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Silicon

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Company Name: Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
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Products Intro: Product Name:Silicon
CAS:7440-21-3
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1kg,5kg,10kg
Company Name: Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
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Products Intro: CAS:7440-21-3
Purity:99% Package:500G;1KG;5KG;25KG
Company Name: Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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Products Intro: Product Name:Silicon
CAS:7440-21-3
Company Name: career henan chemical co
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Products Intro: Product Name:Silicon
CAS:7440-21-3
Purity:99% Package:1kg;1USD
Company Name: Forsman Scientific ( Beijing ) Co., Ltd.  Gold
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Products Intro: Product Name:Silicon powder (Si)
CAS:7440-21-3
Purity:1μm Package:1kg;5kg

Lastest Price from Silicon manufacturers

  • Silicon
  • US $1.00 / kg
  • 2018-12-20
  • CAS:7440-21-3
  • Min. Order: 1kg
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: Customized
Silicon Basic information
Description Uses Production Methods
Product Name:Silicon
Synonyms:SIMP AX20;SILICON ATOMIC ABSORPTION SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD;SILICON ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD;SILICON ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD SOLUTION;SILICON ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY STANDARD;SILICON ICP/DCP STANDARD;SILICON ICP STANDARD;SILICON PLASMA EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STANDARD
CAS:7440-21-3
MF:H4Si
MW:32.12
EINECS:231-130-8
Product Categories:SiliconNanomaterials;14: Si;Nanomaterials;Nanoparticles: Metals and Metal AlloysMetal and Ceramic Science;Nanopowders and Nanoparticle Dispersions;Pure ElementsMetal and Ceramic Science;Inorganics;Electronic Chemicals;Electronic Materials;Materials Science;Micro/Nanoelectronics;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;metal or element;Fine chemical
Mol File:7440-21-3.mol
Silicon Structure
Silicon Chemical Properties
Melting point 1410 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 2355 °C(lit.)
density 2.33 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
storage temp. Flammables area
form powder
color White
PH13.5 (H2O, 20°C)
Water Solubility INSOLUBLE
Sensitive Air Sensitive
Merck 13,8565
Stability:Stable. Fine powder is highly flammable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, bases, carbonates, alkali metals, lead and aluminium oxides, halogens, carbides, formic acid.
CAS DataBase Reference7440-21-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceSilicon(7440-21-3)
EPA Substance Registry SystemSilicon(7440-21-3)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T,F
Risk Statements 11
Safety Statements 26-36/37-45-7/9-33-16-36
RIDADR UN 2922 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 2
RTECS VW0400000
TSCA Yes
HS Code 3822 00 00
HazardClass 4.1
PackingGroup III
Hazardous Substances Data7440-21-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Silicon Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionGay Lussac and Thenard in 1809 obtained very impure amorphous silicon by passing silicon tetrafluoride over heated potassium. Berzelius in 1823 prepared elemental silicon in high purity by the same method. He also obtained silicon by heating potassium fluosilicate with potassium metal. Deville produced crystalline silicon in 1854 by electrolysis of a molten mixture of impure sodium aluminum chloride containing 10% silicon and a small quantity of aluminum.
Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth after oxygen. It occurs in nature combined with oxygen in various forms of silica and silicates. Silicates have complex structures consisting of SiO4 tetrahedral structural units incorporated to a number of metals. About 90% of the earth’s crust is made up of silica and naturally-occurring silicates. Silicon is never found in nature in free elemental form. Among all elements silicon forms the third largest number of compounds after hydrogen and carbon. There are well over 1,000 natural silicates including clay, mica, feldspar, granite, asbestos, and hornblende. Such natural silicates have structural units containing orthosilicates, SiO44– , pyrosilicates Si2O76– and other complex structural units, such as, (SiO3)n2n– that have hexagonal rings arranged in chains or pyroxenes (SiO32– )n and amphiboles, (Si4O116– )n in infinite chains. Such natural silicates include common minerals such as tremolite, Ca2Mg5(OH)2Si8O22; diopside, CaMg(SiO3)2; kaolin, H8Al4Si4O18; montmorillonite, H2Al2Si4O12; talc, Mg3[(OH)2 SiO10]; muscovite ( a colorless form of mica), H2KAl3(SiO4)3; hemimorphite, Zn4(OH)2Si2O7•H2O; beryl, Be3Al2Si6O18; zircon, ZrSiO4; benitoite, BaTiSi3O9; feldspars, KAlSi3O8; zeolites, Na2O•2Al2O3•5SiO2•5H2O; nephrite, Ca(Mg,Fe)3(SiO3)4; enstatite, (MgSiO3)n; serpentine, H4Mg3Si2O9; jadeite, NaAl(SiO3)2; topaz, Al2SiO4F2; and tourmaline, (H,Li,K,Na)9 Al3(BOH)2Si4O19. Many precious gemstones are silicate based. Such gems include beryl, emerald, aquamarine, morganite, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, amazon stone and moonstone.
