Ketones spices

Organic compounds with both ends of carbonyl connected with the hydrocarbon are called ketone. When the hydrocarbon group connected to both ends of the carbonyl group is aliphatic hydrocarbyl group, the compound belongs to aliphatic ketone; when there is at least one end of the carbonyl group connected with aromatic hydrocarbon group, the compound is called aromatic ketone. According to the number of carbonyl groups contained in the molecule, ketones can be divided into monoketone and diketones. Saturated monoaldehyde and ketone having the same number of carbon atoms are isomers with each other.
There are nearly 100 kinds of ketones spices with the chemical properties being generally stable but with varying degree of color change. Among them, aliphatic ketone has strong aroma with some individual species being used in only a small amount in the formulation of daily flavor. Aromatic ketones are only used in small quantities in individual flavors. Among those cyclic ketones consisting of 5 or 6 carbons or multiple carbons, widely used varieties include ionone, methyl ionone and damascone. Macrocyclic ketone containing more than 15 carbons is a composition of the natural animal spices. However, owning to the high price of synthetic products, it is only used at high-grade perfume fragrance.

Lower aliphatic ketones (both hydrocarbon groups are aliphatic hydrocarbons) are liquid of special odor smell. High-grade ketones are more fragrant, being easily soluble in water, ether and ethanol. With the increase in carbon number, they have decreased solubility but increased viscosity. Ketones of more than six carbon atoms are generally insoluble in water; higher aliphatic ketones are solids; aromatic ketones (both hydrocarbon groups are aromatic) are mostly solids. The simplest mono-ketone is acetone; the simplest mono-aromatic ketone is benzophenone. Lower ketone has a lower boiling point than alcohol of similar relative molecular mass, which is mainly due to hydrogen bonds can’t form between ketone molecules, thus having no association effect. But the boiling point of the higher ketone is gradually close to that of the alcohol of similar relative molecular mass.

Ketone has relatively active chemical activity, this is because the carbon-oxygen double bond of carbonyl group contains one α bond and one π bond, being an unsaturated polar bond. The oxygen atom has a stronger negative charge than the carbon, thus strongly attracting electron, enhancing the density of the electronic cloud around the oxygen atom while carbon atom has lower electronic cloud density, thus leading to a certain polarity with carbon atoms become positive carbon and oxygen atoms become negative oxygen ions. Compare those two, the former one is more active than the latter one, and is susceptible to the attack of nucleophilic reagents carrying charges or lone electron pair, inducing the occurrence of addition reaction, so the addition of ketones is mostly nucleophilic addition. For example, ketone and nucleophiles such as HCN, NH2OH and NH2NH2 can easily have additions reaction and these addition reactions are mostly reversible.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Hydroxyacetone Hydroxyacetone 116-09-6 C3H6O2
3-Heptanone 3-Heptanone 106-35-4 C7H14O
alpha-Ionone alpha-Ionone 127-41-3 C13H20O
