfuron Amidosulfuron 120923-37-7 C9H15N5O7S2
Spirodiclofen Spirodiclofen 148477-71-8 C21H24Cl2O4
Cyhalofop-butyl Cyhalofop-butyl 122008-85-9 C20H20FNO4
Clothianidin Clothianidin 210880-92-5 C6H8ClN5O2S
Moxidectin Moxidectin 113507-06-5 C37 H53 N O8
Thiamethoxam Thiamethoxam 153719-23-4 C8H10ClN5O3S
Oxamyl Oxamyl 23135-22-0 C7H13N3O3S
Dicyclanil Dicyclanil 112636-83-6 C8H10N6
N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide 134-62-3 C12H17NO
Teflubenzuron Teflubenzuron 83121-18-0 C14H6Cl2F4N2O2
Methyl formate Methyl formate 107-31-3 C2H4O2
Naled Naled 300-76-5 C4H7Br2Cl2O4P
1,3-DIFLUORO-2-PROPANOL 1,3-DIFLUORO-2-PROPANOL 453-13-4 C3H6F2O
DICHLOFENTHION DICHLOFENTHION 97-17-6 C10H13Cl2O3PS
Monocrotophos Monocrotophos 6923-22-4 C7H14NO5P
Cyromazine Cyromazine 66215-27-8 C6H10N6
Pymetrozine Pymetrozine 123312-89-0 C10H11N5O
LINDANE LINDANE 319-86-8 C6H6Cl6
Brodifacoum Brodifacoum 56073-10-0 C31H23BrO3
Cyfluthrin Cyfluthrin 68359-37-5 C22H18Cl2FNO3
Bromopropylate Bromopropylate 18181-80-1 C17H16Br2O3
Flazasulfuron Flazasulfuron 104040-78-0 C13H12F3N5O5S
Deltamethrin Deltamethrin 52918-63-5 C22H19Br2NO3
4,4'-DDT 4,4'-DDT 50-29-3 C14H9Cl5
Dichlormid Dichlormid 37764-25-3 C8H11Cl2NO
Tebufenpyrad Tebufenpyrad 119168-77-3 C18H24ClN3O
4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)NICOTINAMIDE 4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)NICOTINAMIDE 158062-71-6 C7H5F3N2O
Fenpyroximate Fenpyroximate 134098-61-6 C24H27N3O4
trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic acid trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic acid 501-98-4 C9H8O3
Lufenuron Lufenuron 103055-07-8 C17H8Cl2F8N2O3
Lenacil Lenacil 2164-08-1 C13H18N2O2
LEPTOMYCIN B LEPTOMYCIN B 21609-90-5 C13H10BrCl2O2PS
Terbufos Terbufos 13071-79-9 C9H21O2PS3
3-Pyridinemethanol 3-Pyridinemethanol 100-55-0 C6H7NO
Allethrin Allethrin 584-79-2 C19H26O3
Chlorfluazuron Chlorfluazuron 71422-67-8 C20H9Cl3F5N3O3
Tefluthrin Tefluthrin 79538-32-2 C17H14ClF7O2
Coumatetralyl Coumatetralyl 5836-29-3 C19H16O3
Emamectin benzoate Emamectin benzoate 155569-91-8 C49H77NO13
Fipronil Fipronil 120068-37-3 C12H4Cl2F6N4OS
4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone 3572-06-3 C12H14O3
2-Chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride 2-Chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride 392-95-0 C7H2ClF3N2O4
Quizalofop-p-ethyl Quizalofop-p-ethyl 100646-51-3 C19H17ClN2O4
Endosulfan I Endosulfan I 959-98-8 C9H6Cl6O3S
Cypermethrin Cypermethrin 52315-07-8 C22H19Cl2NO3
Dimethyl phthalate Dimethyl phthalate 131-11-3 C10H10O4
Cyhexatin Cyhexatin 13121-70-5 C18H34OSn
Diafenthiuron Diafenthiuron 80060-09-9 C23H32N2OS
