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CHLOROETHANE

Overview Chemical Properties Production Application Source and exposure Toxicity References
CHLOROETHANE
CHLOROETHANE structure
CAS No.
75-00-3
Chemical Name:
CHLOROETHANE
Synonyms
F160;R160;Kelene;C2H5Cl;Chelen;Chloryl;Dublofix;freon160;Aethylis;Anodynon
CBNumber:
CB5227785
Molecular Formula:
C2H5Cl
Formula Weight:
64.51
MOL File:
75-00-3.mol

CHLOROETHANE Properties

Melting point:
−139 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
12.3 °C(lit.)
Density 
0.89 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2.22 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
32.29 psi ( 55 °C)
refractive index 
1.3676
Flash point:
<−30 °F
storage temp. 
2-8°C
Odor
Ethereal; pungent, ethereal; ether-like.
Merck 
14,3782
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 1000 ppm (~2600 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, NIOSH, and OSHA); IDLH 20,000 ppm (NIOSH).
Stability:
Stable. Highly flammable - may form explosive mixtures with air. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alkali metals and their alloys.
CAS DataBase Reference
75-00-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  F+,Xn,T,F
Risk Statements  45-11-20/21/22-36/37/38-52/53-40-12-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-67-66-22-19-38
Safety Statements  9-16-33-36/37-61-45-7-29-36/37/39-26-53
RIDADR  UN 1993 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  KH7525000
4.5-31
Autoignition Temperature 966 °F
HazardClass  2.1
PackingGroup  II
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H220 Extremely flammable gas Flammable gases Category 1 Danger P210, P377, P381, P403
H224 Extremely flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 1 Danger
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated Gases under pressure Compressed gas
Liquefied gas
Dissolved gas
Warning P410+P403
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 May cause damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P281 Use personal protective equipment as required.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P410+P403 Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
2 0
Health   2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury (e.g. diethyl ether, ammonium phosphate, iodine)
Flammability   4 Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Includes pyrophoric substances. Flash point below room temperature at 22.8 °C (73 °F). (e.g. acetylene, propane, hydrogen gas)
Instability   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)
Special  

(NFPA, 2010)

CHLOROETHANE price More Price(4)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich CRM40015 Chloroethane solution
certified reference material, TraceCERT , 1000 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL
75-00-3 crm40015 $27.8 2018-11-23 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 338303 Chloroethane solution 2.0 M in tert-butyl methyl ether, anhydrous 75-00-3 200ml $208 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical C2883 Chloroethane (ca. 15% in Tetrahydrofuran, ca. 2.0mol/L) 75-00-3 100mL $113 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical C2883 Chloroethane (ca. 15% in Tetrahydrofuran, ca. 2.0mol/L) 75-00-3 500mL $338 2018-11-22 Buy

CHLOROETHANE Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Overview

Chloroethane (also known as ethyl chloride) is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H5Cl, and has been widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive. It is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor.
Ethyl chloride is used in the production of ethyl cellulose, use as a solvent, refrigerant, and topical anesthetic, in the manufacture of dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals, and as a medication to alleviate pain associated with insect burns and stings.[1]
In the past, ethyl chloride was used in the production of tetraethyl lead, an anti-knock additive to leaded gasoline. Government-mandated reduction in the amount of lead additives used in gasoline in the United States and a shift to the use of unleaded gasoline has caused a drastic reduction in the amount of ethyl chloride required for the production of tetraethyl lead.[1]

Chemical Properties

Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas with an ethereal odor[1,6]. Ethyl chloride has an odor threshold of 4.2 parts per million (ppm)[7]. Ethyl chloride is slightly soluble in water[1].
The chemical formula for ethyl chloride is C2H5Cl, and it has a molecular weight of 64.52 g/mol[1,3]. The vapor pressure for ethyl chloride is 1,008 mm Hg at 20°C, and the log octanol/water partition; coefficient (log Kow) is 1.43; coefficient (log Kow) is 1.43.[1]

Production

The dominant process for production of ethyl chloride in the USA involves the addition of anhydrous hydrogen chloride to ethylene in the presence of an aluminium chloride catalyst. The hydrochlorination is a liquidphase reaction, carried out at about 40°C. Reacted products are fed into a flash evaporator column, where ethyl chloride is separated from less volatile compounds and then purified by fractionation. Hydrochlorination of ethanol has not been used for US ethyl chloride production since 1980, and chlorination of ethane (catalytically, electrolytically, thermallyor photochemically) has not been used at any production facility in the USA since 1974. Ethyl chloride is also obtained as a by-product from the production of vinyl chloride[1] or chlorofluorocarbon, although this method accounts for only a small amount.