L(-)-Carvone L(-)-Carvone 6485-40-1 C10H14O
2-Nonanone 2-Nonanone 821-55-6 C9H18O
3,4-Hexanedione 3,4-Hexanedione 4437-51-8 C6H10O2
2-Pentyl-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one 2-Pentyl-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one 1128-08-1 C11H18O
4-Heptanone 4-Heptanone 123-19-3 C7H14O
2-Octanone 2-Octanone 111-13-7 C8H16O
2-Tridecanone 2-Tridecanone 593-08-8 C13H26O
2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone 2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone 14400-67-0 C6H8O2
2,3-Pentanedione 2,3-Pentanedione 600-14-6 C5H8O2
β-Lonone β-Lonone 79-77-6 C13H20O
Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone 13679-85-1 C5H8OS
D(+)-Carvone D(+)-Carvone 2244-16-8 C10H14O
2,6,6-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione 2,6,6-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione 1125-21-9 C9H12O2
2-Heptanone 2-Heptanone 110-43-0 C7H14O
3-Hexanone 3-Hexanone 589-38-8 C6H12O
Vanillin isobutyrate Vanillin isobutyrate 20665-85-4 C12H14O4
Jasmone Jasmone 488-10-8 C11H16O
Piperonyl acetone Piperonyl acetone 55418-52-5 C11H12O3
Methyl cyclopentenolone Methyl cyclopentenolone 80-71-7 C6H8O2
4'-Methoxyacetophenone 4'-Methoxyacetophenone 100-06-1 C9H10O2
Dimedone Dimedone 126-81-8 C8H12O2
2,3-HEXANEDIONE 2,3-HEXANEDIONE 3848-24-6 C6H10O2
(-)-FENCHONE (-)-FENCHONE 7787-20-4 C10H16O
Acetyl cedrene Acetyl cedrene 32388-55-9 C17H26O
Dimeric mercapto propanone Dimeric mercapto propanone 55704-78-4 C6H12O2S2
Thenoyltrifluoroacetone Thenoyltrifluoroacetone 326-91-0 C8H5F3O2S
2-N-HEPTYLCYCLOPENTANONE 2-N-HEPTYLCYCLOPENTANONE 137-03-1 C12H22O
4-tert-Butylcyclohexanone 4-tert-Butylcyclohexanone 98-53-3 C10H18O
3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohexane-1,2-dione 3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohexane-1,2-dione 57696-89-6 C9H14O2
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one 110-93-0 C8H14O
ALPHA-ISO-METHYLIONONE ALPHA-ISO-METHYLIONONE 127-51-5 C14H22O
2-Undecanone 2-Undecanone 112-12-9 C11H22O
3,4-Dimethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione 3,4-Dimethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione 13494-06-9 C7H10O2
Benzophenone Benzophenone 119-61-9 C13H10O
Geranylacetone Geranylacetone 3796-70-1 C13H22O
4'-Methylacetophenone 4'-Methylacetophenone 122-00-9 C9H10O
Benzylacetone Benzylacetone 2550-26-7 C10H12O
3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one 21835-01-8 C7H10O2
Ethyl vinyl ketone Ethyl vinyl ketone 1629-58-9 C5H8O
2,2,4,4,6,6-Hexamethyl-S-trithiane 2,2,4,4,6,6-Hexamethyl-S-trithiane 828-26-2 C9H18S3
4-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone 104-20-1 C11H14O2
1-Octen-3-one 1-Octen-3-one 4312-99-6 C8H14O
Tetrahydrothiophen-3-one Tetrahydrothiophen-3-one 1003-04-9 C4H6OS
5-Hydroxy-4-octanone 5-Hydroxy-4-octanone 496-77-5 C8H16O2
2-Pentanone 2-Pentanone 107-87-9 C5H10O
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone 2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone 108-83-8 C9H18O
6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one 6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one 27593-23-3 C10H14O2
Raspberry Ketone Raspberry Ketone 5471-51-2 C10H12O2
3',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 3',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 39151-19-4 C10H12O3
