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브롬화 메틸

브롬화 메틸
브롬화 메틸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
74-83-9
한글명:
브롬화 메틸
동의어(한글):
브로모메탄;브롬화메틸;브름화메틸;브롬화메틸;브롬화 메틸;다우 품;다우품 MC-2;로톡스;메타품;메토가스;모노브로모메탄;브로모가스;브로민화 메틸, 리퀴드;셀품;엠바품;이스포브롬;지톡스;테로가스 100;페스트마스터;프로품
상품명:
Methyl bromide
동의어(영문):
MBX;Edco;Mebr;CH3Br;F40B1;Zytox;r40b1;Rotox;Haltox;R 40B1
CBNumber:
CB9197705
분자식:
CH3Br
포뮬러 무게:
94.94
MOL 파일:
74-83-9.mol

브롬화 메틸 속성

녹는점
−94 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
4 °C(lit.)
밀도
3.3 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
3.3 (20 °C, vs air)
증기압
1420 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
1.4432
인화점
-34 °C
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
water: soluble
물리적 상태
Colorless gas
폭발한계
~16%
수용성
1.522 g/100 mL
Merck
13,6056
Henry's Law Constant
0.72 at 21 °C (Gan and Yates, 1996)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: IDLH 250 ppm; OSHA PEL: C 20 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 5 ppm.
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong acids. This is an ozone-depleting chemical, and its use is restricted in many countries.
CAS 데이터베이스
74-83-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Methyl bromide(74-83-9)
IARC
3 (Vol. 41, Sup 7, 71) 1999
EPA
Methyl bromide (74-83-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,N,Xn,F,F+
위험 카페고리 넘버 23/25-36/37/38-48/20-50-59-68-38-20/22-11-67-66-19-12-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
안전지침서 15-27-36/39-38-45-59-61-36/37-26-24-16-7
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1062 2.3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 PA4900000
DOT ClassificationII 2.3, Hazard Zone C (Gas poisonous by inhalation)
위험 등급 2.3
HS 번호 29033990
유해 물질 데이터 74-83-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LC for rats in air (6 hrs): 514 ppm (Irish)
기존화학 물질 KE-03676
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-113;06-5-2
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 유독물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 브롬화 메틸 및 이를 1% 이상 함유한 혼합물
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 고압가스; 가열시 폭발할 수 있음 고압가스 압축가스
액화가스
용존 가스
경고 P410+P403
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H341 유전적인 결함을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 생식세포 유전독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 생식세포 변이원성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H420 대기 상층부의 오존층을 파괴하여 공공의 건강 및 환경에 유해함 오존층에 유해 함 구분 1 경고 P502
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P403+P235 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하고 저온으로 유지하시오.
NFPA 704
1
3 0

브롬화 메틸 MSDS


Methyl bromide

브롬화 메틸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Methyl bromide is a colorless liquid or gas with practically no odor. It is a poisonous gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. At high concentrations, it has a chloroform-like odor. Detection of lower concentrations is often facilitated by a warning odorant, chloropicrin, which is added by the manufacturer.
Methyl bromide is flammable only in the range of 10 percent to 16 percent by volume in air. Its physical properties do not meet the definition of a flammable gas as defined by DOT and TC. The onset of thermal decomposition occurs at approximately 752°F (400°C).

화학적 성질

Methyl bromide is a colorless gas with a chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. A liquid below 3.3C. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

물리적 성질

Colorless liquid or gas with an odor similar to chloroform at high concentrations. Ruth (1986) reported odor threshold concentrations ranging from 80 to 4,000 mg/m3.

출처

An organic compound, present in the atmosphere as the result of both natural (oceanic production) and anthropogenic (use as a soil fumigant) sources; this compound is the largest single source of bromine to the stratosphere, with a tropospheric mixing ratio of about 10 parts per trillion (by volume).

용도

The primary pre-harvest uses of methyl bromide are as fumigant to control a broad spectrum of insects, nematodes, bacteria, fungi and weeds in grapes, vegetables and strawberries cultivation. Major postharvest use is in the quarantine control of agricultural commodities such as the disinfestation of potatoes and tomatoes.

