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91-20-3

91-20-3 Structure

91-20-3 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

Naphthalene
[CAS]

91-20-3
[EINECS(EC#)]

202-049-5
[Molecular Formula]

C10H8
[MDL Number]

MFCD00001742
[Molecular Weight]

128.17
[MOL File]

91-20-3.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Description]

Naphthalene occurs as transparent prismatic plates also available as white scales, powder balls, or cakes with a characteristic mothball or strong coal tar and aromatic odour. It is sparingly soluble in water but soluble in methanol/ethanol and very soluble in ether. Naphthalene is a commercially important aromatic hydrocarbon. Naphthalene occurs as a white solid or powder. Naphthalene occurs in coal tar in large quantities and is easily isolated from this source in pure condition. It volatilises and sublimes at room temperature above the melting point. The primary use for naphthalene is in the production of phthalic anhydride, also of carbamate insecticides, surface active agents and resins, as a dye intermediate, as a synthetic tanning agent, as a moth repellent, and in miscellaneous organic chemicals. Naphthalene is used in the production of phthalic anhydride; it is also used in mothballs. Naphthalene is also used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids to make indigo, indanthrene, and triphenyl methane dyes, for synthetic resins, lubricant, celluloid, lampblack, smokeless powder, and hydronaphthalenes. Naphthalene is also used in dusting powders, lavatory deodorant discs, wood preservatives, fungicide, and as an insecticide. It has been used as an intestinal antiseptic and vermicide and in the treatment of pediculosis and scabies.
[Appearance]

white to almost white crystals, crystalline flakes
[Appearance]

Naphthalene is a colorless to brown crystalline solid with a characteristic “moth ball” odor. Shipped as a molten solid.
[mp ]

80-82 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

218 °C(lit.)
[density ]

0.99
[vapor density ]

4.4 (vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

0.03 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
[refractive index ]

1.5821
[Fp ]

174 °F
[storage temp. ]

APPROX 4°C
[Water Solubility ]

30 mg/L (25 ºC)
[Merck ]

14,6370
[BRN ]

1421310
[CAS DataBase Reference]

91-20-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Naphthalene(91-20-3)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

91-20-3(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

Xn,N,F,T
[Risk Statements ]

R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R67:Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R65:Harmful: May cause lung damage if swallowed.
R38:Irritating to the skin.
R11:Highly Flammable.
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
[Safety Statements ]

S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S62:If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .
[RIDADR ]

UN 1334 4.1/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]

3
[RTECS ]

QJ0525000
[HazardClass ]

4.1
[PackingGroup ]

III
[HS Code ]

29029010
[Safety Profile]

Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. An eye and skin irritant. Can cause nausea, headache, daphoresis, hematuria, fever, anemia, liver damage, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. Poisoning may occur by ingestion of large doses, inhalation, or skin absorption. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame; reacts with oxidizing materials. Explosive reaction with dinitrogen pentaoxide. Reacts violently with CrOs, aluminum chloride + benzoyl chloride. Fires in the benzene scrubbers of coke oven gas plants have been attributed to oxidation of naphthalene. Explosive in the form of vapor or dust when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use water, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

91-20-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

PETROLEUM ETHER-->Biphenyl-->KAOLIN-->COAL TAR-->COAL TAR-->Indene-->ETHYLENE-->1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene-->DODECYLBENZENE-->Technical naphthalene-->Phenol oil
[Preparation Products]

Phthalic anhydride-->1-Naphthol-->2-Naphthol-->Benzoic acid-->1-Aminonaphthalene-->Glycerite-->Linolenic acid-->2-Amino-4,8-naphthalenedisulfonic acid-->DIBENZANTHRONE-->NAPHTHENIC ACID-->Peri acid-->1-Naphthalene acetic acid-->1'-Acetonaphthone-->1-Aminonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-->5-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid-->Vat Yellow 2-->1,4,5,8-Naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid-->2-Methylbutane-->1-Iodonaphthalene-->BUTYLNAPHTHALENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT-->1,5-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid-->Vat Yellow 4-->Vat Brown 5-->Slushing agent,high efficiency-->SEC-BUTYLAMINE-->BARIUM DINONYLNAPHTHALENESULFONATE-->Slushing agent-->1,5-Dihydroxy naphthalene-->synthetic fiber oil QDC-201-->disodium methylenebisnaphthalenesulphonate-->1-Nitronaphthalene-->Sodium poly[(naphthaleneformaldehyde)sulfonate]-->2,6-DIMETHYLNAPHTHALENE-->Dispersing agent DN-->dispersing agent CNF-->1-Naphthol-5-sulfonic acid
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Naphthalene(91-20-3).msds
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Reactivity Profile]

Vigorous reactions, sometimes amounting to explosions, can result from the contact between aromatic hydrocarbons, such as NAPHTHALENE, and strong oxidizing agents. They can react exothermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel-Crafts reaction. Naphthalene, camphor, glycerol, or turpentine will react violently with chromic anhydride [Haz. Chem. Data 1967. p 68]. Friedel-Crafts acylation of naphthalene using benzoyl chloride, catalyzed by AlCl3, must be conducted above the melting point of the mixture, or the reaction may be violent [Clar, E. et al., Tetrahedron, 1974, 30, 3296].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
[Hazard]

