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LINDANE

LINDANE
LINDANE structure
CAS No.
58-89-9
Chemical Name:
LINDANE
Synonyms
666;BBH;HGI;plk;HCH;HCCH;D-HCH;D-BHC;G-BHC;Kwell
CBNumber:
CB5281877
Molecular Formula:
C6H6Cl6
Formula Weight:
290.83
MOL File:
58-89-9.mol

LINDANE Properties

Melting point:
113-115 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
373.64°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1.7152 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
nD20 1.644
Flash point:
11 °C
storage temp. 
0-6°C
solubility 
H2O: insoluble0.01g/L (practically)
form 
neat
Merck 
13,5523
BRN 
1907337
Henry's Law Constant
12.8 at 5 °C, 14.8 at 15 °C, 18.8 at 20 °C, 26.6 at 25 °C, 38.5 at 35 °C (gas stripping-GC, Cetin et al., 2006)
Exposure limits
NIOSH REL: TWA 0.5 mg/m3, IDLH 50 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.5 mg/m3; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.5 mg/m3.
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
NIST Chemistry Reference
Lindane(58-89-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, (1.alpha.,2.alpha.,3.beta., 4.alpha.,5.alpha.,6.beta.)- (58-89-9)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  T,N,F,Xn,Xi
Risk Statements  20/21-25-48/22-50/53-64-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-65-38-52/53-62-48/20-40-21
Safety Statements  36/37-45-60-61-62-33-29-16-9-7-22
RIDADR  UN 2811 6.1/PG 1
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  GV4900000
HazardClass  6.1(b)
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 58-89-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 88, 91 orally (Gaines)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H362 May cause harm to breast-fed children Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation Additional category P201, P260, P263, P264, P270,P308+P313
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P263 Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

LINDANE price More Price(11)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 233390 Lindane 97% 58-89-9 5g $23.5 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1367504 Lindane United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 58-89-9 200mg $338.1 2018-11-20 Buy
Cayman Chemical 23952 γ-Lindane ≥98% 58-89-9 5g $25 2018-11-19 Buy
Cayman Chemical 23952 γ-Lindane ≥98% 58-89-9 10g $48 2018-11-19 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 48960-U γ-BHC 58-89-9 u $48.9 2018-11-20 Buy

LINDANE Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

white powder

Chemical Properties

Lindane is a white to yellow, crystalline powder with a slight, musty odor (pure material is odorless).

Chemical Properties

BHC is a white-to-brownish crystalline solid with a musty, phosgene-like odor.

Uses

Insecticide.

Uses

Pesticide and insecticide.

brand name

Benhexachlor;Gamex;Gamma benzene;Hexachloride.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Lindane has been available for more than 25 years and is widely used as an agricultural and household pesticide.

General Description

Colorless solid with a musty odor; pure material is odorless. Used as a pesticide and scabicide.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

LINDANE is incompatible with strong bases. LINDANE is incompatible with powdered metals such as iron, zinc and aluminum. LINDANE is also incompatible with oxidizing agents. LINDANE can undergo oxidation when in contact with ozone. When exposed to alkalis, LINDANE undergoes dehydrochlorination.

Health Hazard

LINDANE is a stimulant of the nervous system, causing violent convulsions that are rapid in onset and generally followed by death or recovery within 24 hours. The probable human oral lethal dose is 50-500 mg/kg, or between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce for a 150-lb (70 kg) person.

Health Hazard

High acute toxicity; symptoms — headache,dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor,cyanosis, epileptic convulsions; stimulant tonervous system, which can lead to violent convulsions; such convulsions may setrapidly that may either progress to recovery within 24 hours or could lead to death(Hayes 1982); ingestion of 2–10 g probably fatal to human; an irritant to eyeand skin; chronic exposure causes liverinjury; oral LD50 value (mice): 86 mg/kg;carcinogenic to animals, causing liver andlung tumors; exposure limit: TLV : TWA(skin) 0.5 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, andOSHA); RCRA Waste Number U120.

Fire Hazard

When heated to decomposition, LINDANE emits toxic fumes of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, and phosgene.