용도

Methyl bromide is used as a fumigant forpest control, for degreasing wool, and as a methylating agent. Its use as a refrigerant andin fire extinguishers is restrained because ofits health hazards.

생산 방법

The commercial manufacture of methyl bromide is based on the reaction of hydrogen bromide with methanol. The hydrogen bromide used could be generated in situ from bromine and a reducing agent. The uses of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide as reducing agents are described, the latter process having the advantage. A new continuous process for the production of methyl bromide from methanol and aqueous HBr in the presence of a silica supported heteropolyacid catalyst has recently been described. Methyl bromide can also be coproduced with other organic bromine compounds by the reaction of the methanol solvent with hydrogen bromide formed as a by-product. The processes include coproduction of methyl bromide with bromostyrenes, tribromophenol, potassium and sodium bromide, and especially tetrabromo bisphenol A.

정의

ChEBI: A one-carbon compound in which the carbon is attached by single bonds to three bromine atoms and one hydrogen atom. It is produced naturally by marine algae.

화학 반응

Methyl bromide is present in the atmosphere as the result of both natural (oceanic production) and anthropogenic (use as a soil fumigant) sources; this compound is the largest single source of bromine to the stratosphere, with a tropospheric mixing ratio of about 10 parts per trillion (by volume). Methyl bromide reacts with several nucleophiles and is a useful methylation agent for the preparation of ethers, sulfides, amines, etc. Tertiary amines are methylated by methyl bromide to form quaternary ammonium bromides. The reactivity of methyl bromide is summarized in Figure 1.图

Synthesis Reference(s)

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75, p. 1148, 1953. Applications of the Hunsdiecker Silver Salt Degradation. The Preparation of Dibromides and Tribromides. DOI: 10.1021/ja01101a041

일반 설명

Colorless highly toxic volatile liquid or a gas. Boiling point 3.56°C (38.41°F). Usually odorless, but has a sweetish chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. Used as an insecticide, a rodenticide, a fumigant, a nematocide, a chemical intermediate and as a fire extinguishing agent.

공기와 물의 반응

Nonflammable over a wide range of concentrations in air. Slightly soluble in water (about 1.75 g/100 mL of solution at 20° C). Reacts slowly with water to give methyl alcohol and hydrobromic acid. [K-O Vol. 4].

반응 프로필

Methyl bromide is incompatible with metals, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. [Lewis]. Can give flammable products if mixed with potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and other strong bases. Methyl bromide in a steel tank reacted with an aluminum tube (part of the level gauge) producing methyl aluminum bromide. When the latter was subsequently exposed to air, enough heat was produced to ignite the Methyl bromide -compressed air mixture above the liquid layer. The ensuing explosion shattered the tank (also incompatible with zinc, magnesium, and alloys)[Chem. Eng. Pro. 58(8). 1962]. A reaction between Methyl bromide and dimethyl sulfoxide resulted in an explosion that shattered the apparatus [NFPA 491M. 1991].

위험도

Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to skin and upper respiratory tract. Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

Methyl bromide is a dangerous cumulative poison with delayed symptoms of central nervous system intoxication that may appear as long as several months after exposure. High concentrations can produce fatal pulmonary edema. Chronic exposure can cause central nervous system depression and kidney injury. It may cause severe and permanent brain damage. Severe neurological signs may appear when there is a sudden exposure to high concentrations following continuous slight exposure. Methyl bromide has practically no odor or irritating effects and therefore no warning, even at hazardous concentrations.

화재위험

When heated to decomposition, Methyl bromide emits toxic fumes of bromides. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.

농업용

Fumigant, Herbicide, Insecticide, Nematicide: The primary use of methyl bromide is as an insect fumigant to control insects, nematodes, weeds and pathogens in more than 100 crops and for soil, grain storage, warehouses, mills, ships, etc. Use of methyl bromide in the U.S. will be phased out under the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, with some exemptions. Methyl bromide is also used as a chemical intermediate and a methylating agent, a refrigerant, a herbicide, a fire-extinguishing agent, a low-boiling solvent in aniline dye manufacture, for degreasing wool, for extracting oils from nuts, seeds, and flowers, and in ionization chambers. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), NO INERT. Still actively registered for use in the U.S. (2013). As of March 18, 2005, the use of methyl bromide in the EU was banned for most purposes, including quarantine and pre-shipment fumigations.Registered for use in the U.S.

