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Bacitracin

Mode of action
Bacitracin
Bacitracin structure
CAS No.
1405-87-4
Chemical Name:
Bacitracin
Synonyms
septa;ayfivin;Agfivin;Ziba-RX;baci-jel;usafcb-7;BACIDRIN;ALTRACIN;Zutracin;Baciguen
CBNumber:
CB9165863
Molecular Formula:
C66H102N17O16S
Formula Weight:
1421.68538
MOL File:
1405-87-4.mol

Bacitracin Properties

Melting point:
221-225°C
Density 
1.0166 (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.6700 (estimate)
storage temp. 
Keep in dark place,Inert atmosphere,2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: 50 mg/mL, clear to very slightly hazy, deep yellow
form 
Powder
color 
white to faintly beige
Odor
odorlessor slt odor
Water Solubility 
soluble
Merck 
13,936
FDA 21 CFR
556.70
EWG's Food Scores
1
FDA UNII
58H6RWO52I
NCI Drug Dictionary
bacitracin
EPA Substance Registry System
Bacitracin (1405-87-4)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  20/21/22
Safety Statements  22-24/25-45-36
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  CP0175000
21
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  29419090
Toxicity LD50 oral in guinea pig: 2gm/kg

Bacitracin price More Price(15)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich B0125 Bacitracin from Bacillus licheniformis, ≥65?IU/mg 1405-87-4 50000 units $43.4 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich B0125 Bacitracin from Bacillus licheniformis, ≥65?IU/mg 1405-87-4 250000 units $77.4 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 11702 Bacitracin from 1405-87-4 5g $80.1 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich B0125 Bacitracin from Bacillus licheniformis, ≥65?IU/mg 1405-87-4 1250000 units $282 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 11702 Bacitracin from 1405-87-4 25g $296 2021-03-22 Buy

Bacitracin Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Mode of action

The lipid carrier involved in transporting the cell wall building block across the membrane is a C55 isoprenyl phosphate. The lipid acquires an additional phosphate group in the transport process and must be dephosphorylated in order to regenerate the native compound for another round of transfer. Bacitracin as cyclic peptide antibiotics binds to the C55 lipid carrier. Bacitracin inhibits its dephosphorylation thus disrupting the lipid carrier cycle.

Description

Bacitracin is a mixture of similar peptides produced by fermentation of the bacterium Bacillus subtil is. The A-type component predominates. Its mode of action is to inhibit both peptidoglycan biosynthesis at a late stage (probably at the dephosphorylation of the phospholipid carrier step) and disruptions of plasma membrane function.

Chemical Properties

White to pale buff powder

Chemical Properties

Bacitracin is a white to light tan powder which is odorless or having a slight odor and very bitter taste.

Originator

Baciguent,Upjohn,US,1948

Uses

Polypeptide antibacterial.

Uses

Bacitracin is a peptide antibiotic effective against gram-postive bacteria. Bacitracin is an inhibitor of peptidoglycan synthesis. Bacitracin disrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting depho sphorylation of lipid pyrophosphate. Bacitracin also strongly inhibits proline endopeptidase from human muscle.

Uses

antibiotic agent effective against gram-positive organisms and spirochetes; in products for topieal treatment, ear medications and ophthalmie drugs

Indications

This polypeptide antibiotic, which is produced from Bacillus subtilis, interferes with bacterial cell wall growth and is bactericidal against many grampositive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci, and pneumococci but is inactive against most gram-negative organisms. All anaerobic cocci, Neisseria, and the tetanus and diphtheria bacilli are also sensitive to bacitracin.
Resistance is rare, but some staphylococcal strains are inherently resistant. Hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon. Bacitracin is stable in petrolatum (but not water-miscible preparations) and is available as an ointment or as a component of antibiotic mixtures. Sensitization to bacitracin has been reported more recently, particularly in patients with leg ulcers.

Definition

A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotic of known chemical structure isolated from the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis.

Manufacturing Process

The early patent, US Patent 2,498,165 first disclosed bacitracin and described a process for preparing bacitracin, comprising cultivating Bacillus subtilis Tracy I in a nutritive medium, at substantially pH 7 and 37°C, for more than three days, extracting the antibiotic from the resulting medium with a low molecular weight alcohol, concentrating the resulting alcoholic solution in vacuo, acidifying the resulting concentrate, extracting the antibiotic from the resulting solution, and precipitating the antibiotic from the resulting solution, with a precipitating agent for the antibiotic, selected from the group consisting of Reinecke's salt, phosphotungstic acid, phosphomolybdic acid, molybdic acid, picric acid, ammonium rhodanilate, and azobenzene-p-sulfonicacid.
A subsequent patent, US Patent 2,828,246 described a commercial process for bacitracin production. A 1,230 gallon portion of a medium containing 10% soybean oil meal, 2.50% starch and 0.50% calcium carbonate having a pH of 7.0 was inoculated with a culture of bacitracin-producing bacteria of the Bacillus subtilis group and the inoculated medium incubated for a period of 24 hours with aeration such that the superficial air velocity was 12.1. An assay of the nutrient medium following the fermentation revealed a yield of bacitracin amounting to 323 units/ml. This was more than twice the yields previously obtained.
Then, a patent, US Patent 2,834,711 described the purification of bacitracin. In this process for purifying bacitracin, the steps comprise adding a watersoluble zinc salt to a partially purified aqueous solution of bacitracin, adjusting the pH to from 5 to 9, recovering the precipitate which forms, dissolving the precipitate in water at a pH not substantially in excess of 4, and removing the zinc ion by passing the aqueous solution through a cation exchange resin and drying the resulting solution to obtain dry solid bacitracin.
Another patent, US Patent 2,915,432describes a process of recovering and concentrating bacitracin from aqueous filtered fermentation broth containing on the order of 3% protein-aceous solids which comprises intimately contacting the broth with a synthetic organic cation exchange resin having as its functional groups nuclear sulfonic acids and having a crosslinkage of the order of 1 to 2%, with the resin being in the hydrogen form, and eluting the adsorbed bacitracin from the resin with a weak base.
Bacitracin recovery is described in US Patents 3,795,663 and 4,101,539.

brand name

Ziba (X Gen).