Agricultural Uses

Insecticide, Rodenticide: Lindane has been used against insects in a wide range of applications including treatment of animals, buildings, man for ectoparasites, clothes, water for mosquitoes, living plants, seeds and soils. Most applications have been canceled due to excessive residues, e.g., stored foodstuffs, that may cause cancer. Formulators, distributors and users of lindane represent a special risk group. The major use of lindane in recent years has been to pretreat seeds. Other uses include sunflowers, peas, wheat, barley and oats. Lindane is currently also used in lotions, creams and shampoos for the control of lice and mites in humans. Not approved for use in EU countries. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Lindane should be handled as a carcinogen, with extreme caution. Most applications have been canceled. It has not been produced in the U.S. since 1977; however, it is still imported into the U.S. and formulated to treat head lice, body lice and scabies.

Trade name

AALINDAN®; AFICIDE®; AGRISOL G-20®; AGROCIDE®; AGRONEXIT®; AMEISENATOD®; AMEISENMITTEL (MERCK)®; APARASIN®; APHTIRIA®; APLIDAL®; ARBITEX®; BEN-HEX®; BENTOX 10®; CELANEX®; CHLORESENE®; CODECHINE®; DELSANEX DAIRY FLY SPRAY®; DETMOL-EXTRAKT®; DETOX 25®; DEVORAN®; DOL GRANULE®; DRILL TOXSPEZIAL AGLUKON®; DUAL MURGANIC RPB SEED TREATMENT®; ENTOMOXAN®; EXAGAMA®; FORLIN®; GALLOGAMA®; GAMACID®; GAMAPHEX®; GAMENE®; GAMMA-COL®; GAMMALIN®; GAMMALIN 20; GAMMALEX®; GAMMASAN 30®; GAMMATERR®; GAMMAPHEX®; GAMMEX®; GAMMEXANE®; GAMMEXENE®; GAMMOPAZ®; GEXANE®; HECLOTOX®; HEXA®; HEXAFLOW®; HEXATOX®; HEXAVERM®; HEXICIDE®; HEXYCLAN®; HORTEX®; INEXIT®; ISOTOX®; JACUTIN®; KOKOTINE®; KWELL®; LENTOX®; LINDAGRAM®; LIDENAL®; LINDAFOR®; LINDAGAM®; LINDAGRAIN®; LINDAGRANOX®; LINDAPOUDRE®; LINDATOX®; LINDOSEP®; LINTOX®; LOREXANE®; MARSTAN FLY SPRAY®; MERGAMMA 30®; MILBOL 49®; MIST-O-MATIC LINDEX®; MSZYCOL®; NEXEN FB®; NEXIT®; NEXIT-STARK®; NEXOL-E®; NICOCHLORAN®; NOVIGAM®; OMNITOX®; OVADZIAK®; OWADZIAK®; PEDRACZAK®; PFLANZOL®; QUELLADA®; RODESCO INSECT POWDER®; SANG GAMMA®; SILVANO®; SPRITZ-RAPIDIN®; SPRUEHPFLANZOL®; STREUNEX®; TAP 85®; TRI- 6®; VITON®

Contact allergens

Lindane is a pesticide used for its antiinsect properties in agriculture, wood protection, in antiinsect paints and veterinary and human medicine against many and veterinary and human medicine against many and demodicidosis. Its use is controlled, particularlybecause of neurological toxicity

Clinical Use

Lindane is 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, -benzenehexachloride, or benzene hexachloride (Kwell, Scabene,Kwildane, G-Well). This halogenated hydrocarbon is preparedby the chlorination of benzene. A mixture of isomersis obtained in this process, five of which have been isolated:α, β, γ, δ, and ε. The γ-isomer, present to 10% to 13% inthe mixture, is responsible for the insecticidal activity. The -isomer may be separated by various extraction and chromatographictechniques.Lindane occurs as a light buff to tan powder with a persistentmusty odor, and it is bitter. It is insoluble in water butsoluble in most organic solvents. It is stable under acidic orneutral conditions but undergoes elimination reactions underalkaline conditions.The action of lindane against insects is threefold: it is a directcontact poison, it has a fumigant effect, and it acts as astomach poison. The effect of lindane on insects is similar tothat of DDT. Its toxicity in humans is somewhat lower thanthat of DDT. Because of its lipid solubility properties, however,lindane when ingested tends to accumulate in the body.Lindane is used locally as a cream, lotion, or shampoo forthe treatment of scabies and pediculosis.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. A human systemic poison by ingestion. Also a poison by ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: convulsions, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. See also BENZENE HEXACHLORIDE and other benzene hexachloride entries. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-, HCl, and phosgene.