2,3-HEPTANEDIONE 2,3-HEPTANEDIONE 96-04-8 C7H12O2
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-3-one 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-3-one 3188-00-9 C5H8O2
Damascenone Damascenone 23696-85-7 C13H18O
1,3-Diphenylacetone 1,3-Diphenylacetone 102-04-5 C15H14O
4-HEXEN-3-ONE 4-HEXEN-3-ONE 2497-21-4 C6H10O
ALLYL IONONE ALLYL IONONE 79-78-7 C16H24O
4'-BROMO-3'-NITROACETOPHENONE 4'-BROMO-3'-NITROACETOPHENONE 18640-58-9 C8H6BrNO3
4'-Fluoropropiophenone 4'-Fluoropropiophenone 456-03-1 C9H9FO
(+)-DIHYDROCARVONE (+)-DIHYDROCARVONE 7764-50-3 C10H16O
4-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-3-BUTEN-2-ONE 4-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-3-BUTEN-2-ONE 1080-12-2 C11H12O3
CYCLOPENTYL PHENYL KETONE CYCLOPENTYL PHENYL KETONE 5422-88-8 C12H14O
1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-1-penten-3-one 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-1-penten-3-one 104-27-8 C12H14O2
(+)-PULEGONE (+)-PULEGONE 89-82-7 C10H16O
NOOTKATONE NOOTKATONE 4674-50-4 C15H22O
Celery ketone Celery ketone 3720-16-9 C10H16O
6-METHYL-3,5-HEPTADIEN-2-ONE 6-METHYL-3,5-HEPTADIEN-2-ONE 1604-28-0 C8H12O
3-ACETOXY-2-BUTANONE 3-ACETOXY-2-BUTANONE 4906-24-5 C6H10O3
CASHMERAN CASHMERAN 33704-61-9 C14H22O
(-)-ALPHA-CEDRENE (-)-ALPHA-CEDRENE 469-61-4 C15H24
Cedrenol Cedrenol 28231-03-0 C15H24O
3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE-1,2-DIONE 3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE-1,2-DIONE 4883-60-7 C9H14O2
3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione 13494-07-0 C7H10O2
Isolongifolone Isolongifolone 23787-90-8 C15H24O
5-METHYL-3-HEXEN-2-ONE 5-METHYL-3-HEXEN-2-ONE 5166-53-0 C7H12O
4-METHYLPHENYLACETONE 4-METHYLPHENYLACETONE 2096-86-8 C10H12O
10-NONADECANONE 10-NONADECANONE 504-57-4 C19H38O
4,4'-DIBROMOBENZIL 4,4'-DIBROMOBENZIL 35578-47-3 C14H8Br2O2
3-HEPTEN-2-ONE 3-HEPTEN-2-ONE 1119-44-4 C7H12O
4-Chlorophenylacetone 4-Chlorophenylacetone 5586-88-9 C9H9ClO
4-Hydroxyphenylacetone 4-Hydroxyphenylacetone 770-39-8 C9H10O2
2-N-HEXYLCYCLOPENTANONE 2-N-HEXYLCYCLOPENTANONE 13074-65-2 C11H20O
(E)-1-(2,6,6-TRIMETHYL-CYCLOHEX-2-ENYL)-BUT-2-EN-1-ONE (E)-1-(2,6,6-TRIMETHYL-CYCLOHEX-2-ENYL)-BUT-2-EN-1-ONE 24720-09-0 C13H20O
Alpha-Damascone Alpha-Damascone 43052-87-5 C13H20O
METHYLIONONE METHYLIONONE 1335-46-2 C14H22O
CEDRENE, (-)-alpha-(SG) CEDRENE, (-)-alpha-(SG)
BETA-N-METHYLIONONE BETA-N-METHYLIONONE 127-43-5 C14H22O
3-CHLOROPHENYLACETONE 3-CHLOROPHENYLACETONE 14123-60-5 C9H9ClO
4,4,5A-TRIMETHYLPERHYDRO-1-BENZOXIREN-2-ONE 4,4,5A-TRIMETHYLPERHYDRO-1-BENZOXIREN-2-ONE 10276-21-8 C9H14O2
2-N-PENTYLCYCLOPENTANONE 2-N-PENTYLCYCLOPENTANONE 4819-67-4 C10H18O
3-METHOXYPHENYLACETONE 3-METHOXYPHENYLACETONE 3027-13-2 C10H12O2
1-ACETAMIDO-ACETONE 1-ACETAMIDO-ACETONE 7737-16-8 C5H9NO2
ISOJASMONE ISOJASMONE 95-41-0 C11H18O
(+)-BETA-CEDRENE (+)-BETA-CEDRENE 546-28-1 C15H24
AMBRETTOLIDE AMBRETTOLIDE 7779-50-2 C16H28O2
IRONE IRONE 79-69-6 C14H22O
ISOMENTHONE ISOMENTHONE 491-07-6 C10H18O
1,3-DIBROMOACETONE 1,3-DIBROMOACETONE 816-39-7 C3H4Br2O
N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-chloro-N-methylacetamide  N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-chloro-N-methylacetamide 6021-21-2 C16H13Cl2NO2
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