Therapeutic Function

Antibacterial

General Description

The organism from which Johnson et al. produced bacitracinin 1945 is a strain of B. subtilis. The organism hadbeen isolated from debrided tissue from a compound fracturein 7-year-old Margaret Tracy, hence the name “bacitracin.”Bacitracin is now produced from the licheniformisgroup (B. subtilis). Like tyrothricin, the first useful antibioticobtained from bacterial cultures, bacitracin is a complex mixture of polypeptides. So far, at least 10 polypeptideshave been isolated by countercurrent distribution techniques:A, A1, B, C, D, E, F1, F2, F3, and G. The commercialproduct known as bacitracin is a mixture of principallyA, with smaller amounts of B, D, E, and F1–3.The official product is a white to pale buff powder that isodorless or nearly so.
The activity of bacitracin is measured in units per milligram.The potency per milligram is not less than40 units/mg except for material prepared for parenteral use,which has a potency of not less than 50 units/mg. It is a bactericidalantibiotic that is active against a wide variety ofGram-positive organisms, very few Gram-negative organisms,and some others. It is believed to exert its bactericidaleffect through inhibition of mucopeptide cell wall synthesis.Its action is enhanced by zinc. Although bacitracin hasfound its widest use in topical preparations for local infections,it is quite effective in several systemic and local infectionswhen administered parenterally. It is not absorbedfrom the GI tract; accordingly, oral administration is withouteffect, except for the treatment of amebic infectionswithin the alimentary canal.

Hazard

Poison; moderately toxic; mutagen.

Pharmaceutical Applications

A mixture of peptides produced by Bacillus licheniformis. Bacitracin A is the major constituent of commercial preparations. The more stable zinc salt is used in topical formulations. It has been widely used as a growth promoter in animals, but has been banned for that purpose in the European Union.
It is highly active against many Gram-positive bacteria and is mainly used as a component of topical preparations. Although strains of Staph. aureus are usually susceptible, they are rather less so than most other Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is so much more susceptible than other hemolytic streptococci that bacitracin susceptibility is used as a screening test for identification. Clostridium difficile and Actinomyces spp. are susceptible, but enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp. are resistant. Entamoeba histolytica is inhibited by 0.6–10 mg/L.
Resistance is uncommon, but has been detected in Staph. aureus following topical treatment.
It is nephrotoxic and unsuitable for parenteral use. Systemic toxicity from application to skin or ulcerated areas is rare, but it may cause allergic reactions and occasional anaphylaxis has been described. It is found in many ointments and ophthalmic preparations, usually together with other components, including polymyxins, neomycin and corticosteroids.
Bacitracin is not absorbed by mouth but oral preparations have been used for suppression of gut flora, including C. difficile.

Clinical Use

Bacitracin is predominantly active against Gram-positive microorganisms, and parenteral use is limited to IM injection for infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci resistant to other agents. It is rather neuro- and nephrotoxic and, therefore, is used in this manner with caution. Bacitracin also is widely employed topically to prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns.

Safety Profile

A poison by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. Mutation data reported.

Potential Exposure

Bacitracin is used as an ingredient in antibiotic ointments to treat or prevent topical or eye infections. Commercial Bacitracin is a mixture of at least 9 bacitracins. Also used as a feed and drinking water additive for animals; as a food additive for human consumption.

Shipping

UN 3249 Medicine, solid, toxic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1—Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

Bacitracin has been purified by carrier displacement using n-heptanol, n-octanol and n-nonanol as carriers and 50% EtOH in 0.1 N HCl. The pure material gives one spot with RF ~0.5 on paper chromatography using AcOH:n-BuOH:H2O (4:1:5). [Porath Acta Chem Scand 6 1237 1952.] It has also been purified by ion-exchange chromatography. It is a white powder soluble in H2O and EtOH but insoluble in Et2O, CHCl3 and Me2CO. It is stable in acidic solution but unstable in base. It is a strong antibacterial. [Abraham & Bewton Biochem J 47 257 1950, Synthesis: Munekata et al. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 46 3187, 3835 1973, Beilstein 27 III/IV 5746.]

Incompatibilities

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides.

Waste Disposal

It is inappropriate and possibly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quantities of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double-bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to properly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator.

Bacitracin Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Bacitracin Suppliers

Global( 279)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886
info@dakenchem.com China 21075 58
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0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 22607 55
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Xi'an Kono chem co., Ltd.,
13289246953 029-86107037
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BOC Sciences
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1-631-614-7828 inquiry@bocsci.com United States 19753 58
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View Lastest Price from Bacitracin manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-09-18 Bacitracin
1405-87-4
US $0.00 / KG 100g 98%+ 100kg WUHAN CIRCLE POWDER TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD
2021-08-26 Bacitracin
1405-87-4
US $10.50 / KG 1KG 99% 10 ton Hebei Crovell Biotech Co Ltd
2021-07-27 Bacitracin
1405-87-4
US $0.00-0.00 / Kg/Drum 1KG Bacitracin A≥40.0%;USP 500KGS WUHAN FORTUNA CHEMICAL CO., LTD

Bacitracin Spectrum


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