Germicide

Germicide refers to chemicals that can kill or inhibit the bacteria or fungi. Germicide can kill or inhibit the growth and proliferation of pathogens at both outside the plant or inside the plants via the toxicity of the agents. Some kinds of germicides are non-toxic to the fungi, but can interfere with the process of pathogenic process of fungus or affect the interaction of pathogen – host, improving the plant defenses.

In the end of 18th century to the 1850s, people strengthened the research on the organic germicide in order to seek the substitutes of copper and mercury preparations. The event of the greatest impact should be in 1934 when W. H. Tisdale reported the bactericidal effect of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives. This discovery opened up a new era of organic compounds as germicide. Following the discovery of bactericidal activity of ziram, ferbam, and thiram, in 1935, DuPont had further found the germicidal activity of sodium dithane in the dithane class. In 1943, people had put it into production. After 1960s, dithiocarbamate salt germicide had gradually developed into a class of germicide of the world's largest production.

To date, there are nearly 300 kinds of organic germicides that have been commercialized. Substituted benzene type contains PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, chlorothalonil and dozens of other varieties. Trichloromethylthio type germicide mainly contains folpet and captan. After 1950s, there are a lot of varieties having achieved practical application, including organic mercury and quinones, organic tin, organic phosphorus and agricultural antibiotics. In 1969 and 1970, the ethyl thiophanate and methyl thiophanate developed by Nippon Soda Company (Japan) are two best varieties with the latter one especially obtaining wide applications on fruit trees and vegetables. In the 1960s, Japan, during the development of germicide against rice sheath blight, had successfully launched organic arsenic germicides such as asomate and neoasozin. It is particularly worth mentioning that there have been a number of excellent germicides in the heterocyclic fungicides.

The breakthrough of systemic germicide was actually started from the discovery of the systemic germicidal effect of carboxin made by the Uniroyal Company in 1960s. In 1966, carboxin and oxycarboxin had been simultaneously subject to commercialization. Later, it had successively appeared of benomyl, dodecyl morpholine, thiophanate-methyl, and triforine, etc. In 1970s, triazole-class systemic germicide with triadimefon as the representative had attracted broad attention.

However, the above germicides have very poor efficacy in treating many kinds of important diseases caused by oomycete. In 1977, Ciba-Geigy Company (Switzerland) had successfully developed systemic germicide, metalaxyl with excellent efficacy in prevention of disease caused by oomycete. Metalaxyl is characterized by high efficacy, small usage amount and having bidirectional conduction properties, making the systemic germicide enter into a new stage of development. China is one of the earliest countries that had applied the elements and inorganic agents for control of plant diseases. This had been documented (see the history of pesticide development) in a variety of well-known ancient writings. In 1950s, the most widely used germicides are still inorganic copper and mercury preparations.

