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Parathion

Parathion Basic information
Product Name:Parathion
Synonyms:phosphorothioicacid,o,o-diethylo-(p-nitrophenyl)ester;PhosphorothionicacidO,O-diethyl-O-(4-nitro-phenyl)ester;Phosphostigmine;Rcra waste number P089;rcrawastenumberp089;Rhodiasol;Rhodiatox;Rhodiatrox
CAS:56-38-2
MF:C10H14NO5PS
MW:291.26
EINECS:200-271-7
Product Categories:Agro-Chemicals;INSECTICIDE
Mol File:56-38-2.mol
Parathion Structure
Parathion Chemical Properties
Melting point 6.1°C
Boiling point 375°C
density 1.26
refractive index nD25 1.5370
Fp 120 °C
storage temp. APPROX 4°C
form liquid
Water Solubility Slightly soluble
Merck 13,7105
BRN 8912188
Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: TWA 0.05 mg/m3, IDLH 10 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 mg/m3.
CAS DataBase Reference56-38-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceEthyl parathion (o,o-diethyl-o-p-nitrophenylthiophosphate)(56-38-2)
EPA Substance Registry SystemPhosphorothioic acid, O,O-diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester(56-38-2)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T+;N,N,T+,Xn,F
Risk Statements 24-26/28-48/25-50/53-67-65-38-11
Safety Statements 28-36/37-45-60-61-62-16
RIDADR UN 3278
WGK Germany 3
RTECS TF4550000
HazardClass 6.1(a)
PackingGroup I
HS Code 29201100
Hazardous Substances Data56-38-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 in female, male rats (mg/kg): 3.6, 13 orally; 6.8, 21 dermally (Gaines)
MSDS Information
Parathion Usage And Synthesis
Chemical PropertiesPure parathion is a pale yellow liquid with a faint odor of garlic, while technical parathion is a deep brown to yellow liquid. It is sparingly soluble in water, but soluble in alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ethers, n-hexane, dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene,and ketones. Parathion is one of the most acutely toxic pesticides and the US EPA has classifi ed parathion as an RUP, meaning it should only be handled by qualifi ed, trained, and certifi ed workers. In January 1992, the US EPA announced the cancellation of parathion for all uses on fruit, nut, and vegetable crops. Parathion was used for the control of pests of fruits, nuts, and vegetable crops. The only uses retained are those on alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, sorghum, soybeans, sunfl owers, and wheat. Further, to reduce exposure of agricultural workers, parathion may only be applied to these crops by commercially certifi ed aerial applicators and treated crops may not be harvested by hand. Parathion is a broad spectrum, organophosphate pesticide used to control many insects and mites.
Chemical PropertiesParathion is a clear liquid when fresh; pale yellow to dark brown liquid with a garlic-like odor. Commercial formulations use carrier solvents that may change the physical properties shown.
UsesParathion is an organophosphate insecticide used on cotton, rice and fruit trees.
UsesInsecticide; acaricide.
General DescriptionLight-yellow liquid, Parathion turn solid at 6° C, a deadly poison by all routes. Organic phosphate insecticide, acts as an inhibitor of cholinesterase.
Air & Water ReactionsParathion is slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity ProfilePure parathion is a pale yellow liquid with a faint odour of garlic, while the technical parathion is a deep brown to yellow liquid. It is sparingly soluble in water but soluble in alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ethers, n-hexane, dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene, and ketones.
Violent reaction when PARATHION is used as solvent to dissolve endrin. When heated to decomposition Parathion emits very toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur, phosphorus and nitrogen [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 984].
Health HazardHighly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Health HazardParathion is highly toxic by all routes of exposure. Parathion, like all organophosphate pesticides, inhibits acetylcholinesterase and alters cholinergic synaptic transmission at neuroeffector junctions (muscarinic effects), at skeletal myoneural junctions, in autonomic ganglia (nicotinic effects), and in the CNS. Exposures to parathion cause symptoms of poisoning that include, but are not limited to, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, pinpoint pupils, blurred vision, excessive sweating, salivation and lacrimation, wheezing, excessive tracheobronchial secretions, agitation, seizures, bradycardia or tachycardia, muscle twitching and weakness, and urinary bladder and fecal incontinence. Seizures are much more common in children than in adults. Severe exposures cause loss of consciousness, coma, excessive bronchial secretions, respiratory depression, cardiac irregularity, eventually leading to death. Occupational workers and the general public with health disorders and abnormalities, such as cardiovascular, liver or kidney diseases, glaucoma, or CNS, are at an increased risk of parathion poisoning. Further, high environmental temperatures enhance the severity of parathion poisoning.
Fire HazardCombustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Agricultural UsesInsecticide, Acaricide: The U.S. EPA announced in November, 2000, the cancellation of ethyl parathion immediately on seed corn and the eventual phase out for its use in other pesticide products by the end of 2000. By the end of October, 2003, the U.S. EPA phased out its use to control insects and mites on alfalfa, barley, corn, canola, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers and wheat. Also used to control nuisance birds. Not listed for use in EU countries. Not registered for use in the U.S. There are 25 global suppliers.
