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아자티오프린

아자티오프린
아자티오프린 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
446-86-6
한글명:
아자티오프린
동의어(한글):
아자싸이오프린;아자티오프린
상품명:
Azathioprine
동의어(영문):
muran;Imrel;azanin;azamun;imurek;imurel;IMURAN;Zytrim;Azasan;bw57-322
CBNumber:
CB2170327
분자식:
C9H7N7O2S
포뮬러 무게:
277.27
MOL 파일:
446-86-6.mol

아자티오프린 속성

녹는점
243-244°C
밀도
1.5379 (rough estimate)
굴절률
1.7400 (estimate)
저장 조건
Freezer
용해도
Soluble in Dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide.
산도 계수 (pKa)
8.2(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
neat
수용성
<0.1 g/100 mL at 23 ºC
Merck
14,902
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.
InChIKey
LMEKQMALGUDUQG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
446-86-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
1H-Purine, 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol- 5-yl)thio]-(446-86-6)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,T,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 45-22-36/37/38-20/21/22
안전지침서 53-22-26-36/37-45-36
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 UO8925000
위험 참고 사항 Irritant
위험 등급 IRRITANT
HS 번호 29339900
유해 물질 데이터 446-86-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H350 암을 일으킬 수 있음 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P202 모든 안전 조치 문구를 읽고 이해하기 전에는 취급하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P270 이 제품을 사용할 때에는 먹거나, 마시거나 흡연하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

아자티오프린 MSDS


Azathioprine

아자티오프린 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Yellow Solid

화학적 성질

Azathioprine is a complex heterocyclic compound which forms pale yellow crystals.

용도

immunosuppressant, antineoplastic, antirheumatic

용도

An immunosuppressive antimetabolite. Also active as disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). Azathioprine is a purine analog with immunosuppressive effects.

정의

ChEBI: A thiopurine that is 6-mercaptopurine in which the mercapto hydrogen is replaced by a 1-methyl-4-nitroimidazol-5-yl group. It is a prodrug for mercaptopurine and is used as an immunosuppressant, prescribed for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and a ter organ transplantation and also for treatment of Crohn's didease and MS.

Indications

Azathioprine (Imuran) is a cytotoxic agent that preferentially destroys any rapidly dividing cell. Since immunologically competent cells are generally rapidly dividing cells, azathioprine is very effective as an immunosuppressive drug. Unfortunately, any cell that is replicating is a target for this action. This lack of specificity leads to serious side effects. Azathioprine, in combination with corticosteroids, has historically been used more widely than any other drug in immunosuppressive therapy. It is classified as a purine antimetabolite and is a derivative of 6-mercaptopurine.

상표명

Imuran (Promethus).

일반 설명

Pale yellow crystals or yellowish powder. Decomposes at 243-244°C. Used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A known carcinogen.

공기와 물의 반응

Sensitive to oxidation in the air. Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Azathioprine may react exothermically with acids. Incompatible with isocyanates, peroxides, phenols, epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. Hydrolyzed by strongly basic solutions . May react with strong reducing agents to generate flammable gaseous hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide.

위험도

Confirmed carcinogen.

화재위험

Flash point data for Azathioprine are not available. Azathioprine is probably combustible.

색상 색인 번호

This immunosuppressive and antineoplastic drug is derived from 6-mercaptopurine. It caused allergic contact dermatitis in a mother crushing tablets for her leukemic son, and occupational dermatitis in a pharmaceutical reconditioner of old tablet packaging machines, and in a production mechanic working in packaging for a pharmaceutical company.

Mechanism of action

Azathioprine is a phase-specific drug that is toxic to cells during nucleic acid synthesis. Phase-specific drugs are toxic during a specific phase of the mitotic cycle, usually the S-phase, when DNA synthesis is occurring, as opposed to cycle-specific drugs that kill both cycling and intermitotic cells.
Azathioprine is converted in vivo to thioinosinic acid, which competitively inhibits the synthesis of inosinic acid, the precursor to adenylic acid and guanylic acid. In this way, azathioprine inhibits DNA synthesis and therefore suppresses lymphocyte proliferation.This effectively inhibits both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

Pharmacology

Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration, with peak blood levels occurring within 1 to 2 hours. It is rapidly and extensively metabolized to 6- mercaptopurine, which is further converted in the liver and erythrocytes to a variety of metabolites, including 6- thiouric acid. Metabolites are excreted in the urine.The half-life of azathioprine and its metabolites in the blood is about 5 hours.

Clinical Use

Azathioprine is a relatively powerful antiinflammatory agent. Although its beneficial effect in various conditions is principally attributable to its direct immunosuppressive action, the antiinflammatory properties of the drug play an important role in its overall therapeutic effectiveness.
Azathioprine has been used widely in combination with corticosteroids to inhibit rejection of organ transplants, particularly kidney and liver allografts. However, it is usually reserved for patients who do not respond to cyclosporine plus corticosteroids alone.
Azathioprine also has applications in certain disorders with autoimmune components, most commonly rheumatoid arthritis. It is as effective as cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Wegener’s granulomatosis. It has largely been replaced by cyclosporine in immunosuppressive therapy. Relative to other cytotoxic agents, the better oral absorption of azathioprine is the reason for its more widespread clinical use.

부작용

The therapeutic use of azathioprine has been limited by the number and severity of adverse effects associated with its administration. Bone marrow suppression resulting in leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or both may occur. GI toxicity may be a problem. It is also mildly hepatotoxic. Because of its immunosuppressive activity, azathioprine therapy can lead to serious infections. It has been shown to be mutagenic in animals and humans and carcinogenic in animals.

Safety Profile

Confirmed human carcinogen producing bladder tumors and leukemia. Poison by subcutaneous, intradermal, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects: liver changes, hypermotility, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, increased body temperature, BP lowering, decreased urine volume or anuria, normocytic anemia, bone marrow changes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NO,xand SOx. An immunosuppressant.

잠재적 노출

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive agent, generally used in combination with a corticosteroid to prevent rejection following renal homotransplantations. It also is used following transplantation of other organs. Other uses of azathioprine include the treatment of a variety of presumed autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; systemic lupus erythematosus; dermatonyositis, periarteritis nodosa, scleroderma, refractory thombocytopenic purpura; autoimmune hemolytic anemia; chronic active liver disease; regional enteritis; ulcerative colitis; various autoimmune diseases of the eye; acute and chronic glomerulonephritis; the nephritic syndrome; Wegener’s granulomatosis; and multiple sclerosis.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

In veterinary medicine, azathioprine is used primarily as an immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases in dogs. See Doses below for more information. For autoagglutinizing immune mediated hemolytic anemia, azathioprine is generally recommended to start at the time of diagnosis. When used in combination with cyclosporine, azathioprine has been used to prevent rejection of MHC-matched renal allografts in dogs.
Although the drug can be very toxic to bone marrow in cats, it is sometimes used to treat feline autoimmune skin diseases.

Carcinogenicity

Azathioprine is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.

운송 방법

UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

비 호환성

Incompatible with reducing agents, such as hydrides (may cause the release of explosive gases), oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong acids (violent exothermic reaction), strong bases.

법규

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
Any orally administered prescription drug for human use requires child-resistant packaging.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Azathioprine is a prescription drug subject to labeling and other requirements.

아자티오프린 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

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