|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Benzaldehyde Chemical Properties|
|mp ||-26 °C|
|bp ||179 °C|
|vapor density ||3.7 (vs air)|
|vapor pressure ||4 mm Hg ( 45 °C)|
|refractive index ||n20/D 1.545(lit.)|
|Fp ||145 °F|
|storage temp. ||room temp|
|Water Solubility ||<0.01 g/100 mL at 19.5 ºC|
|Sensitive ||Air Sensitive|
|Stability:||Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, steam. Air, light and moisture-sensitive.|
|CAS DataBase Reference||100-52-7(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Benzaldehyde(100-52-7)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||Benzaldehyde(100-52-7)|
|Benzaldehyde Usage And Synthesis|
|Summary||Benzaldehyde is also called benzoic aldehyde. Benzaldehyde is an organic compound, and is synthetized by the way that the hydrogen of benzene is substituted by aldehyde. It is the most simple, and also the most commonly used industrial aromatic aldehyde. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature and has a special almond odor. Benzaldehyde is a compound that aldehyde is directly linked to the phenyl group, because it has a similar bitter almond flavor. Benzaldehyde widely exists in plant, especially in the Rosaceae plants. It is mainly in the form of glycosides in plant stem bark, leaves or seeds, such as amygdalin, bitter almond, cherry, laurel, peach. Benzaldehyde is naturally in bitter almond oil, patchouli oil, hyacinth oil, cananga oil. The compound is also in the nutlets and nuts, and exists in the form of Amygdalin, which is combination of glycosides. The chemical properties of Benzaldehyde is similar to that of aliphatic aldehydes, but It is also different. Benzaldehyde cannot reduce fehling reagent. When the reducing fat is used to reduce the benzaldehyde, the main products are benzene methanol, four substituted for the ortho - glycol and two - phenyl ethylene glycol. In the presence of potassium cyanide, two molecules of benzaldehyde form benzoin by acceptance the hydrogen atom. The substitution reaction in aromatic nucleus of benzaldehyde is mainly the meta-position product. For example, the main product is the m-nitrobenzaldehyde , when benzaldehyde is nitrated. Today, the benzaldehyde is prepared by different methods.
|How to identify benzaldehyde?||It can be identified through the appearance and character: pure product is a colorless liquid, industrial products are colorless or light yellow liquid, with bitter almond smell.To this step, we can conclude that is the benzaldehyde. Furthermore it is slightly soluble in water, can be mixed with ethanol, ether, benzene, chloroform.
|Methods of preparation||Benzaldehyde can be prepared by a variety of ways. In industry, it is mainly contained by the way toluene in the catalyst (five of two vanadium, tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide) carry on gas phase oxidation under the action of the air or oxygen. Or in the light, toluene is chlorinated into benzyl chloride, and then hydrolysis, oxidation, also be chlorinated into two chlorine methyl benzene chloride. The industry also has benzene as raw materials, preparation of reaction with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride, under the action of the pressure and aluminum chloride. In the laboratory, benzaldehyde is preparated by catalytic and reducing of benzoyl chloride. At present, the main preparation is the liquid chlorination or oxidation of toluene. The preparation methods have been eliminated, including Incomplete oxidation of benzene methanol, the alkali solution of benzoyl chloride, addition reaction of benzene and carbon monoxide.
|Correlated response||Benzaldehyde can be oxidized to benzoic acid solid with white, unpleasant smell, and crystallized on the inner wall of the vessel. Benzyl alcohol can be gotten by hydrogenation of benzaldehyde, and also obtained by the self-oxidation-reduction of benzaldehyde in alcohol solution of potassium hydroxide in (product of potassium benzoate and benzyl alcohol). The reaction of benzaldehyde with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride can produce cinnamic acid. The alcohol solution of potassium cyanide can be used for catalytic condensation of benzaldehyde, benzoin.|
The disproportionation reaction of benzaldehyde in concentrated alkali solution (Cannizzaro reaction, Cannizarro reaction): a molecular aldehydes were reduced to the corresponding alcohol, another molecule of aldehyde was oxidized to carboxylic acid salt at the same time. The rate of this reaction is based on the substituted aromatic ring.
|Toxicity||1.This product has a certain effect on the eyes and respiratory tract mucous membrane. Because of its low volatility, its stimulating effect is not enough to cause serious damage.|
Skin contact: remove contaminated clothing, wash with the flow of water.
Eye contact: To lift the eyelids, wash with the flow of water or saline rinse. Medical treatment.
Inhalation: from the scene to the fresh air. If the breathing is difficult, you should be given oxygen. Medical treatment.
Food intake: drink enough warm water, reminders. should be fully discharged in closed operation.
Respiratory system protection: when the air concentration exceeds the standard, you must wear a self-absorption filter type gas mask (half mask). Emergency rescue or evacuation, should wear air breathing apparatus.
Eye protection: wear chemical safety goggles.
Body protection: wear anti poison penetration work clothes.