Application

Ethyl chloride is used in the manufacture of tetraethyllead and as an alkylating agent in the production of ethylcellulose (which is used in paper coatings, printing inks, films, adhesives and moulded plastics), ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and some pharmaceuticals and as a foam-blowing agent in the manufacture of polystyrene. It is used as a local anaesthetic because of its rapid cooling effect as it vaporizes[1]. Historical and minor uses Include use in organic synthesis, as an alkylating agent in the production of aluminium alkyls and other metal alkyls and as a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, fats, oils, resins and waxes.

Source and exposure

Sources of possible ethyl chloride exposure include the inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of contaminated drinking water at very low levels. The general population can be exposed to ethyl chloride by skin contact with consumer products that contain ethyl chloride such as solvents and refrigerants. Occupational exposure by inhalation or dermal contact with ethyl chloride can occur in industries such as medical and health services; automotive dealers and service stations; wholesale trade, electric, gas, and sanitary services; machinery (except electrical) and special trade contractors; fabricated metal productions; printing and publishing; painting; rubber and plastic products; and food.[1] Although chemists use tests such as gas chromatography to measure ethyl chloride in blood, milk, or urine, no commonly used medical tests are available to determine whether or not a person has been exposed to ethyl chloride.[1]

Toxicity

Acute Effects
Acute inhalation exposure to high levels of ethyl chloride in humans has resulted in temporary feelings of drunkenness, dizziness, lack of muscle coordination and unconsciousness. Accidental death has resulted from its former medical use as an anesthetic during major surgery.[1,2] Tests involving acute exposure of animals in rats and mice have shown ethyl chloride to have low toxicity from inhalation exposure.[3]
Chronic Effects
Neurological symptoms including ataxia, tremors, speech difficulties, slowed reflexes, involuntary eye movement, and hallucinations, and liver effects were reported in individuals who purposely inhaled very high concentrations of ethyl chloride for a few months.[4]
Some animal studies indicate effects on the lungs, liver, kidneys, and heart due to ethyl chloride exposure via inhalation.[1] The Reference Concentration (RFC) for ethyl chloride is 10 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) based on delayed fetal ossification in mice. The RFC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups), which is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct esimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RFC, the potential for adverse health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RFC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur.[4]
EPA has medium confidence in the study on which the RFC is based because, although the study is well conducted, it does not establish a firm concentration-response relationship with an adverse effect and was not performed at levels eliciting maternal toxicity; medium confidence in the database due to the lack of a multigenerational reproductive study and a developmental study in a second species; and, consequently, medium confidence in the RFC.[4] EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) for ethyl chloride.[4] Reproductive/Developmental Effects
No studies were located regarding reproductive or developmental effects following ethyl chloride inhalation exposure in humans.
Several animal studies found no reproductive effects caused by ethyl chloride exposure. An animal study reported a decrease in uterine weights, while another study reported minimal evidence of fetotoxicity (increase in centers of unossified bones of the skull) from inhalation exposure to ethyl chloride.[1]
Cancer Risk
There are no human cancer data available for ethyl chloride. A 2-year bioassay performed by the NTP indicated that inhaled ethyl chloride is carcinogenic in female mice and may be carcinogenic in rats. Female mice experienced a significant increase in the incidence of uterine tumors and hepatocellular tumors, but the data on male mice were considered inadequate because of a low survival rate. Benign and malignant epithelial neoplasms of the skin, and three uncommon malignant astorcyomas of the brain, were reported in male and female rats, respectively.[5] EPA has not classified ethyl chloride for carcinogenicity.[4]

References

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Ethyl chloride (Update).Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1998.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Ethyl Chloride. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1999.
  5. National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethyl chloride (Ethyl Chloride) (CAS No. 75-00-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). TR No. 346. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 1989.
  6. The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Ed. S. Budavari. Merck and Co. Inc., Rahway, NJ. 1989.
  7. J.E. Amoore and E. Hautala. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 3(6):272-290. 1983.

