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Polyvinyl chloride Produkt Beschreibung

Polyvinyl chloride Struktur
9002-86-2
CAS-Nr.
9002-86-2
Englisch Name:
Polyvinyl chloride
Synonyma:
u1;l5;PVC;s70;c65;dn4;dn5;e62;e66;PVDC
CBNumber:
CB8294089
Summenformel:
C2H3Cl
Molgewicht:
62.49822
MOL-Datei:
9002-86-2.mol

Polyvinyl chloride Eigenschaften

Dichte
1.4 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Brechungsindex
n 1.54
Aggregatzustand
powder
Wichte
1.385
Stabilität:
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS Datenbank
9002-86-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
poly(vinyl chloride)(9002-86-2)
EPA chemische Informationen
Ethene, chloro-, homopolymer(9002-86-2)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xi
R-Sätze: 36/37/38
S-Sätze: 26-36/37-61
WGK Germany  3
RTECS-Nr. KV0350000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 9002-86-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
Sicherheit
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.

Polyvinyl chloride Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

WEISSES PULVER ODER KöRNCHEN.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Staubexplosion der pulverisierten oder granulierten Substanz in Gemischen mit Luft möglich.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Zersetzung beim Erhitzen unter Bildung giftiger Rauche mit Chlorwasserstoff und Phosgen. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Fluor.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: (als Staub) 1.5 mg/m?(Alveolengängige Fraktion); (DFG 2005).

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden, vor allem als Pulver.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Risiko der Lungenschädigung bei wiederholter oder längerer Exposition gegenüber Staubpartikeln. mit nachfolgenden Fibrose (Pneumokoniose).

LECKAGE

Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P1-Filter für inerte Partikel. Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.

Beschreibung

Poly vinyl chloride, commonly abbreviated PVC, is the thirdmost widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is used in construction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in clothing and upholstery, electrical cable insulation, inflatable products and many applications in which it replaces rubber.
Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.

Chemische Eigenschaften

often provided for research as a 50% suspension in water, when it is

Physikalische Eigenschaften

PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties for PVC are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs.
Mechanical properties
PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing, but decrease with the temperature increasing. The mechanical properties of rigid PVC (uPVC) is very good, the elastic modulus can reach to 1500-3,000 MPa. The soft PVC (Flexible PVC) elastic is 1.5- 15 MPa. However, elongation at break is up to 200% -450%. PVC friction is ordinary, the static friction factor is 0.4-0.5, the dynamic friction factor is 0.23.
Thermal properties
The heat stability of PVC is very poor, when the temperature reaches 140 °C PVC starts to decompose. Its melting temperature is 160 °C. The linear expansion coefficient of the PVC is small and has flame retardancy, the oxidation index is up to 45 or more. Therefore, the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties.
Electrical properties
PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non polar polymers such as poly ethylene and poly propylene.

History

PVC was accidentally discovered at least twice in the 19th century, first in 1835 by French chemist Henri Victor Regnault and then in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann. On both occasions the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight. In the early 20th century the Russian chemist Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatte of the German chemical company Griesheim-Elektron both attempted to use PVC in commercial products, but difficulties in processing the rigid, sometimes brittle polymer blocked their efforts. Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method in 1926 to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives. The result was a more flexible and more easily processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use.
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride (VCM), as shown.
Microstructure
The polymers are linear and are strong. The monomers are mainly arranged head-to-tail, meaning that there are chlorides on alternating carbon centres. PVC has mainly an atactic stereochemistry, which means that the relative stereochemistry of the chloride centres are random. Some degree of syndiotacticity of the chain gives a few percent crystallinity that is influential on the properties of the material. About 57 % of the mass of PVC is chlorine. The presence of chloride groups gives the polymer very different properties from the structurally related material polyethylene.

Verwenden

Rubber substitutes, electric wire and cable-coverings, pliable thin sheeting, film finishes for textiles, non-flammable upholstery, raincoats, tubing, belting, gaskets, shoe soles.

