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Physical and chemical properties Cycloalkane Dangerous situation Harmful effects and symptoms of poisoning Protective measures Medical care Transportation requirements Fire extinguishing agent Recommended waste disposal methods Chemical properties Uses Production method Hazards & Safety Information
Cyclopentane structure
Chemical Name:
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Cyclopentane Properties

Melting point:
-94 °C
Boiling point:
50 °C(lit.)
0.751 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
~2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
18.93 psi ( 55 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.405(lit.)
Flash point:
−35 °F
storage temp. 
Flammables area
0.156g/l insoluble
Like gasoline; mild, sweet.
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
Miscible with ethanol, ether and acetone. Slightly miscible with water.
λ: 198 nm Amax: 1.0
λ: 210 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 220 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 240-400 nm Amax: 0.01
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 600 ppm (~1720 mg/m3) (ACGIH).
Stable. Highly flammable. Note low flash point and wide explosion limits. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Floats on water, so water is of limited value in putting out fires involving this material.
CAS DataBase Reference
287-92-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  F
Risk Statements  11-52/53
Safety Statements  9-16-29-33-61
RIDADR  UN 1146 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  GY2390000
Autoignition Temperature 682 °F
HS Code  2902 19 00
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
Hazardous Substances Data 287-92-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LC (2 hr in air) in mice: 110 mg/l (Lazarew)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
1 0
Health   1 Exposure would cause irritation with only minor residual injury (e.g. acetone, sodium bromate, potassium chloride)
Flammability   3 Liquids and solids (including finely divided suspended solids) that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions . Liquids having a flash point below 22.8 °C (73 °F) and having a boiling point at or above 37.8 °C (100 °F) or having a flash point between 22.8 and 37.8 °C (73 and 100 °F). (e.g. gasoline, acetone)
Instability   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)

(NFPA, 2010)

Cyclopentane price More Price(17)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 29680 Cyclopentane analytical standard 287-92-3 5ml $14.1 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 270601 Cyclopentane for HPLC, ≥75% cyclopentane basis 287-92-3 2l $586 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical C0699 Cyclopentane >98.0%(GC) 287-92-3 25mL $19 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical C0699 Cyclopentane >98.0%(GC) 287-92-3 100mL $45 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 044814 Cyclopentane, HPLC Grade 287-92-3 4L $326 2018-11-16 Buy

Cyclopentane Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Physical and chemical properties

Cyclopentane, also known as "pentamethylene", is a kind of cycloalkane with the formula of C5H10. It has a molecular weight of 70.13. It exists as a kind of flammable liquid. It has a melting point-94.4 °C, boiling point of 49.3 °C, relative density of 0.7460 and the refractive index of 1.4068. It is soluble in alcohol, ether and hydrocarbons and is not soluble in water. Cyclopentane is not a planar ring and has two conformations: envelope conformations and semi-chair conformations. The carbon-carbon-carbon bond angle is close to 109 ° 28 ' with the molecular tension not big and the ring being relatively stable. It has a similar chemical property as alkanes. The lethal concentration in the air for the rats was 3.8 × 10-2. It exhibits red yellow color when having reaction with fuming sulfuric acid while generating nitro cyclopentane and glutaric acid through reaction with nitric acid. Method: it can be obtained from the petroleum ether distillate, through high-pressure cracking on the cyclohexane in the presence of aluminum or catalytic hydrogenation of cyclopentene and cyclopentadiene. Purposes: mainly used as a solvent.
 the cyclopentane structure.
Figure 1 the cyclopentane structure.


Cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms in the molecule are arranged in a ring and a sufficient number of hydrogen atoms are combined. Cycloalkanes presented in petroleum are mainly cyclopentane and cyclohexane.
Cycloalkanes have a higher melting point, boiling point, and relative density than the corresponding straight-chain alkanes. We can use the naphthenic aromatic crude oil to produce high-octane straight-run gasoline with its anti-explosion being better than normal paraffin. Low sulfur-containing paraffin naphthenic crude oil, is not only easy to process, but also an excellent raw material for the production of advanced lubricants. Petroleum containing relative many polycyclic long side chain naphthenic compounds is an ideal material for high-quality lubricants.
At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, cycloalkane containing four or less carbon atoms is in the gas form with those contain more than four carbons existing in the liquid form. The cyclopropane and cyclobutane appear as gas, cyclopentane to cycloundecane appears as liquid; cyclododecane and above appears as solid.
The chemical nature of the cycloalkane is related to the number of carbon atoms forming the ring. It is referred three-membered ring and four-membered ring, as small ring; the five-to-seven-membered ring as normal ring; the eight-eleven ring as normal ring; the twelve-membered ring and above as large ring. The nuclei lines of carbon nuclei in small rings are not consistent with the axis of bonding orbital. In cyclopropane, the ring formed by the nucleus lines of carbon atoms is an equilateral triangle with each angle being 60° while the angle of the sp3 hybrid orbital axis of carbon-carbon single bonds formed by each carbon 104° (see figure 2 below). Therefore, the orbit has failed to achieve the greatest degree of overlap, causing a large angle tension. Cyclobutane also has angular tension, but being smaller. This leads to the poor stability of the small ring, causing its similar chemical property to olefins that can have ring-opening addition reaction with many reagents. Other ring has less of no angular tension. Cycloalkane and alkanes have similar chemical properties, less prone to have ring-opening reaction such as having reaction with hydrogen. Cyclohexane and higher cycloalkane is more difficult to undergo hydrogenation.
  is a schematic representation of sp3 hybridization orbital overlap in cyclopropane.
Figure 2 is a schematic representation of sp3 hybridization orbital overlap in cyclopropane.
Cyclopropane (at room temperature) and cyclobutane (at the heating conditions) can have addition reaction with halogen and hydrogen halide.
The open-loop occurs between the two atoms connecting the most and least numbers of hydrogen. The addition satisfies the Markovian rule. While the normal ring, under the stimulation of the light or heat can have substitution reaction with the halogen.
At room temperature, cycloalkane can’t be oxidized by potassium permanganate.
Cyclopentane, cyclohexane and its alkyl substituted products are presented in certain petroleum oils. Cycloalkanes may also be synthesized by suitable methods, such as dihaloalkane cyclization and hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons.
This information was edited by Xiaonan from Chemicalbook (2015-08-17).

Dangerous situation

Ingestion and inhalation are moderately toxic. (2) Being flammable with greater risk of combustion. The allowable concentration in air is 600ppm (1720mg/m3) in the United States.

Harmful effects and symptoms of poisoning

Inhalation of high concentrations of cyclopentane can cause central nervous system inhibition, although its acute toxicity is low. Symptoms of acute exposure include excitement at first, followed by the emergence of balance disorders, and even stupor, coma. There are rarely cases of death due to respiratory failure. It has been reported that animals fed with this goods can get severe diarrhea, leading to heart, lung and liver vascular collapse and brain degeneration.

Protective measures

It can be used for improving the production equipment. Use skin protective creams or gloves to protect the skin.

Medical care

Upon regular physical examination, pay attention to the potential irritation effect of skin and respiratory tract as well as any complications of kidney and liver.

Transportation requirements

Grade I flammable liquid. Code of Hazard Regulations: 61013. The container shall be marked with a "flammable liquid" mark on transport.

Fire extinguishing agent

See “cyclohexane”.

Recommended waste disposal methods


Chemical properties

It appears as colorless liquid with a melting point of-93.9 °C, the boiling point of 49.26 ° C, the relative density of 0.7460 (20/4 ° C), the refractive index of 1.4068 and the flash point of-37 °C. It is miscible with alcohol, ether and other organic solvents, being not be easy to be dissolved in water.