Hand protection: wear rubber gloves.
Other protection: smoking is prohibited in the workplace. Work completely, shower and change clothes. Take regular physical examination
|Boiling point of benzene formaldehyde in vacuum distillation||Under the conditions of decompression, the boiling point of benzaldehyde decreased. Under normal circumstances, the boiling point is 178℃, when reduced to 0.1MPa, the boiling point of benzaldehyde is about 110 ℃. The course is oil bath, water bath only to 100 ℃ and decompression, that does not put it down to below the boiling point of 100 ℃.
|The refractive index and relative density||Aroma: the aroma of bitter almonds. |
The boiling point: 178℃.
Relative density: 1.0415 (10 / 4).
Refractive index: 1.544-1.547.
|Content analysis||The content of the sample is determined by the (OT-6, the amount of sample was 1g. In the calculation, the equivalent factor (e) is 53.06. Or it is determined by gas chromatography (GT-10-4) in the nonpolar column method.
|Limited use||FEMA (mg/kg): soft drink 36, cold drinks 42, candy 120, baked food 110, gum 160, liquor pudding, 840; liquor 50 ~ 60.
|For food additives, the maximum allowable use of the maximum allowable residual amount|
|Chemical property||It is colorless or light yellow, strong refractive index of volatile oil liquid, with bitter almond flavor, burning with fragrant smell. Mixed with ethanol, ether, essential oil and volatile oil, and it is slightly soluble in water.
|Application||1. Benzaldehyde is an important raw material for medicine, dyestuff, perfume and resin industry. It also can be used as solvent, plasticizer and low temperature lubricant. In essence, it is mainly used for the deployment of food flavor. A small amount of benzaldehyde is daily use in flavor and flavor of tobacco. In spite of being widely used as commercial food condiment and industrial solvents, the main use of benzyl alcohol is still used to synthesize a variety of other compounds from pharmaceuticals to plastic additives. Benzyl alcohol is an important intermediate product in the production of perfumes, spices, and some aniline dyes. |
Mandelic acid was synthesized by benzaldehyde as the starting reagent: With the first hydrocyanic acid reacts with benzaldehyde, then mandelonitrile hydrolyzed to Racemic mandelic acid. Glacialist LaChepelle and Stillman reported Ice crystallization is inhibited by benzaldehyde and aldehydes ice in 1966, so as to prevent the thick frost formation (Depth Hoar). This process can prevent snowslide caused by the instability of the snow cover. However, this compound has not been used extensively, because of the destruction of vegetation and polluted water sources.
2. GB2760--1996 provides for the temporary use of edible spices. It is mainly used for the preparation of flavors, such as almond, cherry, peach, nuts, etc., the amount is up to 40%. As aromatizing agent canned cherry syrup, adding amount is sugar 3mL/kg.
3. Pharmaceutical, dyestuff, spice intermediates. For the production of oxygen based benzene formaldehyde, lauric acid, lauric aldehyde, malachite, benzyl benzoate, benzyl aniline and benzylidene acetone etc.. Used to tune the soap flavor, edible essence, etc.
4. As the head of the special aroma, it is used trace formula for fragrance, such as lilac, white, violet, jasmine, acacia, sunflower, sweet plum, orange flower, Tofu pudding etc.. Also it is used in soap. Also it can be used as edible spices for almond, coconut cream, berries, cherries, apricots, peaches, plums, walnuts, and vanilla bean, spicy flavor. Wine with flavors such as rum, brandy, etc.
5. Benzaldehyde is an intermediate of herbicide resistance, plant growth regulator, and anti - amine.
6. Used as a reagent for the determination of ozone, phenol, alkaloid and methylene. Used in the preparation of spices.
|Methods of production||1.The prepared is toluene as raw material, chlorinated to mixed benzyl chloride in the light (including C6H5CH2Cl, C6H5CHCl2, C6H5CCl3), the mixture of benzyl chloride into the kettle, adding a small amount of zinc oxide, zinc phosphate catalyst mixture, drops of water into enamel kettle from 125 to 135℃, the reaction began immediately. After adding water about 10h, the reaction is completed. At 65℃, adding soda ash is to neutralize liquid, which is in the hydrolysis pot with soda hydrolysis, reflux 8h. When the reservoir side chain containing chlorine <0.1%, the reaction is finished. When water is vapor distillation, the benzaldehyde is stratified, distillation products.|
2. Benzaldehyde is widely found in plants, especially in the rose family, which mainly exists in the plant's stem bark, leaves or seeds, such as bitter almond glycosides in bitter almond. There are two main types of industrial production method that toluene and benzene are as raw material, respectively. Laboratory preparation can also use catalytic (Pd / barium sulfate) method for reduction of benzoyl chloride. 1) toluene was used as raw material in the process of chlorination, under the illumination of the light, to obtain the mixed chloride. The consumption of raw material: toluene 1700kg/t, chlorine 3000kg/t, soda 1500kg/t. 2)Benzyl alcohol oxidation: benzyl chloride was hydrolyzed to benzyl alcohol, and then it was oxidized to Benzaldehyde. 3)the direct oxidation of toluene: benzoic acid is the intermediate product that the oxidation of toluene is to benzoic acid. toluene→benzyl alcohol→Benzaldehyde→benzoic acid. 4)Using benzene as raw materials, preparation of reaction with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride, under the action of the pressure and aluminum chloride. Benzaldehyde in Industrial products is more than 98.5%.