Application

PVC's relatively low cost, biological and chemical resistance and workability have resulted in it being used for a wide variety of applications. It is used for sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where cost or vulnerability to corrosion limit the use of metal. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, it has become a popular material for window and door frames. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. It has been used in many other applications.
Pipes
Roughly half of the world's polyvinyl chloride resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications . In the water distribution market it accounts for 66 % of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75 % . Its light weight, low cost, and low maintenance make it attractive. However, it must be carefully installed and bedded to ensure longitudinal cracking and overbelling does not occur. Additionally, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, or heat-fused (butt-fusion process, similar to joining HDPE pipe), creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage.
Electric cables
PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electrical cables; PVC used for this purpose needs to be plasticized.
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) for construction
uPVC, also known as rigid PVC, is extensively used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in Ireland, the United Kingdom, and in the United States. In the USA it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding . The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo - effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single-glazed windows. Other uses include fascia, and siding or weatherboarding. This material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downspouts. uPVC does not contain phthalates, since those are only added to flexible PVC, nor does it contain BPA. uPVC is known as having strong resistance against chemicals, sunlight, and oxidation from water.
Clothing and furniture
PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is cheaper than rubber, leather, and latex which it is therefore used to simulate.
Healthcare
The two main application areas for medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components for urine or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heartlung bypass sets, haemodialysis set etc. In Europe the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85.000 tons every year. Almost one third of plastic based medical devices are made from PVC.
Flooring
Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings covering the home, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. Complex and 3D designs are possible due to the prints that can be created which are then protected by a clear wear layer. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel. The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the build up of dirt which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics.
Other applications
PVC has been used for a host of consumer products of relatively smaller volume compared to the industrial and commercial applications described above. Another of its earliest mass-market c

Definition

ChEBI: A polymer composed of repeating chloroethyl units.

Hazard

Decomposes at 148C, evolving toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride. Pneumoconiosis, lower respi- ratory tract irritant, and pulmonary function effects. Questionable carcinogen.

Industrielle Verwendung

Among the vinyl polymers and copolymers, the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thermoplastics are the most commercially significant. With various plasticizers, fillers, stabilizers, lubricants, and impact modifiers, PVC is compounded to be flexible or rigid, opaque or transparent, to have high or low modulus, or to have any of a wide spectrum of properties or processing characteristics.
PVC resin can also be chlorinated (CPVC) and it can be alloyed with other polymers such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), acrylic, polyurethane, and nitrile rubber to improve impact resistance, tear strength, resilience, heat-deflection temperature, or processibility.
PVC is a hard, flame-resistant, and chemicalresistant thermoplastic resin. The resin is available in the powder form, as a latex, or in the form of plastisol. PVC resin, pigments, and stabilizers are milled into plasticizers to form a viscous coating material (plastisol) that polymerizes into a tough elastic film when heated. Plastisols are used extensively for coating glass bottles and glass fabrics. The dispersion types of resins are used in flexible molding compounds. Such formulations consist of a vinyl paste resin, a suitable plasticizer such as dioctyl phthalate, and a stabilizer (usually a compound of lead). Flexible molds are widely applied to plaster casting and encapsulation of electronic circuits with epoxy resins.

Sicherheitsprofil

Chronic inhalation of dusts can cause pulmonary damage, blood effects, abnormal liver function. “Meat wrapper’s asthma” has resulted from the cutting of PVC films with a hot knife. Can cause allergic dermatitis. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Reacts violently with F2. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cland phosgene.

Sicherheit(Safety)