Substituted benzene such as PCNB has also been applied. In 1960s dithiocarbamate salts and organic arsenic preparations had been widely used. In 1970s, it had been developed of carbendazim, and had developed into one of the germicide varieties with the largest production amount in China. Meanwhile, China's agricultural antibiotic, Jinggangmycin had also obtained widespread application in controlling the Rice Sheath Blight. Since the 1980s, many excellent germicides including organicphosphorus kitazine, fosetyl; heterocyclic germicides such as triadimefon, tricyclazole and isoprothiolane; substituted benzenes germicides such as methyl thiophanate, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl have been popularized.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Propiconazole Propiconazole 60207-90-1 C15H17Cl2N3O2
Metham sodium Metham sodium 137-42-8 C2H4NNaS2
Flutriafol Flutriafol 76674-21-0 C16H13F2N3O
Tebuconazole Tebuconazole 107534-96-3 C16H22ClN3O
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 96-12-8 C3H5Br2Cl
Penconazole Penconazole 66246-88-6 C13H15Cl2N3
Azoxystrobin Azoxystrobin 131860-33-8 C22H17N3O5
Cyproconazole Cyproconazole 94361-06-5 C15H18ClN3O
Trifloxystrobin Trifloxystrobin 141517-21-7 C20H19F3N2O4
Isothiazolinones Isothiazolinones 26172-55-4 C4H4ClNOS
4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-isothiazolone 4,5-Dichloro-2-octyl-isothiazolone 64359-81-5 C11H17Cl2NOS
Propamocarb Propamocarb 24579-73-5 C9H20N2O2
Difenoconazole Difenoconazole 119446-68-3 C19H17Cl2N3O3
Myclobutanil Myclobutanil 88671-89-0 C15H17ClN4
Hexaconazole Hexaconazole 79983-71-4 C14H17Cl2N3O
Kresoxim-methyl Kresoxim-methyl 143390-89-0 C18H19NO4
Imidazole Imidazole 288-32-4 C3H4N2
4,6-Dichloropyrimidine 4,6-Dichloropyrimidine 1193-21-1 C4H2Cl2N2
ZHONGSHENGMYCIN ZHONGSHENGMYCIN C19H34O8N8
1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone 66346-01-8 C13H17ClO
DICHLOFLUANID DICHLOFLUANID 1085-98-9 C9H11Cl2FN2O2S2
4-BROMO-1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE 4-BROMO-1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE 25676-75-9 C4H5BrN2
Fluazinam Fluazinam 79622-59-6 C13H4Cl2F6N4O4
Benzimidazole Benzimidazole 51-17-2 C7H6N2
N-((4-Chlorophenyl)methyl)-N-cyclopentyl-N'-phenylurea N-((4-Chlorophenyl)methyl)-N-cyclopentyl-N'-phenylurea 66063-05-6 C19H21ClN2O
Phthalide Phthalide 87-41-2 C8H6O2
Chlorothalonil Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 C8Cl4N2
1,2-Pentanediol 1,2-Pentanediol 5343-92-0 C5H12O2
THIOPHANAT-ETHYL THIOPHANAT-ETHYL 23564-06-9 C14H18N4O4S2
5-IODO-2-METHYLBENZIMIDAZOLE 5-IODO-2-METHYLBENZIMIDAZOLE 2818-70-4 C8H7IN2
Imazalil sulfate Imazalil sulfate 58594-72-2 C14H14Cl2N2O.H2O4S
Mepronil Mepronil 55814-41-0 C17H19NO2
FLUDIOXONIL FLUDIOXONIL 131341-86-1 C12H6F2N2O2
Cymoxanil Cymoxanil 57966-95-7 C7H10N4O3
Tecloftalam Tecloftalam 76280-91-6 C14H5Cl6NO3
QUINOXYFEN QUINOXYFEN 124495-18-7 C15H8Cl2FNO
Epoxiconazol Epoxiconazol 106325-08-0 C17H13ClFN3O
Benalaxyl Benalaxyl 71626-11-4 C20H23NO3
Tridemorph Tridemorph 24602-86-6 C19H39NO
Flusilazole Flusilazole 85509-19-9 C16H15F2N3Si
2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol 2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol 52-51-7 C3H6BrNO4
Propylene glycol Propylene glycol 57-55-6 C3H8O2
