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7487-88-9 Structure

7487-88-9 Structure

Magnesium sulfate


(Monohydrate) kieserite
Hair salt
Kieserite [as monohydrate]
Magnesium sulfate (1:1)
Magnesium(II) sulfate
Sal amarum
Sal anglicum
Sal catharticum
Sal seidlitense

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

White crystalline powder
[Melting point ]

1124 °C
[mp ]

1124 °C
[density ]

1.07 g/mL at 20 °C
[vapor density ]

<0.01 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

<0.1 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
[storage temp. ]

no restrictions.
[solubility ]

H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
[form ]

powder (very fine)
[color ]

slightly gray
[Specific Gravity]


7.9 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃)

Stable. Hygroscopic.
[Water Solubility ]

Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol. Insoluble in acetone.
[Sensitive ]


λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
[Merck ]


Magnesium sulfate has been used for decades as a tocolytic; however recently it has been noted that given its lack of benefit, possible harms, and expense, magnesium sulfate should not be used for tocolysis.

magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt used as a bulking agent in cosmetic preparations.

Magnesium sulfate, a mild central nervous system (CNS) depressant and vasodilator, is used for eclamptic seizures. An initial intravenous loading dose is 2 to 4 g administered over 15 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 to 3 g/hour. The therapeutic serum level is 4 to 8 mEq/L.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7487-88-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Magnesium sulfate(7487-88-9)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

7487-88-9(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
[Safety Statements ]

S22:Do not breathe dust .
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
[WGK Germany ]


[F ]


[HS Code ]

[Safety Profile]

A poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects: heart changes, cyanosis, flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia. An experimental teratogen. Mutation data reported. Potentially explosive reaction when heated with ethoxyethynyl alcohols (e.g., l-ethoxy 3-methyl-1-butyn-3-01). When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SOx. See also SULFATES.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

7487-88-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
【Raw materials】

Sulfuric acid-->Magnesium-->Magnesium oxide-->DOYLE DIRHODIUM CATALYST-RH2(4S-MEOX)4-->Plate-and-frame filter press-->Drying machine-->Magnesium sulfate,monohydrate
【Preparation Products】

9,9-DIMETHYL-9H-XANTHENE-->5-BROMO-2-ETHOXY-PYRIMIDINE-->2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal-->(S)-(+)-Methyl mandelate-->2,3,5,6-TETRAFLUORO-4-METHYLBENZOIC ACID-->3',4'-(DIDECYLOXY)BENZALDEHYDE-->2-(TRIFLUOROACETYL)THIOPHENE-->2-Amino-5-chlorobenzonitrile-->Idarubicin-->Indeloxazine hydrochloride-->2-ACETYL-3-BROMOTHIOPHENE-->Cefuzonam-->Nizofenone-->TRIFORINE-->3,6,9,12-tetraoxahexadecan-1-ol-->4-Chlorobenzhydrylchloride-->2,3-DICHLORO-5-NITROPYRIDINE-->4-Acetylbenzoic acid-->METHYL 2-BROMO-5-METHOXYBENZOATE-->3-AMINO-N,N-DIMETHYL-BENZENESULFONAMIDE-->2-CHLOROSULFONYL-PYRIDINIUM, CHLORIDE-->Ceftizoxime-->DELAPRIL-->2-PROPIONYLFURAN-->Bacillus thuringiensis-->1,1,1-TRICHLOROACETONE-->5-ACETOXYMETHYL-2-FURALDEHYDE-->CYCLOOCTENE OXIDE-->2-Amino-5-bromopyrazine-->Flecainide-->METHYL2-HEXENOATE-->Pentyl isocyanate-->3-Fluoroacetanilide-->TRI-N-BUTYLPHOSPHONIUM TETRAFLUOROBORATE-->2,4,6-TRIFLUOROBENZENESULFONYL CHLORIDE-->Magnesium trisilicate-->Dofetilide-->ETHYL PROPIONYL PYRUVATE-->diammonium magnesium bis(sulphate)-->4-Chlorophenyl cyclopropyl ketone
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Magnesium sulfate(7487-88-9).msds
Questions and Answers (Q&A)Back Directory

Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is strongly hygroscopic and often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt. And the monohydrate, MgSO4•H2O, is found as the mineral kieserite. In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil. In food preparation, magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer production or used as a coagulant for making tofu. In chemistry, anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. For Marine use, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals. For medicine use, it is used in pregnant women to control seizures due to certain complications of pregnancy (eg, severe toxemia) and to control high blood pressure, severe brain function problems (encephalopathy), and seizures in children who have sudden, severe inflammation of the kidneys (acute nephritis). Besides, magnesium sulfate is also used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.