Degradation
Plastics, like most materials, degrade, albeit slowly, in all environmental settings by means of bio-degradation, photodegradation, thermo-oxidative degradation or hydrolysis. Degradation is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polymer. Since the mechanical integrity of plastics invariably depends on their high average molecular-weight, any significant extent of degradation inevitably weakens the material. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment, known as microplastics. Microplastics concentrate Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favor of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by organisms in the biosphere. Given the increased levels of plastic pollution of the environment, this is an important concept in understanding the food web.
Plasticizers
It has been claimed that some plasticizers leach out of PVC products. However, it has been difficult to prove that plasticizers readily migrate and leach into the environment from flexible vinyl articles because they are physically and tightly bound into the plastic as a result of the heating process used to make PVC particles. Vinyl products are pervasive — including toys, car interiors, shower curtains, and flooring — and initially release chemical gases into the air. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses.
EU decisions on phthalates
Risk assessments have led to the classification of low molecular weight and labeling as Category 1B Reproductive agents. Three of these phthalates, DBP, BBP and DEHP were included on annex XIV of the REACH regulation in February 2011 and will be phased out by the EU by February 2015 unless an application for authorisation is made before July 2013 and an authorisation granted. DIBP is still on the REACH Candidate List for Authorisation. The European Union Copyright ? Tarek Kakhia. All rights reserved. http://tarek.kakhia.org has confirmed that DEHP poses no general risk to human health. The summary of a comprehensive European risk assessment, involving nearly 15 years of extensive scientific evaluation by EU regulators, was published in the EU Official Journal on February 7, 2008.The assessment demonstrated that DEHP poses no risk to the general population and that no further measures need to be taken to manage the substance in any of its key end-use applications. This confirms an earlier opinion of member state experts and an opinion from the EU Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (CSTEE) adopted in 2004. The only areas of possible risk identified in the assessment relate to :
The use of DEHP in children's toys. Under regulations introduced in January 2007 DEHP is no longer permitted in toys and childcare articles in the EU.
Possible exposure of workers in factories. Adequate precautions are already taken based on occupational exposure limit values and some localised environmental exposure near to factories.
The use of DEHP in certain medical devices. An EU Scientific Review was requested to determine whether there may be any risk from the use of DEHP in certain medical applications (children and neonates undergoing long-term blood transfusion and adults undergoing long-term haemodialysis).
In 2008 the European Union's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) reviewed the safety of DEHP in medical devices. The SCENIHR report states that certain medical procedures used in high risk patients result in a significant exposure to DEHP and con

Additives to finished polymer

The product of the polymerization process is unmodified PVC. Before PVC can be made into finished products, it always requires conversion into a compound by the incorporation of additives such as heat stabilizers, UV stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, fillers, flame retardants, biocides, blowing agents and smoke suppressors, and, optionally pigments.The choice of additives used for the PVC finished product is controlled by the cost performance requirements of the end use specification e.g. underground pipe, window frames, intravenous tubing and flooring all have very different ingredients to suit their performance requirements.
Heat stabilizers
One of the most crucial additives are heat stabilizers. These agents minimize loss of HCl, a degradation process that starts above 70 °C. Once dehydrochlorination starts, it is autocatalytic. Many diverse agents have been used including, traditionally, derivatives of heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Increasingly, metallic soaps (metal "salts" of fatty acids) are favored, species such as calcium stearate. .

Chlorinated PVC

PVC can be usefully modified by chlorination, which increases its chlorine content to 67 %. The new material has a higher heat resistance so is primarily used for hot water pipe and fittings, but it is more expensive and it is found only in niche applications, such as certain water heaters and certain specialized clothing. An extensive market for chlorinated PVC is in pipe for use in office building, apartment and condominium fire protection. CPVC, as it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the freeradical chlorination.

Sustainability

The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) has chosen PVC as material for different temporary venues of the London Olympics 2012. The ODA want to ensure to meet the highest environmental and social standards for the PVC materials. E.g. temporary parts like Roofing covers of the Olympic Stadium, the Water Polo Arena and the Royal Artillery Barracks will be deconstructed and a part will be recycled in the Vinyloop process.
Dan Epstein Head of Sustainable Development at Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA)
The ODA after initially rejecting PVC as material has reviewed its decision and develop a policy for the use of PVC. The PVC policy has focused attention on the use of PVC across the project and highlighted that the functional properties of PVC make it the most appropriate material in certain circumstances. Environmental and social impacts across the whole life cycle played an important role, with e.g. the rate for recycling or re-use and the percentage of recycled content.

Polyvinyl chloride Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Polyvinyl chloride Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 135)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20676 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32452 55
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 (0)592-605 1114
sales@amoychem.com CHINA 6374 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51086038
86-21-51861608 chemwill_asia@126.com;sales@chemwill.com;chemwill@hotmail.com;chemwill@gmail.com CHINA 23958 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-188-71490254
peter@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 20084 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
86-531-88032799
+86 531 8582 1093 export@haihangchem.com CHINA 8266 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
13657299721
zhangyuzhu@xhlchem.com CHINA 17424 58
Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd. 13651141086; 86(10)60275028、60275820
86 (10) 60270825 dtftchem@sina.com China 3395 62
BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted 4006990298;010-57411839;0757-86311057;021-51691807
010-87653215;0757-86311057;021-55236763 sales@hwrkchemical.com China 14686 55
Energy Chemical 021-58432009 / 400-005-6266
021-58436166-800 info@energy-chemical.com China 44045 61

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