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크레졸

크레졸
크레졸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
1319-77-3
한글명:
크레졸
동의어(한글):
크레졸;혼합크레졸;크레솔;메틸페놀;바스실롤;옥시톨루엔;옥시톨루올;크레실산;테크레졸;트리크레솔;하이드록시메틸벤젠
상품명:
Cresol
동의어(영문):
krezol;Cresol;cresoli;Cresols;kresole;Cresylol;kresolen;tekresol;bacillol;CRESOL,CP
CBNumber:
CB5853043
분자식:
C7H8O
포뮬러 무게:
108.14
MOL 파일:
1319-77-3.mol

크레졸 속성

녹는점
-1--2°C
끓는 점
88-94°C
밀도
1.04
굴절률
1.5410 to 1.5440
인화점
82°C
저장 조건
Store at R.T.
냄새
Sweet, tarry.
수용성
1.932 g/100 mL
Merck
14,2579
노출 한도
TLV-TWA (skin) for all isomers, 5 ppm (~22 mg/m3 ) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA), 10-hour TWA 2.3 ppm (~10 mg/m3 ) (NIOSH), IDLH 250 ppm (NIOSH).
안정성
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
InChIKey
QTWJRLJHJPIABL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
1319-77-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Cresol (1319-77-3)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T
위험 카페고리 넘버 20-24/25-34-52/53-68
안전지침서 26-36/37/39-45-61-24/25
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2076 6.1/PG 2
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 GO5950000
F 고인화성물질 8-23
위험 등급 6.1(a)
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29071219
유해 물질 데이터 1319-77-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
기존화학 물질 KE-24791
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-268
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 유독물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 크레졸 및 이를 5% 이상 함유한 혼합물
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H341 유전적인 결함을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 생식세포 유전독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 생식세포 변이원성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
NFPA 704
2
3 0

크레졸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Professions that involve dealing with the combustion of coal or wood may be exposed to higher levels of cresols than the general population. Environmental tobacco smoke is also a source of cresol exposure. Average cresol concentration may vary between the brand and type of cigarette in a 45-cubic meter chamber after six cigarettes had been smoked (ranged from 0.17 to 3.9 mg m3), although low levels of cresol can be detected in certain foods and tap water, and these do not constitute major sources of exposure for most population. Detectable levels of cresols have been reported in several consumer products including tealeaves, tomatoes, and ketchup as well as butter, oil, and various cheeses. Exposure to children occurs by the same routes that affect adults. Children are likely to be exposed to cresols through inhalation of contaminated air from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, and secondhand smoke.

화학적 성질

Cresol,a clear amber to red liquid, also known as cresylic acid, methylphenol, and tricresol,is a mixture of three isomers of cresol derived from coaltar and is used in making plastics, ore flotation, refining petroleum, and as a strong antiseptic. Orthocresol is a color less solid with a melting point of 30 °C(86 OF) that is soluble in alcohol,but only slightly soluble in water. It is used in making disinfectants and as a plasticizer. Metacresol is a colorless liquid used in the manufacture of photographic developers,printing inks, and paint removers.It is also used as a leather preservative.The least soluble isomer, paracresol, is a colorless solid and is used in the production of dyes and pharmaceuticals.

화학적 성질

Cresol is a mixture of the three isomeric cresols, o-, m-, and p-cresol. Cresols are slightly soluble in water. m-Isomer: Colorless or yellow liquid with characteristic odor.

화학적 성질

Cresol consists of a mixture of cresol isomers, predominantly mcresol,and other phenols obtained from coaltar or petroleum.It is a colorless,yellowish to pale brownish-yellow,or pink-colored liquid, with a characteristic odor similar to phenol but more tarlike. An aqueous solution has a pungent taste.

용도

Disinfectant, phenolic resins, tricresyl phosphate, ore flotation, textile scouring agent, organic intermediate, manufacture of salicylaldehyde, coumarin, and herbicides, surfactant, synthetic food flavors (para isomer only).

용도

Cresol is used in disinfectants and fumigants,in the manufacture of synthetic resins, inphotographic developers and explosives.

용도

Cresols (mixtures of the ortho-, meta-, and para-isomers) are synthesized by sulfonation or oxidation of toluene compounds or can be derived from coal tar and petroleum. Commercial grade crude cresol is generally a mixture of 20% o-cresol, 40% m-cresol, and 30% p-cresol. Phenol and xylenols are often found as minor contaminants. Manufacture of synthetic resins, tricresyl phosphate, salicylaldehyde, coumarin, and herbicides employ cresols. Degreasing compounds in textile scouring, paintbrush cleaners as well as fumigants in photographic developers, and explosives contains cresols. Cresols are also often used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antiparasitic agents in veterinary medicine. Estimated breakdown of cresol and cresylic acid use is 20% phenolic resins, 20% wire enamel solvents, 10% agricultural chemicals, 5% phosphate esters, 5% disinfectants and cleaning compounds, 5% ore flotation, and 25% miscellaneous purposes. Overall, use of cresols as antimicrobial outweighs any other property.

정의

A mixture of isomers obtained from coal tar or petroleum.

생산 방법

Cresol may be obtained from coal tar or prepared synthetically by either sulfonation or oxidation of toluene.

일반 설명

Colorless to yellow liquids with a tarry odor. Flash point 178°F. Insoluble in water. Density 8.7 lb / gal. Poisonous by ingestion and skin absorption and corrosive to skin.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Mixing CRESOL in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, nitric acid, oleum, [NFPA 1991].