UsesElemental silicon has some of the most important applications in this electronic age. One of the major applications is in computer chips. The single crystals of crystalline silicon are used for solid-state or semiconductor devices. Silicon of hyperpurity, doped with trace elements, such as boron, phosphorus, arsenic, and gallium is one of the best semiconductors. They are used in transistors, power rectifiers, diodes and solar cells. Silicon rectifiers are most efficient in converting a-c to d-c electricity. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon converts solar energy into electricity.
Production MethodsElemental silicon is produced commercially by heating silica with carbon (coke) in an electric furnace using carbon electrodes:
SILICON 819SiO2 + C → Si + CO2
The product obtained is about 96 to 98% purity. Repeated leaching forms about 99.7% purified product. Alternatively, lower grade silicon is converted to its halide or halosilane, which is then reduced with a high purity reducing agent. Hyperpure silicon for semiconductor applications can be made by several methods. Such processes include reduction of silicon tetrachloride with highly pure zinc:
SiCl4 + 2Zn → Si + 2ZnCl2
or by reducing trichlorosilane with hydrogen at 1,150°C using a silicon filament on which deposition of silicon occurs:
SiHCl3 + H2 → Si + 3HCl
or by heating silane or silicon tetraiodide to elevated temperatures:
SiH4 → Si + 2H2
SiI4 → Si + 2I2
or by reducing silicon tetrafluoride with sodium:
SiF4 + 4Na → Si + 4 NaF
Several processes are known to achieve growth of single crystals of silicon for semiconductors. One such method developed in 1918 is known as Czocharlski process or Teal-Little method. The process involves dipping a single crystal “seed” into molten silicon held at the melting point. The seed is properly oriented by rotation and the molten silicon is allowed to freeze gradually over it and the seed is slowly withdrawn. The growth rate is controlled by melt temperature and heat losses from the crystal. Growth rates are usually in the range of 2.5 cm/hour but can vary with diameter. Crystals of varying sizes have been produced by this method. The common sizes of crystals usually range between 75 to 125 mm in diameter and about 100 cm long. Pure quartz crucibles or silicon pedestals are employed to carry out single crystal’s growth.
Chemical PropertiesSilicon is a nonmetallic element which is known as silicon metal. Not occur freely in nature, but is found in silicon dioxide (silica) and in various silicates. It is a steel-gray crystalline solid or a black-brown amorphous material.
Chemical Propertiesgrey lustrous solid or grey powder
HistoryDavy in 1800 thought silica to be a compound and not an element; later in 1811, Gay Lussac and Thenard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride. Berzelius, generally credited with the discovery, in 1824 succeeded in preparing amorphous silicon by the same general method as used earlier, but he purified the product by removing the fluosilicates by repeated washings. Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element. Silicon is present in the sun and stars and is a principal component of a class of meteorites known as “aerolites.” It is also a component of tektites, a natural glass of uncertain origin. Natural silicon contains three isotopes. Twenty-four other radioactive isotopes are recognized. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth’s crust, by weight, and is the second most abundant element, being exceeded only by oxygen. Silicon is not found free in nature, but occurs chiefly as the oxide and as silicates. Sand, quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which the oxide appears. Granite, hornblende, asbestos, feldspar, clay mica, etc. are but a few of the numerous silicate minerals. Silicon is prepared commercially by heating silica and carbon in an electric furnace, using carbon electrodes. Several other methods can be used for preparing the element. Amorphous silicon can be prepared as a brown powder, which can be easily melted or vaporized. Crystalline silicon has a metallic luster and grayish color. The Czochralski process is commonly used to produce single crystals of silicon used for solid-state or semiconductor devices. Hyperpure silicon can be prepared by the thermal decomposition of ultra-pure trichlorosilane in a hydrogen atmosphere, and by a vacuum float zone process. This product can be doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices that are used extensively in the electronics and space-age industries. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has shown promise in producing economical cells for converting solar energy into electricity. Silicon is a relatively inert element, but it is attacked by halogens and dilute alkali. Most acids, except hydrofluoric, do not affect it. Silicones are important products of silicon. They may be prepared by hydrolyzing a silicon organic chloride, such as dimethyl silicon chloride. Hydrolysis and condensation of various substituted chlorosilanes can be used to produce a very great number of polymeric products, or silicones, ranging from liquids to hard, glasslike solids with many useful properties. Elemental silicon transmits more than 95% of all wavelengths of infrared, from 1.3 to 6.7 μm. Silicon is one of man’s most useful elements. In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc. Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties. Glass can be made in a very great variety of shapes, and is used as containers, window glass, insulators, and thousands of other uses. Silicon tetrachloride can be used to iridize glass. Silicon is important in plant and animal life. Diatoms in both fresh and salt water extract silica from the water to build up their cell walls. Silica is present in ashes of plants and in the human skeleton. Silicon is an important ingredient in steel; silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives and has been used in lasers to produce coherent light of 4560 ?. A remarkable material, first discovered in 1930, is Aerogel, which is now used by NASA in their space missions to collect cometary and interplanet dust. Aerogel is a highly insulative material that has the lowest density of any known solid. One form of Aerogel is 99.9% air and 0.1% SiO2 by volume. It is 1000 times less dense than glass. It has been called “blue smoke” or “solid smoke.” A block of Aerogel as large as a person may weigh less than a pound and yet support the weight of 1000 lbs (455 kg). This material is expected to trap cometary particles traveling at speeds of 32 km/sec. Aerogel is said to be non-toxic and non-inflammable. It has high thermal insulating qualities that could be used in home insulation. Its light weight may have aircraft applications. Regular grade silicon (99.5%) costs about $160/kg. Silicon (99.9999%) pure costs about $200/kg; hyperpure silicon is available at a higher cost. Miners, stonecutters, and other engaged in work where siliceous dust is breathed in large quantities often develop a serious lung disease known as silicosis.