Toxic by inhalation. Upper respiratory tract irritant, cataracts and hemolytic anemia. Possible carcinogen.
[Health Hazard]

Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
[Potential Exposure]

Naphthalene is used as a chemical intermediate or feedstock for synthesis of phthalic, anthranilic, hydroxyl (naphthols), amino (naphthylamines), and sulfonic compounds; which are used in the manufacture of various dyes and in the preparation of phthalic anhydride, 1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbonate; and β-naphthol. Naphthalene is also used in the manufacture of hydronaphthalenes, synthetic resins; lampblack, smokeless powder; and celluloid. Naphthalene has been used as a moth repellent.
Approximately 100 million people worldwide have G6PD deficiency which would make them more susceptible to hemolytic anemia on exposure to naphthalene. At present, more than 80 variants of this enzyme deficiency have been identified. The incidence of this deficiency is 0.1% in American and European Caucasians, but can range as high as 20% in American blacks and greater than 50% in certain Jewish groups. Newborn infants have a similar sensitivity to the hemolytic effects of naphthalene, even without G6PD deficiency.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
[Fire Hazard]

Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
[Shipping]

UN1334 Naphthalene, crude or Naphthalene, refined, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN2304 (molten) Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
[Incompatibilities]

Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Violent reactions with chromium(III) oxide, dinitrogen pentoxide; chromic anhydride.
[Waste Disposal]

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[description]

Naphthalene is a white solid chemical that vaporizes easily. It has a strong smell. You can sometimes smell naphthalene in the air or in water. Called white tar and tar camphor, naphthalene is used in mothballs and moth flakes. Petroleum and coal contain naphthalene.
Naphthalene, the simplest of the fused or condensed ring hydrocarbon compounds composed of two benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms. Naphthalene is the most abundant single constituent of coal tar, a volatile product from the destructive distillation of coal, and is also formed in modern processes for the high-temperature cracking (breaking up of large molecules) of petroleum.
1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are naphthalene-related compounds. 1-Methylnaphthalene is a clear liquid and 2-methylnaphthalene is a solid; both can be smelled in air and in water at very low concentrations. 1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are used to make other chemicals such as dyes and resins. 2-Methylnaphthalene is also used to make vitamin K.
[Uses]

  1. In industry, naphthalene is used to manufacture a plastic called polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In public restrooms, naphthalene can be found in toilet deodorant blocks. At home, naphthalene can be found in moth repellents.
  2. Naphthalene balls are extensively used as household preservative of woolen clothes and as a deodorant tablet for the toilets, urinals, bathrooms etc. These are manufactured from naphthalene flakes by a tabletmaking machine having its ball shape die.
  3. Naphthalene is an important hydrocarbon raw material and is primarily used to manufacture phthalic anhydride and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, but is also used in moth repellents and toilet deodorant blocks.
  4. Naphthalene was used in liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents for the production of graphene sheets. It was used in preparation of carbon-coated Si 70 Sn 30 nanoparticles.
  5. It was used as fluorescent probe to study the aggregation behavior of sodium cholate.
  6. It was used to investigate influence of added short chain linear and branched alcohols on the binding of 1:1 complex of naphthalene and β-cyclodextrin.
[Health Hazard]

Most of the data available on the toxic effects of naphthalene have been derived from animal studies conducted either in vivo or with in vitro preparations.
Rats and mice breathing naphthalene vapors daily for a lifetime had irritated noses and nose tumors and irritated lungs. Some female mice had lung tumors. Some animals got cloudy eyes after ingesting it.
It is not clear if naphthalene causes reproductive problems in animals. Although there is no direct data showing that naphthalene can cause cancer in people, naphthalene exposure can lead to cancer in animals.
Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy red blood cells, a condition called hemolytic anemia. Symptoms of hemolytic anemia are feeling very tired or restless, lack of appetite, and pale skin. Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may also cause upset stomach, diarrhea, blood in the urine,and yellow-colored skin. Very young children and unborn children are at higher risk if they are exposed to naphthalene, especially if they ingest the chemical. Some infants have become ill when they were close to clothing or blankets stored in naphthalene mothballs.
[Toxicity]

Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. This can cause organ damage.
In humans, naphthalene is broken down to alpha-naphthol, which is linked to the development of hemolytic anemia. Kidney and liver damage may also occur. Alpha-naphthol and other metabolites are excreted in urine.
In animals, naphthalene breaks down into other compounds including alpha-naphthol, which may affect the lungs and eyes. Naphthalene was found in the milk of exposed cows, but the residues disappeared quickly after the cows were no longer exposed. Nearly all the naphthalene was broken down into other compounds and excreted in their urine.
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Naphthalene(91-20-3)MS
Naphthalene(91-20-3)13CNMR
Naphthalene(91-20-3)1HNMR
Naphthalene(91-20-3)Raman
Naphthalene(91-20-3)IR1
Naphthalene(91-20-3)IR2
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Naphthalene, 98%(91-20-3)
[Alfa Aesar]

Naphthalene, 99+%(91-20-3)
[Sigma Aldrich]

91-20-3(sigmaaldrich)
[TCI AMERICA]

Naphthalene  Zone Refined (number of passes:23),>99.8%(GC)(91-20-3)
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