상품명

BROM-O-GAS®; BROM-OSOL ®; DAWSON® 100; DOWFUME®; EDCO®; EMBAFUME®; HALON 1001®; ISCOBROME®; KAYAFUME®; MATABROM®; METHO-GAS®; M-B-C FUMIGANT®; R 40B1®; ROTOX®; TERABOL®; TERR-O-GAS®; ZYTOX®

Materials Uses

Dry methyl bromide is inert and noncorrosive in the presence of most structural metals. However, in the presence of impurities such as alcohols and water, reactions will take place on zinc, tin, and iron surfaces. Aluminum and its alloys should not be used for methyl bromide service because of the formation of trimethyl aluminum, which is pyrophoric.

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. A human poison by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: anorexia, nausea or vomiting. Corrosive to skin; can produce severe burns. Human mutation data reported. A powerful fumigant gas that is one of the most toxic of the common organic hahdes. It is hemotoxic and narcotic with delayed action. The effects are cumulative and damaging to nervous system, hdneys, and lung. Central nervous system effects include blurred vision, mental confusion, numbness, tremors, and speech defects. Methyl bromide is reported to be eight times more toxic on inhalation than ethyl bromide. Moreover, because of its greater volatility, it is a much more frequent cause of poisoning. Death following acute poisoning is usually caused by its irritant effect on the lungs. In chronic poisoning, death is due to injury to the central nervous system. Fatal poisoning has always resulted from exposure to relatively high concentrations of methyl bromide vapors (from 8600 to 60,000 ppm). Nonfatal poisoning has resulted from exposure to concentrations as low as 100-500 ppm. In addtion to injury to the lung and central nervous system, the kidneys may be damaged, with development of albuminuria and, in fatal cases, cloudy swelhng and/or tubular degeneration. The liver may be enlarged. There are no characteristic blood changes. Mixtures of 10-1 5 percent with air may be ignited with difficulty. Moderately explosive when exposed to sparks or flame. Forms explosive mixtures with air within narrow limits at atmospheric pressure, with wider limits at higher pressure. The explosive sensitivity of mixtures with air may be increased by the presence of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, or their alloys. Incompatible with metals, dunethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. To fight fire, use foam, water, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Br-. See also BROMIDES

잠재적 노출

Methyl bromide is used in fire extinguishers; as a fumigant in pest control and as a methylation agent in industry as an insect fumigant for soil, grain, warehouses, mills, ships, etc. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and a methylating agent; a refrigerant; a herbicide; a low-boiling solvent in aniline dye manufacture; for degreasing wool; for extracting oils from nuts, seeds, and flowers; and in ionization chambers. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs.

Physiological effects

Methyl bromide is toxic. The vapor is odorless at low concentrations and nonirritating to the skin or eyes during exposure; therefore, detection of overexposure is not possible until the onset of symptoms. Early symptoms of overexposure are dizziness, headache, nausea and vomiting, weakness, and collapse. Lung edema may develop 2 to 48 hours after exposure, accompanied by cardiac irregularities. These effects may cause death. Repeated overexposures can result in blurred vision, staggering gait, and mental imbalance, with probable recovery after a period of no exposure. Blood bromide levels suggest the occurrence, but not the degree, of exposure. Treatment is symptomatic.
ACGIH recommends the Threshold Limit Value-Time-Weighted Average (TLV- TWA) of I ppm (3.9 mg/m3 ) for methyl bromide. The TLV- TWA is the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect.

Carcinogenicity

Data on the carcinogenicity of bromomethane for oral exposure are lacking, but oral exposure is unlikely due to the volatility of bromomethane. A 1-year study in dogs consuming bromomethane-exposed food found no evidence of carcinogenicity. Data on carcinogenicity in humans following inhalation exposure in humans are not available. Animal inhalation studies exist but do not demonstrate evidence of bromomethane-induced carcinogenic changes. They include studies in F344 and Wistar rats, and in B6C3F1 and Crj:BDF1. The EPA descriptor for cancer is “inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of bromomethane in humans.” Specifically, IRIS states: “Inadequate human and animal data: a single mortality study from which direct exposure associations could not be deduced and studies in several animal species with too few animals, too brief exposure or observation time for adequate power.” Bromomethane has shown genotoxicity. NAS reported that although methyl bromide is genotoxic without metabolic activation and has been shown to alkylate DNA in different organs in in vivo studies, there is no clear evidence of oncogenicity under experimental conditions used in the chronic inhalation studies with rat and mice.