Magnesium sulfate is used widely in several industries including fertilizer, cement, textile, chemicals, and medicine. In the cement industry, it is used in manufacturing oxysulfate cement. In medicine, it is an analgesic and cathartic. An important application of anhydrous magnesium sulfate in the laboratory involves drying organic solvents required for syntheses and GC analysis.
In the textile industry, magnesium sulfate is used in finishing composition for dressing cotton; for weighting and sizing silk; as a mordant for fixing basic dyestuffs on wool; and in fireproofing fabrics. It also is a component of certain types of electrolytic plating baths; of various photographic solutions; of cosmetic lotions. It is a catalyst carrier; a dietary supplement in cattle feed; a coagulant for rubber and plastic; and is used in making citric acid and several magnesium salts, such as magnesium stearate.

Hydrated magnesium sulfate occurs in nature as the minerals kieserite and epsomite. The salt is mined in large scale from these and other naturally occurring minerals. The salt also is prepared in the laboratory by the action of sulfuric acid on magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate followed by evaporation and crystallization:
MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O
Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + 2H2O
MgCO3 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + CO2 + H2O
Crystallization at temperatures between 1.8 and 48°C yields heptahydrate, MgSO4•7H2O. Below 1.8°C, a dodecahydrate , MgSO4•12H2O crystallizes out. Above 48°C crystals of lower hydrates form. The anhydrous salt is obtained by heating the heptahydrate at about 500°C in a rotary drum; or dehydrating above 150°C in the presence of sulfuric acid.

Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Magnesium sulfate (MgS04) is a colorless crystal with a bitter, saline taste. It is soluble in glycerol and used in fireproofing, textile processes, ceramics, cosmetics, and fertilizers.
[Chemical Properties]

Magnesium Sulfate is found widely in nature as either a double salt or as a hydrate, colorless crystals,very soluble in water, soluble in glycerol, sparingly soluble in alcohol.
[Physical properties]

In their hydrated form, these salts have a pH of 6.0 (5.5 to 6.5) in solution. These magnesium sulfates are white crystalline solids. Their densities are: 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous); 2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate); 1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate). Solubilities in water are: anhydrous= 26.9 g/100 ml (0°C); monohydrate= 25.5 g/100 ml (20°C); heptahydrate=71 g/100 ml (20°C). Magnesium sulfate is found in nature in many salt deposits and mineral waters, occurring as hydrates or double salts. The heptahydrate or Epsom salt was discovered in 1695, found inthemineralwater at Epsom. Kieserite and epsomite are the two most important minerals. Other than these and the above hydrates, magnesium sulfate is also found in several other minerals, including langbeinite, leonite,vanthoffite,bloedite,kainite,polyhalite,

ChEBI: A magnesium salt having sulfate as the counterion.

Magnesium sulfate is utilized in the potassium chemicals industry for the manufacture of potassium sulfate (from potassium chloride), sodium sulfate and potash magnesia (potassium magnesium sulfate). Magnesium sulfate, particularly as kieserite, is used as a fertilizer (ca. 80% of total consumption). It is also used in the textile industry, in the manufacture of building and refractory materials, in the pulp industry and in the production of animal feedstuffs and motor oil additives.
[Production Methods]

Magnesium sulfate is widely distributed in nature, e.g. in salt deposits as kieserite, as Epsom salt MgSO4 . 7H20, in the form of double salts such as kainite 4KCl . 4MgSO4 . 11H20 and langbeinite K2SO4 . 2MgSO4, and in brines. Large quantities of kieserite, Epsom salt and anhydrous magnesium sulfate are produced in the processing of potassium salts. Magnesium sulfate is also produced by reacting magnesium carbonate or seawatermagnesium hydroxide with sulfuric acid.