Chemical Properties

colourless gas

Chemical Properties

Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas or liquid (below 12℃) with a pungent, ethereal odor and a burning taste. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

Uses

Refrigerant, solvent, alkylating agent, starting point in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead: US 1907701 (1933).

Uses

Ethyl chloride is used as a refrigerant, as asolvent, in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead,and as an alkylating agent. It is also used asa topical anesthetic.

Definition

A highly reactive manmade volatile organic com- pound that is highly reactive in the atmosphere. It readily reacts with oxidizing agents to release the chlorine atoms which, circulate and cause tropo- spheric ozone to decompose.

Definition

A gaseous compound made by the addition of hydrogen chloride to ethene. It is used as a refrigerant and a local anesthetic.

General Description

A clear colorless gas with a pungent odor. Flash point -58°F. Boiling point 54°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket.Ethyl chloride is used as a solvent for oils,resins,and waxes. It is used in medicine and as an intermediate in synthesis.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

CHLOROETHANE is heat sensitive. CHLOROETHANE will hydrolyze in the presence of alkalis and water. CHLOROETHANE reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. CHLOROETHANE can also react vigorously with oxidizing materials. The vapor forms highly flammable mixtures with air. A mixture of CHLOROETHANE with potassium is shock-sensitive. Contact with chemically active metals such as Na, K, Ca, powdered Al, Zn and Mg may result in violent reactions.

Hazard

Highly flammable, severe fire and explosion risk; flammable limits in air 3.8–15.4%. Irritant to eyes. Questionable carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Vapor causes drunkenness, anesthesia, possible lung injury. Liquid may cause frostbite on eyes and skin.

Health Hazard

Exposure to high levels of ethyl chloride cancause stupor, eye irritation, incoordination,abdominal cramps, anesthetic effects, cardiacarrest, and unconsciousness. No toxic effectswere noted at a concentration of 10,000 ppm.A 45-minute exposure to a 4% concentrationof ethyl chloride in air was lethal to guineapigs. A brief exposure for 5 to 10 minutes toa concentration of 10% of the gas was notfatal to the test animals but caused kidneyand liver damage. In humans narcotic effectsmay occur after a few inhalations of 5–10%concentrations of the gas. Irritant effectson the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract aremild. Skin contact with the liquid can causefrostbite due to cooling by rapid evaporation.
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 60,000 ppm/2 hr.

Fire Hazard

Flash Point (°F): -58 ℃; -45 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): 3.6-12; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Water fog, carbon dioxide, dry chemical. For large fires it is best to allow material to burn while cooling surrounding equipment. Stop flow of ethyl chloride; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Not pertinent; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic ant irritating gases are generated in fires; Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode; Ignition Temperature (°F): 966; Electrical Hazard:Not pertinent; Burning Rate: 3.8 mm/min.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mildly toxic by inhalation. An irritant to sh, eyes, and mucous membranes. The liquid is harmful to the eyes and can cause some irritation. In the case of guinea pigs, the symptoms attending exposure are similar to those caused by methyl chloride, except that the signs of lung irritation are not as pronounced. It gives some warning of its presence because it is irritating, but it is possible to tolerate exposure to it until one becomes unconscious. It is the least toxic of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons. It can cause narcosis, although the effects are usually transient. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to flame. Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Incompatible with potassium. To fight fire, use carbon dioxide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.

Potential Exposure

Ethyl chloride is used as an ethylating agent in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead, dyes, drugs, and ethyl cellulose; as a pharmaceutical, solvent; alkylating agent; as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic (freezing).

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit

Shipping

UN1037 Ethyl chloride, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Purification Methods

Pass ethyl chloride through absorption towers containing, successively, conc H2SO4, NaOH pellets, P2O5 on glass wool, or soda-lime, CaCl2, P2O5. Condensed it into a flask containing CaH2 and fractionally distil it. It has also been purified by illumination in the presence of bromine at 0o using a 1000W lamp, followed by washing, drying and distilling. [Beilstein 1 IV 124.]

Incompatibilities

Flammable gas. Slow reaction with water; forms hydrogen chloride gas. Contact with moisture (water, steam) forms hydrochloric acid and/or fumes of hydrogen chloride. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. May form explosive mixture with air. Contact with chemically active metals: aluminum, lithium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc may cause fire and explosions. Attacks some plastics and rubber.

Waste Disposal

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

CHLOROETHANE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


CHLOROETHANE Suppliers

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CHLOROETHANE Spectrum


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