Potential Exposure

The major commercial usage of BHC is based upon its insecticidal properties. α-BCH is used as an Agricultural chemical, pesticide, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug. The 7-isomer has the highest acute toxic ity, but the other isomers are not without activity. It is gen erally advantageous to purify the 7-isomer from the less active isomers. The γ-isomer acts on the nervous system of insects, principally at the level of the nerve ganglia. As a result, lindane has been used against insects in a wide range of applications including treatment of animals, buildings, humans for ectoparasites, clothes; water for mosquitoes; living plants; seeds and soils. Some applications have been abandoned due to excessive residues, e.g., stored food stuffs. By voluntary action, the principal domestic producer of technical grade BHC requested cancellation of its BHC registrations on September 1, 1976. As of July 21, 1978, all registrants of pesticide products containing BHC voluntar ily canceled their registrations or switched their former BHC products to lindane formulations.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 30 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Speed in removing material from skin is of extreme importance. Shampoo hair promptly if con taminated. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi cal attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

Environmental Fate

Biological. In a laboratory experiment, a strain of Pseudomonas putida culture transformed lindane to g-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexane (g-TCCH), g-pentachlorocyclohexane (g-PCCH) and a-BHC (Benezet and Matsumura, 1973). g-TCCH was also reported as a product of lindane degradation by Clostridium sphenoides (MacRae et al., 1969; Heritage and MacRae, 1977, 1977a), an anaerobic bacterium isolated from flooded soils (MacRae et al., 1969; Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973a). Lindane degradation by Escherichia coli also yielded g-PCCH (Francis et al., 1975). Evidence suggests that degradation of lindane in anaerobic cultures or flooded soils amended with lindane occurs via reductive dehalogenation producing chlorine-free volatile metabolites (Sethunathan and Yoshida, 1973a).
After a 30-day incubation period, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium converted lindane to carbon dioxide. Mineralization began between the third and sixth day of incubation. The production of carbon dioxide was highest between 3 to 18 days o
Beland et al. (1976) studied the degradation of lindane in sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions. Lindane underwent reductive hydrodechlorination forming 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohex- 1-ene (g-BTC). The amount of g-BTC that formed reached a maximum conc
When lindane was incubated in aerobic and anaerobic soil suspensions for 3 weeks, 0 and 63.8% was lost, respectively (MacRae et al., 1984). Using settled domestic wastewater inoculum, lindane (5 and 10 mg/L) did not degrade after 28 days of incubation at 25°C (Tabak et al., 1981).
Soil. In moist soils, lindane biodegraded to g-pentachlorocyclohexene (Elsner et al., 1972; Kearney and Kaufman, 1976; Fuhremann and Lichtenstein, 1980). Under anaerobic conditions, degradation by soil bacteria yielded g-BTC and a-BHC (Kobayashi

Shipping

UN2761 Organochlorine pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it from EtOH. Purify it also by zone melting. Possible CANCER AGENT, TOXIC. [: Beilstein 1 H 23, : Beilstein 5 I 8, many isomers : Beilstein 5 III 41, 5 IV 55.]

Incompatibilities

Lindane decomposes on contact with powdered iron, aluminum, and zinc and with alkalis producing trichlorobenzene. Corrosive to metals

Waste Disposal

For the disposal of lindane, a process has been developed involving destructive pyrolysis @ 400-500℃ with a catalyst mixture which contains 5%-10% of either cupric chloride, ferric chloride; zinc chloride; or aluminum chloride on activated carbon. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

LINDANE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


LINDANE Suppliers

Global( 86)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32457 55
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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
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Shanghai Hanhong Scientific Co.,Ltd. 021-54306202,021-54308259
+86-21-54291107 info@hanhonggroup.com China 43266 64
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028-84555506 QQ:800101999 cdhxsj@163.com China 9903 57
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Chengdu Ai Keda Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. 4008-755-333 ; 028-86676798 ; 028-86757656
028-86757656 aikeshiji@163.com China 9760 55
TOKYO CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 03-3668-0489
03-3668-0520 Sales-JP@TCIchemicals.com Japan 28457 80
Cheng Du Micxy Chemical Co.,Ltd 028-85632863 028-64559668 18048500443
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9ding chemical ( Shanghai) Limited 4009209199
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LINDANE Spectrum


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