Trade name(There are 921 active and canceled/transferred labels registered with the U.S. EPA) ACC 3422®; ALKRON®[C]; ALLERON®; AMERICAN CYANAMID 3422®; APHAMITE®; ARALO®; B 404®; BAY E-605®; BAYER E-605®; BLADAN®; BLADAN F®; COMPOUND 3422®; COROTHION®; CORTHION®; COR-THION®; DANTHION®; DREXEL PARATHION 8E®; E 605®; E 605 F®; ECATOX®; EKATIN WF & WF ULV®; EKATOX®; ETHLON®; ETILON®; FIGHTER®; FOLIDOL®; FOLIDOL E®; FOLIDOL E-605®; FOLIDOL E&E 605®; FOLIDOL OIL®; FOSFERMO®; FOSFERNO®; FOSFEX®; FOSFIVE®; FOSOVA®; FOSTERN®; FOSTOX®; GEARPHOS®; GENITHION®; IDA SEIS-TRES 6-3®; KALPHOS®; KOLODUST®[C]; KYPTHION®; LETHALAIRE G-54®; LIROTHION®; MURFOS®; MURPHOS®; NIRAN®[C]; NIUIF 100®; NITROSTIGMINE®; NOURITHION®; NOVAFOS-M®; OLEOFOS 20®; OLEOPARATHENE®; OLEOPARATHION®; ORTHOPHOS®; PAC®; PACOL®; PARA-KILL®[C]; PARAMAR®; PARA-TOX®[C]; PANTHION®; PARADUST®; PARAPHOS®; PARAWET®; PENNCAP E®; PESTOX PLUS®; PETHION®; PHOSKIL®; PLEOPARAPHENE®; RHODIASOL®; RHODIATOX®; RHODIATROX®; SEIS-TRES 6-3®; SELEPHOS®; SOPRATHION®; STATHION®; SULPHOS®; SUPER RODIATOX®; T-47®; THIOMEX®; THIOPHOS®; THIOPHOS® 3422; TIOFOS®; TOX 47®; TOXOL®; VAPOPHOS®; VITREX®; WOPROPHOS®
Contact allergensOne case was reported of a bullous contact dermatitis due to ethylparathion.
Safety ProfileA deadly poison by all routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: general anesthetic; pulmonary effects; and hdney, ureter, bladder effects, true cholinesterase changes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. A cholinesterase inhibitor. Parathon, like the other organic phosphorus poisons, acts as an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme cholinesterase and thus allows the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine. When a critical level of cholinesterase depletion is reached, grave symptoms appear. Whether death is actually caused entirely by cholinesterase depletion or by the disturbance of a number of enzymes is not yet known. Recovery is apparently complete if a poisoned animal or human has time to re-form a critical amount of cholinesterase. The organism exposed remains susceptible to relatively low dosages of parathion untd the chohnesterase has regenerated. Small doses at frequent intervals are, therefore, more or less additive. There is no indication that, when recovery from a given exposure is entirely complete, the exposed organism is prejudiced in any way. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction with endrin. Highly dangerous; shock can shatter the container, releasing the contents A broad spectrum insecticide in agricultural applications. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of NOx, POx, and SOx.
Potential ExposureA severely hazardous pesticide formulation. Those exposed include those engaged in manufacture,formulation and application of this broad spectrum insecticide. This material has also been used as a chemical warfare agent.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
Environmental FateBiological. Initial hydrolysis products include diethyl-O-thiophosphoric acid, p-nitrophenol (Sethunathan, 1973, 1973a; Munnecke and Hsieh, 1976; Sethunathan et al., 1977; Verschueren, 1983) and the biodegradation products p-aminoparathion and p-aminophenol (Sethunathan, 1973; Laplanche et al., 1981; Nelson, 1982). Mixed bacterial cultures were capable of growing on technical parathion as the sole carbon and energy source (Munnecke and Hsieh, 1976). Three oxidative pathways were reported. The primary degradative pathway is initial hydrolysis to yield p-nitrophenol and diethylthiophosphoric acid. The secondary pathway involves the formation of paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate)
which subsequently undergoes hydrolysis to yield p-nitrophenol and diethylphosphoric acid. The third degradative pathway involved reduction of parathion under low oxygen conditions to yield p-amino-parathion followed by hydrolysis to p-aminophenol and die
A Flavobacterium sp. (ATCC 27551), isolated from rice paddy water, degraded parathion to p-nitrophenol. The microbial hydrolysis half-life of this reaction was <1 hour (Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973; Forrest, 1981). Sharmila et al. (1989) isolated a Baci
In both soils and water, chemical- and biological-mediated reactions transform parathion to paraoxon (Alexander, 1981). Parathion was reported to biologically hydrolyze to p-nitrophenol in different soils under flooded conditions (Sudhakar-Barik and Sethunathan, 1978; Ferris and Lichtenstein, 1980)
p-Nitrophenol, paraoxon and three unidentified metabolites were identified in a model ecosystem containing algae, Daphnia magna, fish, mosquito and snails (Yu and Sanborn, 1975)
ShippingUN3278 Organophosphorus compound, liquid, toxic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required, Potential Inhalation Hazard (Special Provision 5).UN2783 Organophosphorus pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN3018 Organophosphorus pesticides, liquid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1- Poisonous materials.
IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Strong oxidizers may cause release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Organophosphates, in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides, may form highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas. Keep away from alkaline materials. Attacks some plastics, rubbers, and coatings. Rapidly hydrolyzed by alkalis.
Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. One manufacturer recommends the use of a detergent in a 5% trisodium phosphate solution for parathion disposal and cleanup problems. For parathion disposal in general, however, the recommended method is incineration (816°C, 0.5 second minimum for primary combustion; 1204°C, 1.0 second for secondary combustion) with adequate scrubbing and ash disposal facilities.
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