Dimethomorph Dimethomorph 110488-70-5 C21H22ClNO4
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1-naphthol 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1-naphthol 529-33-9 C10H12O
3-Cyanopyridine 3-Cyanopyridine 100-54-9 C6H4N2
BENDIOCARB BENDIOCARB 22781-23-3 C11H13NO4
Tebufenozide Tebufenozide 112410-23-8 C22H28N2O2
Cyhalothrin Cyhalothrin 91465-08-6 C23H19ClF3NO3
Acetamidine hydrochloride Acetamidine hydrochloride 124-42-5 C2H7ClN2
Metaldehyde Metaldehyde 9002-91-9 CH2O
Dodine Dodine 2439-10-3 C15H33N3O2
Benfluralin Benfluralin 1861-40-1 C13H16F3N3O4
cis-9-Tricosene cis-9-Tricosene 27519-02-4 C23H46
FENSULFOTHION FENSULFOTHION 115-90-2 C11H17O4PS2
Diniconazole Diniconazole 83657-24-3 C15H17Cl2N3O
2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride 2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride 88-16-4 C7H4ClF3
Mercaptodimethur Mercaptodimethur 2032-65-7 C11H15NO2S
Methomyl Methomyl 16752-77-5 C5H10N2O2S
Sulfluramid Sulfluramid 4151-50-2 C10H6F17NO2S
Bromophos Bromophos 2104-96-3 C8H8BrCl2O3PS
Bifenthrin Bifenthrin 82657-04-3 C23H22ClF3O2
4-Nitrophenyl isocyanate 4-Nitrophenyl isocyanate 100-28-7 C7H4N2O3
3-(Aminomethyl)pyridine 3-(Aminomethyl)pyridine 3731-52-0 C6H8N2
Acetamiprid Acetamiprid 160430-64-8 C10H11ClN4
METHOXYCHLOR METHOXYCHLOR 72-43-5 C16H15Cl3O2
alpha-Cypermethrin alpha-Cypermethrin 67375-30-8 C22H19Cl2NO3
BETA-ENDOSULFAN BETA-ENDOSULFAN 33213-65-9 C9H6Cl6O3S
4-Bromobiphenyl 4-Bromobiphenyl 92-66-0 C12H9Br
FENURON FENURON 101-42-8 C9H12N2O
Clomazone Clomazone 81777-89-1 C12H14ClNO2
Vamidothion Vamidothion 2275-23-2 C8H18NO4PS2
Pyriproxyfen Pyriproxyfen 95737-68-1 C20H19NO3
Cartap hydrochloride Cartap hydrochloride 15263-52-2 C7H16ClN3O2S2
Sulfenone Sulfenone 80-00-2 C12H9ClO2S
AZINPHOS-ETHYL AZINPHOS-ETHYL 2642-71-9 C12H16N3O3PS2
Triadimenol Triadimenol 55219-65-3 C14H18ClN3O2
Phenylacetone Phenylacetone 103-79-7 C9H10O
Azaconazole Azaconazole 60207-31-0 C12H11Cl2N3O2
Diphenyl sulfone Diphenyl sulfone 127-63-9 C12H10O2S
4-Trifluoromethylbenzyl chloride 4-Trifluoromethylbenzyl chloride 939-99-1 C8H6ClF3
DL-Camphor DL-Camphor 21368-68-3 C10H16O
DISULFOTON DISULFOTON 298-04-4 C8H19O2PS3
Chlorfenapyr Chlorfenapyr 122453-73-0 C15H11BrClF3N2O
FENCHLORPHOS FENCHLORPHOS 299-84-3 C8H8Cl3O3PS
Piperonyl butoxide Piperonyl butoxide 51-03-6 C19H30O5
Fenpropathrin Fenpropathrin 39515-41-8 C22H23NO3
Naftalofos Naftalofos 1491-41-4 C16H16NO6P
SILAFLUOFEN SILAFLUOFEN 105024-66-6 C25H29FO2Si
Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate 31895-22-4 C5H11NS3.C2H2O4
Prallethrin Prallethrin 23031-36-9 C19H24O3
1,1-Diphenylacetone 1,1-Diphenylacetone 781-35-1 C15H14O
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