Magnesium sulfate prevents convulsions in preeclampsia and directly uncouples excitation–contraction in myometrial cells through inhibition of cellular action potentials. Furthermore, magnesium sulfate decreases calcium uptake by competing for its binding sites, activating adenylyl cyclase (thereby reducing intracellular calcium), and stimulating calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), which promotes calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Magnesium is filtered by the glomerulus, so patients with low glomerular filtration will have low magnesium clearance. Although the compound does have some cardiac side effects, magnesium sulfate may be preferred over β- adrenergic agents in patients with heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, or hyperthyroidism.
[Biological Functions]

Magnesium sulfate may be effective in terminating refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias, particularly polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Digitalis-induced arrhythmias are more likely in the presence of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium sulfate can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or, preferably, intravenously,when a rapid response is intended.The loss of deep tendon reflexes is a sign of overdose.
[Agricultural Uses]

Magnesium sulphate is a white compound existing both in anhydrous (rhombic) and hydrated crystalline forms. The monohydrate MgSO4·H2O (monoclinic) occurs in nature as kieserite. It is a greyish-white crystalline powder which contains about 16 % magnesium and is used as a fertilizer. It is regarded as a concentrated form of epsom salt, having less water of crystallization. The commonest hydrate is heptahydrate MgSO4·7H2O(also called rhombic or epsom salt) which occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is a white powder with a bitter, saline taste. The salt in the monocliic form loses its structural water at 150°C, while the rhombic form loses water at 200°C.
Magnesium sulphate is used in sizing and freproofng cotton and silk, in tanning leather, in the manufacture of fertilizers, in explosives and matches, in medicines as a laxative, and as a veterinary medicine for the treatment of inflammations and infected wounds.
[Clinical Use]

There is much debate as to the efficacy of magnesium sulfate. For effective inhibition of uterine activity, enough must be given to maintain a blood plasma level of at least 5.5 mEq/L. Even at this level, tocolysis may be hard to achieve.
[Side effects]

The side effects of magnesium sulfate administration are dose dependent. As magnesium levels increase, skeletal muscle weakness increases and CNS depression and vascular dilation occur. Magnesium sulfate infusion commonly results in a slight decrease in blood pressure during epidural anesthesia.
Cardiac muscle is not affected to a clinically evident degree when magnesium is administered at therapeutic levels, although magnesium can have profound myocardial effects during a gross overdose.
Magnesium antagonizes the vasoconstrictive effect of α-agonists, so ephedrine and phenylephrine are likely to less effectively increase maternal blood pressure when administered concomitantly with magnesium.
Magnesium is eliminated unchanged by the kidneys. In a patient who is receiving a maintenance infusion of magnesium and who has decreasing urine output, blood levels of magnesium quickly increase, as do related side effects.
Other side effects of magnesium sulfate include the following: (1) Cutaneous vasodilation with flushing (2) Headache and dizziness (3) Nausea (4) Skeletal muscle weakness (5) Depression of deep tendon reflexes (6) Respiratory depression (7) ECG changes
[Purification Methods]

Crystallise it from warm H2O (1g/mL) by cooling. Dry the heptahydrate (Epsom salt) at ~250o until it loses 25% of its weight. Its solubility in H2O is 36% at 20o, 55% at 60o and 74% at 100o; above 110o the solubility decreases with rise of temperature. Store it in a sealed container.

Magnesium sulfate is not for use in patients with heart block or extensive myocardial damage. Use it with caution in patients with impaired renal function, in digitalized patients, and with concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants or neuromuscular blocking agents. Intravenous administration is contraindicated during the 2 hours preceding delivery. Oral administration is contraindicated in patients with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fecal impaction, or intestinal irritation, obstruction, or perforation.
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Magnesium sulfate(7487-88-9) IR1
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous, pure, 97%(7487-88-9)
[Alfa Aesar]

Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous, 99.5% min(7487-88-9)
[Sigma Aldrich]

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