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리모넨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
포뮬러 무게:
MOL 파일:

리모넨 속성

-84--104 °C
끓는 점
176-177 °C(lit.)
0.844 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
4.7 (vs air)
<3 mm Hg ( 14.4 °C)
n20/D 1.473(lit.)
119 °F
저장 조건
물리적 상태
Clear colorless to pale yellow
Pleasant, pine-like; lemon-like.
Odor Threshold
0.7-6.1%, 150°F
<1 g/100mL
Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS 데이터베이스
138-86-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
Limonene (138-86-3)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 10-38-43-50/53
안전지침서 24-37-60-61
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2052 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 OS8350000
F 고인화성물질 8-10-23
자연 발화 온도 458 °F
위험 등급 3
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29021990
유해 물질 데이터 138-86-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 5300 mg/kg
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 흡입 시 알레르기성 반응, 천식 또는 호흡 곤란 등을 일으킬 수 있음 호흡기 과민성 물질 구분 1 위험 P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P233 용기를 단단히 밀폐하시오. 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 보관하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P272 작업장 밖으로 오염된 의복을 반출하지 마시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P284 호흡 보호구를 착용하시오.
P391 누출물을 모으시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P403+P235 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하고 저온으로 유지하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

리모넨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

colourless or light yellow liquid

화학적 성질

Limonene (4R)-(+)-limonene and (4S)-(?)-limonene as well as the racemate (dipentene) occur abundantly in many essential oils.The(+) isomer is present in citrus peel oils at a concentration of over 90%; a low concentration of the (?) isomer is found in oils from the Mentha species and conifers.
Limonene is a liquid with lemon-like odor. It is a reactive compound; oxidation often yields more than one product. Dehydrogenation leads to p-cymene. Limonene can be converted into cyclic terpene alcohols by hydrohalogenation, followed by hydrolysis. Nitrosyl chloride adds selectively to the endocyclic double bond; this reaction is utilized in the manufacture of (?)-carvone from (+)- limonene.
(+)-Limonene is obtained in large amounts as a by-product in the production of orange juice; (?)-limonene is isolated in relatively small quantities from essential oils. Racemic limonenes, which are commercially available under the name dipentene, are formed as by-products in many acid-catalyzed isomerizations of α- and β-pinene. Distillation of the so-called dipentene fraction yields limonenes in varying degrees of purity.
The limonenes are used as fragrance materials for perfuming household products and as components of artificial essential oils.

화학적 성질

d-, l- or dl-Limonene has a pleasant, lemon-like odor free from camphoraceous and turpentine-like notes. Limonene is the most important and widespread terpene; it is known in the d- and l- optically active forms and in the optically inactive dl-form (known as dipentene).


It has been reported found in more than 300 essential oils in amounts ranging from 90 to 95% (lemon, orange, mandarin) to as low as 1% (palmarosa); the most widespread form is the d-limonene, followed by the racemic form and then l-limo nene. Also reported found in ginger, nutmeg, pepper, mace, hop oil, coriander seed, calamus, dill herb, caraway seed and rosemary.


d-limonene is used for perfuming and to mask odor. It is a chemical constituent of citrus oil.


d-Limonene is a flavoring agent that is a liquid, colorless with a pleasant odor resembling mild citrus. It is miscible in alcohol, most fixed oils, and mineral oil; soluble in glycerin; and insoluble in water and propylene glycol. It is obtained from citrus oil. It is also termed d-p-mentha-1,8,diene and cinene.


Limonene is an antioxidant and flavoring agent that occurs in lemons, oranges, and pineapple juice, being obtained from the oils. It is a colorless liquid which is insoluble in water and propylene glycol, very slightly soluble in glycerin, and miscible with alcohol, most fixed oils, and mineral oil. It prevents or delays enzymatic browning-type oxidation.


ChEBI: A monoterpene that is cyclohex-1-ene substituted by a methyl group at position 1 and a prop-1-en-2-yl group at position 4 respectively.

생산 방법

Limonene occurs in the oil of many plants and is the main constituent (≤86%) of the terpenoid fraction of fruit, flowers, leaves, bark, and pulp from shrubs, annuals, or trees including anise, mint, caraway, polystachya, pine, lime, and orange oil. It occurs as a by-product in the manufacture of terpineol and in various synthetic products made from α-pinene or turpentine oil. It is found in the gas phase of tobacco smoke and has been detected in urban atmospheres.

제조 방법

d-Limonene may be obtained by steam distillation of citrus peels and pulp resulting from the production of juice and cold pressed oils, or from deterpenation of citrus oils; it is sometimes redistilled.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 4 to 229 ppb

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: sweet, orange, citrus and terpy.

일반 설명

A colorless liquid with an odor of lemon. Flash point 113°F. Density about 7.2 lb /gal and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. Used as a solvent for rosin, waxes, rubber; as a dispersing agent for oils, resins, paints, lacquers, varnishes, and in floor waxes and furniture polishes.

공기와 물의 반응

Flammable. Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Cinene may react vigorously with strong oxidizing agents. May react exothermically with reducing agents to release hydrogen gas.


Liquid irritates eyes; prolonged contact with skin causes irritation. Ingestion causes irritation of gastrointestinal tract.


Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

색상 색인 번호

Dipentene corresponds to a racemic mixture of d-limonene and l-limonene. Dipentene can be prepared from wood turpentine or by synthesis. It is used as a solvent for waxes, rosin and gums, in printing inks, perfumes, rubber compounds, paints, enamels, and lacquers. An irritant and sensitizer, dipentene caused contact dermatitis mainly in painters, polishers, and varnishers

색상 색인 번호

Limonene is a racemic form of dand l-limonene. d-Limonene is contained in Citrus species such as citrus, orange, mandarin, and bergamot. l-Limonene is contained in Pinus pinea. The racemic form (dand l-limonene) is also named dipentene.

Anticancer Research

Tested as promising antitumor molecules in induced tumor on rat tissues, D-limonenewas tested in preclinical studies in patients with advanced cancer. Limonene inhibitsthe activity of HMG-CoA reductase, subsequently reducing the possibility of cancergrowth. The mechanism of action involves the inhibition of prenyltransferases withthe activation of glutathione-S transferase and uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.More interest was pointed on the principal metabolite:perillyl alcohol which is more potent than limonene. The interest on perillyl alcoholis based on the necessity of a very high dosage of D-limonene in preclinical studies(about 1000 mg/kg/day in human mammary tumor) that can cause notably importantside effects. The more active perillyl alcohol and the less low active doseshypothesized this molecule as a clinical candidate (Pattanayak et al. 2009; Chenet al. 2013; Fontes et al. 2013; Rani and Sharma 2013).

Safety Profile

A skin irritant. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidzing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.


Induction of kidney neoplasias has been observed in male rats of strains that have significant concentrations of the protein a2u-globulin (158a). This protein is not expressed in females or species other than the rat; therefore, limonene carcinogenicity appears to be limited to the male of specific strains of this species. Subcutaneous injection of the compound or its hydroperoxide into C57BL/6 mice decreased the incidence of dibenzopyrene- induced tumors appreciably. Given orally either 15 min or 1 h prior to nitrosodiethylamine, D-limonene reduced forestomach tumor formation by about 60% and pulmonary adenoma formation by about 35%. Reduction of cancer incidence and metastasis by limonene has also been reported in other systems (158b).

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