UsesSilicon is usually available as electronic-grade, high-quality, high-purity single crystalline material in the form of wafers (round, surface-polished slices typically of 4–12 inches in diameter and a few hundreds of micrometers to millimeters in thickness). The biggest advantage of using silicon for microfluidic applications is the availability of a mature processing technology inherited from the microelectronics IC industry as well as the possibility of defining very small structures that can be cointegrated with the electronics on the same chip. Some of the disadvantages of using silicon as a structural material are linked to the polar nature of the silicon crystal resulting in undesirable adsorption of molecules in microfluidic systems. Furthermore, the higher cost of silicon as substrate material without any specific advantages from microfluidic systems standpoint makes it less attractive as a substrate material unless integration of on-chip electronic circuits is a strong requirement for the particular microsystem design. The typical cost of an average quality silicon substrate is about 0.25 U.S. cents/cm2.
Usessilicone (volatile) is used in face creams to increase the product’s protection capabilities against water evaporation from the skin. Silicone polyethers are mainly used in water-based skin care formulations and give improved softness, gloss, and feel. Silicones have been used in cosmetics for more than 30 years. They are minerals able to repel water. Silicones present formulation problems because of poor compatibility with cosmetic oils and emollients. Silicones are not irritating.
DefinitionNonmetallic element Atomic number 14, group IVA of the periodic table, aw 28.086, valence = 4, three stable isotopes. It is the second most abundant ele- ment (25% of the earth’s crust) and is the most important semiconducting element; it can form more co
UsesIn making silanes and silicones, the Si-C bond being about as strong as a C-C bond. In the manufacture of transistors, silicon diodes and similar semiconductors. For making alloys such as ferrosilicon, silicon bronze, silicon copper. As a reducing agent like aluminum in high tempereture reactions.
General DescriptionA dark brown powder. Insoluble in water and denser than water. Burns readily when exposed to heat or flames, and may be difficult to extinguish. Water may not be effective in extinguishing flames. Used to make computer microchips.
Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Insoluble in water. A significant dust explosion hazard.
Reactivity ProfileSilicon is a reducing agent. Ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temperatures [Mellor 2:11-13 1946-47]. Burns spontaneously in gaseous chlorine. A mixture of silicon, aluminum, and lead oxide explodes when heated [Mellor 7:657 1946-47]. When heated with an alkali carbonate, a vigorous reaction attended by incandescence occurs [Mellor 6:164 1946-47]. Reacts violently with silver fluoride [Mellor 3:389 1946-47]. Reacts with sodium-potassium alloy to form sodium silicide, which is spontaneously flammable in air [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:564 1961].
HazardFlammable in powder form.
Health HazardOxides from metallic fires are a severe health hazard. Inhalation or contact with substance or decomposition products may cause severe injury or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Fire HazardMay react violently or explosively on contact with water. Some are transported in flammable liquids. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some of these materials will burn with intense heat. Dusts or fumes may form explosive mixtures in air. Containers may explode when heated. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Safety ProfileA nuisance dust. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An eye irritant. Does not occur freely in nature, but is found as sdicon dioxide (sdtca) and as various shcates. Elemental Si is flammable when exposed to flame or by chemical reaction with oxidlzers. Violent reactions with alkali carbonates, oxidants, (A1 + PbO), Ca, Cs2C2, Cl2, CoF2, F2, IFs, MnF3, Rb2C2, FNO, AgF, NaK alloy. When heated it will react with water or steam to produce H2; can react with oxidizing materials. See also various silica entries, SILICATES, and POWDERED METALS.
Potential ExposureSilicon may be used in the manufacture of silanes, silicon tetrachloride, ferrosilicon, silicones. It is used in purified elemental form in transistors and photovoltaic cells.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure. Transfer promptly to a medical facility.
ShippingUN1346 Silicon powder, amorphous requires, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
IncompatibilitiesDust or powder may form explosive mixture with air. A strong reducing agent. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium, carbonates, chlorine, fluorine, oxidizers, cesium carbide; alkaline carbonates.
Tag:Silicon(7440-21-3) Related Product Information
Silicon carbide Barium titanate N-(Trimethylsilyl)imidazole Hexamethyldisilane Bromotrimethylsilane Chlorotrimethylsilane Trimethoxysilylpropanethiol Trimethylsilylacetylene Iodotrimethylsilane Trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate Hexamethyldisilazane Sodium silicate SILICONE GREASE