(1)    It can be used as a solvent for solution polymerization of polyisoprene rubber and cellulose ether. It can be used as a substitute for Freon as insulation materials in refrigerators and freezers as well as foaming agents for other hard PU foams, and chromatographic analysis standards.
(2)    Used as a standard substance for chromatographic analysis, solvents, engine fuels, azeotropic distillation agents.

Production method

Cyclopentane is a component of the petroleum ether in the 30-60 °C boiling point range with the content being generally 5%-10%. Apply atmospheric distillation; at a 60: 1 reflux ratio and carry out at an 8m height tower; first distill out the isopentane and n-pentane; continue fractionation to obtain a cyclopentane with purity being over 98%. Cyclopentane can also be obtained through cyclopentanone reduction or cyclopentadiene catalytic hydrogenation.

Hazards & Safety Information

Category Flammable liquids
Toxicity grading: Low toxicity
Acute toxicity: oral-rat LD50: 11400 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 12800 mg/kg
Hazardous property of explosives: being explosive upon mixed with air
Flammability and dangerous situations: being flammable in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant with combustion releasing irritant smoke
Storage characteristics: Storehouse: ventilated, low temperature and dry; Store it with oxidant separately
Extinguishing agent: Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam, 1211 extinguishing agent
Occupational standard: TWA 1720 mg/m3; STEL 2150 mg/kg

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid with a petrol-like smell

Chemical Properties

Cyclopentane is a colorless liquid.


Cyclopentane is a petroleum product. Itis formed from high-temperature catalyticcracking of cyclohexane or by reduction ofcyclopentadiene. It occurs in petroleum etherfractions and in many commercial solvents.It is used as a solvent for paint, in extractionsof wax and fat, and in the shoe industry.


ChEBI: A cycloalkane that consists of five carbons each bonded with two hydrogens above and below the plane. The parent of the class of cyclopentanes.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a petroleum-like odor. Flash point of -35°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

CYCLOPENTANE is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents such as chlorine, bromine, fluorine. .

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes dizziness, nausea, and vomiting; concentrated vapor may cause unconsciousness and collapse. Vapor causes slight smarting of eyes. Contact with liquid causes irritation of eyes and may irritate skin if allowed to remain. Ingestion causes irritation of stomach. Aspiration produces severe lung irritation and rapidly developing pulmonary edema; central nervous system excitement followed by depression.

Health Hazard

Cyclopentane is a low-acute toxicant. Itsexposure at high concentrations may producedepression of the central nervous system withsymptoms of excitability, loss of equilibrium,stupor, and coma. Respiratory failure may occur in rats from 30–60 minutes’ exposureto 100,000–120,000 ppm in air. It is anirritant to the upper respiratory tract, skin,and eyes. No information is available inthe literature on the chronic effects fromprolonged exposure to cyclopentane.

Fire Hazard

Flash Point (°F): <20 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): (approx.) 1.1-8.7; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Dry chemical, foam, carbon dioxide; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Water may be ineffective; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Not pertinent; Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode; Ignition Temperature (°F): 716; Electrical Hazard: Not pertinent; Burning Rate: 7.9 mm/min.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Mildly toxic by ingestion and inhalation. High concentrations have narcotic action. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizers. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

Potential Exposure

Cyclopentane is used as a solvent.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ- ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi- cal attention. Do not induce vomiting, guard against aspira- tion. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.


UN1146 Cyclopentane, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.

Purification Methods

Free it from cyclopentene by two passages through a column of carefully dried and degassed activated silica gel. It occurs in petroleum and is HIGHLY FLAMMABLE. [NMR: Christl Chem Ber 108 2781 1975, Whitesides et al. 41 2882 1976, Beilstein 5 III 10, 5 IV 4.]


May form explosive mixture with air. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire and explosion.

Waste Disposal

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinera- tor equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.

Cyclopentane Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Cyclopentane Suppliers

Global( 149)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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View Lastest Price from Cyclopentane manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-12-21 Cyclopentane
US $1.00 / kg 1g 99% 100KG career henan chemical co

Cyclopentane Spectrum

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