BENTHIAVALICARB-ISOPROPYL BENTHIAVALICARB-ISOPROPYL
Climbazole Climbazole 38083-17-9 C15H17ClN2O2
PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE PHENYLMERCURIC CHLORIDE 100-56-1 C6H5ClHg
Dithiaanthraquinone-2,3-dinitrile Dithiaanthraquinone-2,3-dinitrile 3347-22-6 C14H4N2O2S2
5-Methoxy-2-mercaptobenzimidazole 5-Methoxy-2-mercaptobenzimidazole 37052-78-1 C8H8N2OS
DBDCB DBDCB 35691-65-7 C6H6Br2N2
Propineb Propineb 12071-83-9 C5H10N2S4
2,4-Dichlorobenzyl chloride 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl chloride 94-99-5 C7H5Cl3
ETHIRIMOL ETHIRIMOL 23947-60-6 C11H19N3O
2-(Thiocyanatomethylthio)benzothiazole 2-(Thiocyanatomethylthio)benzothiazole 21564-17-0 C9H6N2S3
TECNAZENE TECNAZENE 117-18-0 C6HCl4NO2
CAPTAFOL CAPTAFOL 2425-06-1 C10H9Cl4NO2S
PYROQUILON PYROQUILON 57369-32-1 C11H11NO
DICLOMEZINE DICLOMEZINE 62865-36-5 C11H8Cl2N2O
Zinc bis dimethyldithiocarbamate Zinc bis dimethyldithiocarbamate 137-30-4 C6H12N2S4Zn1
Fenpropidin Fenpropidin 67306-00-7 C19H31N
2',4'-Dichlorovalerophenone 2',4'-Dichlorovalerophenone 61023-66-3 C11H12Cl2O
Hymexazol Hymexazol 10004-44-1 C4H5NO2
PYRIFENOX PYRIFENOX 88283-41-4 C14H12Cl2N2O
Ofurace Ofurace 58810-48-3 C14H16ClNO3
Fluotrimazol Fluotrimazol 31251-03-3 C22H16F3N3
THIFLUZAMIDE THIFLUZAMIDE 130000-40-7 C13H6Br2F6N2O2S
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin 1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin 118-52-5 C5H6Cl2N2O2
METIRAM METIRAM 9006-42-2 C12H12N6S16Zn
FENPROPIMORPH FENPROPIMORPH 67306-03-0 C20H33NO
NUARIMOL NUARIMOL 63284-71-9 C17H12ClFN2O
TRIFLUMIZOLE TRIFLUMIZOLE 68694-11-1 C15H15ClF3N3O
PYRAZOPHOS PYRAZOPHOS 13457-18-6 C14H20N3O5PS
TOLYLFLUANID TOLYLFLUANID 731-27-1 C10H13Cl2FN2O2S2
CADUSAFOS CADUSAFOS 95465-99-9 C10H23O2PS2
IMIBENCONAZOLE IMIBENCONAZOLE 86598-92-7 C17H13Cl3N4S
Boscalid Boscalid 188425-85-6 C18H12Cl2N2O
Pyrimethanil Pyrimethanil 53112-28-0 C12H13N3
Diclobutrazol Diclobutrazol 75736-33-3 C15H19Cl2N3O
2,2-Dibromo-2-nitroethanol 2,2-Dibromo-2-nitroethanol 69094-18-4 C2H3Br2NO3
CYAZOFAMID CYAZOFAMID 120116-88-3 C13H13ClN4O2S
Fenpropimorph Fenpropimorph 67564-91-4 C20H33NO
2,6-Dichloro-4-methylphenol 2,6-Dichloro-4-methylphenol 2432-12-4 C7H6Cl2O
BROMUCONAZOLE BROMUCONAZOLE 116255-48-2 C13H12BrCl2N3O
FENBUCONAZOLE FENBUCONAZOLE 114369-43-6 C19H17ClN4
Tricyclazole Tricyclazole 41814-78-2 C9H7N3S
Triadimefon Triadimefon 43121-43-3 C14H16ClN3O2
DITALIMFOS DITALIMFOS 5131-24-8 C12H14NO4PS
HEXACHLOROBENZENE 13C6 HEXACHLOROBENZENE 13C6 93952-14-8 C6Cl6
O-CRESOL-D8 O-CRESOL-D8 203645-65-2 C7D8O
OXYCARBOXIN OXYCARBOXIN 5259-88-1 C12H13NO4S
Famoxadone Famoxadone 131807-57-3 C22H18N2O4
Bitertanol Bitertanol 55179-31-2 C20H23N3O2
FENPICLONIL FENPICLONIL 74738-17-3 C11H6Cl2N2
IMINOCTADINE TRIACETATE IMINOCTADINE TRIACETATE 39202-40-9 C24H53N7O6
Pentachlorophenol Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 C6HCl5O
TRIAZOXIDE TRIAZOXIDE 72459-58-6 C10H6ClN5O
Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide 137-26-8 C6H12N2S4
Sodium 2-biphenylate Sodium 2-biphenylate 132-27-4 C12H9NaO
Vitavax Vitavax 5234-68-4 C12H13NO2S
FLUTOLANIL FLUTOLANIL 66332-96-5 C17H16F3NO2
1,3-THIAZOLIDIN-2-ONE 1,3-THIAZOLIDIN-2-ONE 2682-49-7 C3H5NOS
3,4'-Dichlorodiphenyl ether 3,4'-Dichlorodiphenyl ether 6842-62-2 C12H8Cl2O
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