위험도

Irritant, corrosive to skin and mucous membranes, absorbed via skin. Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

LIQUID: Will burn skin and eyes. Harmful if swallowed.

건강위험

The toxic actions of cresol are similar tothose of phenol. The para-isomer is somewhat more toxic than the other two isomers.The toxic symptoms are weakness, confu-sion, depression of the central nervous system, dyspnea, and respiratory failure. It isan irritant to the eyes and skin. Skin con-tact can cause burn and dermatitis. Chroniceffects are gastrointestinal disorders, nervousdisorders, tremor, confusion, skin eruptions,oliguria, jaundice, and liver damage. SkinLD50 values in rats for o-, m-, and p-phenolsare 620, 1100, and 750 mg/kg, respectively.
Dietz and Mulligan (1988a,b) have investigated the subchronic toxicity of meta- andpara-cresols in Sprague-Dawley rats after13 weeks of oral gavage. There was noadverse effects from a dose of 50 mg/kg/day.High dose levels of 150 mg/kg/day producedcentral nervous system depression and reduction of body weight gain. p-Cresol was foundto be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic, inducinga mild anemic effect. The acute toxicity ofmethyl phenols did not show any relationshipto the number or position of methyl groupson the phenol nucleus. In an acute toxicitystudy on Daphnia magna, Devillers (1988)found cresols to be more toxic than phenol,xylenols, and trimethylphenols.

화재위험

Combustible. POISONOUS GASES MAY BE PRODUCED IN FIRE. Flammable toxic vapors given off in a fire. Sealed closed containers can build up pressure if exposed to heat.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Cresol is used at 0.15-0.3% concentration as an antimicrobial preservative in intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injectable pharmaceutical formulations. It is also used as a preservative in some topical formulations and as a disinfectant. Cresol is not suitable as a preservative for preparations that are to be freeze-dried.

Safety

Reports of adverse reactions to cresol are generally associated with the use of either the bulk material or cresol-based disinfectants, which may contain up to 50% cresol, rather than for its use as a preservative. However, a recent case of cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to the m-cresol component of an insulin formulation detected via intradermal and patch testing has been reported.
Cresol is similar to phenol although it is less caustic and toxic. However, cresol is sufficiently caustic to be unsuitable for skin and wound disinfection. In studies in rabbits, cresol was found to be metabolized and excreted primarily as the glucuronide.
A patient has survived ingestion of 12g of cresol though with severe adverse effects.
LD50 (mouse, oral): 0.76g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, skin): 2g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.45g/kg

잠재적 노출

Cresol is used as a disinfectant and fumigant; as an ore flotation agent, and as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals, dyes, plastics, and antioxidants. A mixture of isomers is generally used; the concentrations of the components are determined by the source of the cresol.

환경귀착

It acts by disruption of the cell membrane by denaturation of proteins and enzymes of the cell.

저장

Cresol and aqueous cresol solutions darken in color with age and on exposure to air and light. Cresol should be stored in a well-closed container, protected from light, in a cool, dry place.

운송 방법

UN2076 Cresols, liquid, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, 8-Corrosive material. UN3455 Cresols, solid, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1- Poisonous materials, 8-Corrosive material.

Toxicity evaluation

Cresol’s production and use as a solvent, disinfectant, and chemical intermediate in the production of synthetic resins may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Cresols are also released to the environment through automobile exhaust and tobacco smoke. Cresols are a group of widely distributed natural compounds formed as metabolites of microbial activity and excreted in the urine of mammals. Cresols occur in various plant lipid and oil constituents. If released to air, an extrapolated vapor pressure range of 0.11–0.299 mm Hg at 25°C for the various isomers indicates cresols will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase cresols will be degraded in the atmosphere by photochemical reaction and produce hydroxyl radicals. The half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 6–9 h. If released to soil, cresols are expected to have high mobility based upon Koc values of 22–49 measured in soil. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to occur slowly based upon Henry’s Law constants. Cresols are not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon the extrapolated vapor pressure range. Cresols biodegrade quickly in soils with half-lives of few days. If released into water, cresols do not adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in the water. Cresols biodegrade quickly in water with half-lives of severaldays to few weeks. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to occur slowly based upon the range of Henry’s Law constants for the various isomers. Estimated volatilization halflives for a model river and model lake range from 21 to 29 and 235–327 days, respectively. Cresols are not expected to undergo hydrolysis since they lack functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. Direct photolysis in sunlit surface occurs and products occur at a much slower rate than biodegradation. Log bioconcentration factor values of 1.3 and 1.03 measured in ide and zebrafish respectively suggests that the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low.

비 호환성

Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong acids; oxidizers, alkalies, aliphatic amines; amides, chlorosulfonic acid; oleum. Decomposes on heating, producing strong acids and bases, causing fire and explosion hazard. Liquid attacks some plastics and rubber. Attacks many metals.

비 호환성

Cresol has been reported to be incompatible with chlorpromazine. Antimicrobial activity is reduced in the presence of nonionic surfactants.

폐기물 처리

Wastewaters may be subjected to biological treatment. Concentrations may be further reduced by ozone treatment. High concentration wastes may be destroyed in special waste incinerators.

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM, IV, intradermal, and SC injections). Included in parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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