3. Toluene is catalyzed oxidation of molybdenum oxide or by ozone oxidation of styrene.
It is obtained by the reaction of chlorinated benzyl chloride or two chloride with lime.
With thiourea as reducing agent, the cinnamon oil (containing 80%) for ozonation treatment, can be obtained about 62% of benzene formaldehyde, is a natural product.
|Chemical Properties||Colorless to light yellow liquid|
|Acute toxicity||Orally administered: rats LD50: 1300 mg / kg , mice LD50: 2800 mg / kg
|Stimulus data||Skin - Rabbit 500 mg / 24 hours, moderate
|Explosive hazard characteristics||The strong reducing agent, and the oxidation reaction is intense. Stimulation the skin, local contact can produce dermatitis.
|Combustible hazard||The central nervous system is depression and seizures. In case of fire, high temperature, strong oxidizing agent, combustion discharge much smoke.
|Storage and transportation characteristics||The complete package, unloaded with care, warehouse ventilation, away from the fire, high temperature, stored separately with oxidizing agent.
|fire extinguishing agent||Foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder, mist like water.
|Professional standards||TWA5mg/m3 , STET 10mg/m3
|General Description||A clear colorless to yellow liquid with a bitter almond odor. Flash point near 145°F. More denser than water and insoluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Vapors are heavier than air. The primary hazard is to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Easily penetrates the soil to contaminate groundwater and nearby waterways. Used in flavoring and perfume making.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Oxidizes in air to form benzoic acid, which is moderately toxic by ingestion. Insoluble in water.|
|Reactivity Profile||A nontoxic, combustible liquid, reacts with oxidizing reagents. Benzaldehyde must be blanketed with an inert gas at all times since Benzaldehyde is oxidized readily by air to benzoic acid [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, 1978, p. 736]. In contact with strong acids or bases Benzaldehyde will undergo an exothermic condensation reaction [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 327]. A violent reaction was observed on contact with peroxyacids (peroxyformic acid) [DiAns, J. et al., Ber., 1915, 48, p. 1136]. An explosion occurred when pyrrolidine, Benzaldehyde, and propionic acid were heated to form porphyrins.|
|Health Hazard||Inhalation of concentrated vapor may irritate eyes, nose and throat. Liquid is irritating to the eyes. Prolonged contact with the skin may cause irritation.|
|Fire Hazard||HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.|
|Benzaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials|
|Preparation Products||2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride-->whitener WG for wool-->Benzalacetone-->3,5-DIPHENYLPYRAZOLE-->Epalrestat-->Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium-->2-[2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-4-methyl-3-oxo-N-phenylpentanamide-->L-Arginine hydrochloride-->2-(Acetylamino)-3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid-->Methyl 1H-indole-2-carboxylate-->TRANS-2-PHENYL-1-CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLIC ACID-->1-AMINO-4-METHYLPIPERAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE-->Acid Blue 90-->Diaveridine-->Nifedipine-->Reactive Blue 104-->3,4-Dichlorobenzylamine-->Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium-->Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride-->BENZYLHYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE-->(R)-(+)-N-Benzyl-1-phenylethylamine-->2-((E)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylacryloyl)benzoic acid ,97%-->(E)-3-Benzylidene-3H-isochromene-1,4-dione ,97%-->Reactive Blue BRF-->FLAVANONE-->L-Phenylglycine-->Benzenemethanol, ar-methyl-, acetate-->ASTRAZON BRILLIANT RED 4G-->2-amino-5-chloro-diphenyl methanol-->Magentagreencrystals-->Acid Blue 9-->alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde-->DL-Mandelic acid-->N,N'-BISBENZYLIDENEBENZIDINE-->2,4,5-TRIPHENYLIMIDAZOLE-->4-Hydroxybenzylideneacetone-->5,5-Diphenylhydantoin-->1-[2-[2-hydroxy-3-(propylamino)propoxy]phenyl]-3-phenylpropan-1-one hydrochloride-->N,N'-Dibenzyl ethylenediamine diacetate-->2-PHENYL-1.3-DIOXOLANE-4-METHANOL|
|Raw materials||Toluene-->Sodium carbonate-->Palladium-->Chlorine-->Benzyl chloride-->Zinc oxide -->CARBON MONOXIDE-->Aluminium chloride hexahydrate-->Benzyl alcohol-->Molybdenum trioxide-->Ozone-->trans-Cinnamaldehyde-->Zinc phosphate-->Cinnamon oil-->Amygdalin|