Source

Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 50 μg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

환경귀착

Photolytic. When methyl bromide and bromine gas (concentration = 3%) was irradiated at 1850 ?, methane was produced (Kobrinsky and Martin, 1968).
Chemical/Physical. Methyl bromide hydrolyzes in water forming methanol and hydrobromic acid. The estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25°C and pH 7 is 20 days (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Forms a voluminous crystalline hydrate at 0–5°C (Keith and Walters, 1992).
When methyl bromide was heated to 550°C in the absence of oxygen, methane, hydrogen, bromine, ethyl bromide, anthracene, pyrene and free radicals were produced (Chaigneau et al., 1966).
Emits toxic bromide fumes when heated to decomposition (Lewis, 1990).

신진 대사 경로

Methyl bromide degrades in aqueous and soil environments mainly via dehalogenation to yield bromide ions with the incorporation of the methyl carbon moiety into polar natural components.

저장

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) should be kept stored in sealed containers to keep it from evaporating.

운송 방법

UN1062 Methyl bromide, Hazard Class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poisonous gas, Inhalation Hazard Zone C. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

Purification Methods

Purify it by bubbling through conc H2SO4, followed by passage through a tube containing glass beads coated with P2O5. Also purify it by distillation from AlBr3 at -80o, by passage through a tower of KOH pellets and by partial condensation. [Beilstein 1 IV 68.]

Degradation

Methyl bromide is hydrolysed at neutral pH to methanol and bromide ion. The DT50s of methyl bromide in water at 17 and 25 °C were 21 and 75 days, respectively (Jeffers and Wolfe, 1996a; Mabey and Mill, 1978; Moelwyn-Hughes, 1938). Aqueous photolysis is not a major environmental degradation process.
In the upper and mid stratosphere (>20 km), photodegradation of MeBr with hydroxy radicals is reported to yield various products such as Br, BrO and HBr (Honaganahalli and Seiber, 1996).

Toxicity evaluation

Methyl bromide is a methylating agent and can bind irreversibly to sulfhydryl groups of enzymes and proteins. Methyl bromideinduced neurotoxicity has been attributed to its inhibition of the detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and depletion of glutathione in the brain. The degeneration of rat olfactory epithelium may also be related to the inhibition of GST as well as the generally high metabolic activity at this site. Glutathione involvement in the toxicity is demonstrated by the higher survival in rats given exogenous glutathione when exposed to a lethal dose of methyl bromide. Methyl bromide genotoxicity may be associated withDNAalkylation. The role of bromide is unclear because its level has not correlated with the symptoms of poisoning in humans.

비 호환성

Attacks aluminum to form spontaneously flammable aluminum trimethyl. Incompatible with strong oxidizers, aluminum, dimethylsulfoxide, ethylene oxide; water. Attacks zinc, magnesium, alkali metals and their alloys. Attacks some rubbers and coatings. Methyl bromide reacts with water to generate hydrobromic acid and methanol but the reaction is so slow that it can be disregarded for most practical purposes.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. A poisonous gas. Must be handled by experts: the recommended disposal procedure is to spray the gas into the fire box of an incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber (alkali).

주의 사항

Occupational workers should use appropriate ventilation during production and formulation of bromomethane at the workplace. The ventilation must be suffi cient to maintain the levels of bromomethane below the prescribed OEL. Local exhaust ventilation at source or vapor extraction may also be used. Gloves or rubber boots should not be used as the liquid or concentrated vapor may be trapped inside them

GRADES AVAILABLE

Methyl bromide is sold either as a pure compound, 99.8 percent minimum, or with an odorant, chloropicrin (typically 2 percent).

브롬화 메틸 준비 용품 및 원자재

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