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Ammoniumchlorid Produkt Beschreibung

Ammonium chloride  Struktur
12125-02-9
CAS-Nr.
12125-02-9
Bezeichnung:
Ammoniumchlorid
Englisch Name:
Ammonium chloride
Synonyma:
NH4CL;SALMIAC;Amchlor;Darammon;Ammoneric;ai3-08937;ammonchlor;salammonia;SAL AMMONIA;Salammonite
CBNumber:
CB7129971
Summenformel:
ClH4N
Molgewicht:
53.49146
MOL-Datei:
12125-02-9.mol

Ammoniumchlorid Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
340 °C (subl.)(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
100 °C750 mm Hg
Dichte
1.52
Dampfdichte
1.9 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)
Brechungsindex
1.642
FEMA 
4494 | AMMONIA (ALSO INCLUDES AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Löslichkeit
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
Aggregatzustand
Solid
Wichte
1.53
Farbe
White
PH
4.7 (200g/l, H2O, 25℃)(External MSDS)
Wasserlöslichkeit
soluble
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.021
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.019
Merck 
14,509
BRN 
4371014
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.
CAS Datenbank
12125-02-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Ammonium chloride(12125-02-9)
EPA chemische Informationen
Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl)(12125-02-9)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xn
R-Sätze: 22-36-41-37/38
S-Sätze: 22-36-26
RIDADR  UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. BP4550000
Selbstentzündungstemperatur >400 °C
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  9
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28271000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 12125-02-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H361 Kann vermutlich die Fruchtbarkeit beeinträchtigen oder das Kind im Mutterleib schädigen. Reproduktionstoxizität Kategorie 2 Warnung P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H410 Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 1 Warnung P273, P391, P501
H411 Giftig für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 2
Sicherheit
P201 Vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
P202 Vor Gebrauch alle Sicherheitshinweise lesen und verstehen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P270 Bei Gebrauch nicht essen, trinken oder rauchen.
P271 Nur im Freien oder in gut belüfteten Räumen verwenden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P337+P313 Bei anhaltender Augenreizung: Ärztlichen Rat einholen/ärztliche Hilfe hinzuziehen.

Ammoniumchlorid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

GERUCHLOSER FARBLOSER BIS WEISSER, HYGROSKOPISCHER FESTSTOFF IN VERSCHIEDENEN FORMEN.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Zersetzung beim Erhitzen unter Bildung giftiger und reizender Rauche (Stickstoffoxide, Ammoniak und Chlorwasserstoff). Schwache Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Ammoniumnitrat und Kaliumchlorat unter Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr. Greift Kupfer und seine Verbindungen an.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: (als Ammoniumchlorid-Rauch) 10 mg/m?(als TWA); 20 mg/m?(als STEL); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK nicht festgelegt (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation des Staubes oder Rauches und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Verdampfen bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine belästigende Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch schnell erreicht werden.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P2-Filter für schädliche Partikel.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.
R36:Reizt die Augen.
R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S22:Staub nicht einatmen.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Ammonium chloride,Nl4CI, also known as ammoniae, salmiai,and ammonium nituriate,is a white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water, aqueous solutionsof ammonia, and is slightly soluble in methyl alcohol. Ammonium chloride is found in natureas a sublimation productof volcanic activity, or is produced by neutralizing HCI(either in liquid or gaseousphase) with NH3 gas or liquid NH40H then evaporating the excess H20. The salt decomposes at350°C and sublimes under controlled conditions at 520 °C. Ammoniumchlorideis used as an electrolyte in dry cell batteries,as a fluxfor soldering, tinningandgalvanizing, andas a processing ingredientin textile printing and hide tanning. Use as a source of nitrogen for fertilizersis limited because of the possible build up of damaging chloride residuals in the soil.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Ammonium chloride occurs as colorless, odorless crystals or crystal masses. It is a white, granular powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is hygroscopic and has a tendency to cake.

Verwenden

ammonium chloride is used as a thickener and as an additive in non-alcoholic toners. According to cosmetic formulators, the ammonium component provides the tingling or stinging sensation that some people associate with toners or aftershaves, and which, in regular toners, is usually provided by the alcohol content. Ammonium chloride’s use is the result of preference in formulation feel.

Verwenden

Ammonium Chloride is a dough conditioner and yeast food that exists as colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. approximately 30–38 g dissolves in water at 25°c. the ph of a 1% solution at 25°c is 5.2. it is used as a dough strengthener and flavor enhancer in baked goods and as a nitrogen source for yeast fermentation. it is also used in condiments and relishes. another term for the salt is ammonium muriate.

Verwenden

White crystals made by ammonia salts acting upon hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. Ammonium chloride is also known as sal ammoniac. Soluble in water and alcohol, ammonium chloride was used as a halide in many processes, including the salted paper, albumen paper, albumen opaltype, and gelatin emulsion processes.

Definition

ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion.

Vorbereitung Methode

Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.

Definition

sal ammoniac: A white or colourless cubicsolid, NH4Cl; r.d. 1.53; sublimes at340°C. It is very soluble in water andslightly soluble in ethanol but insolublein ether. It may be prepared byfractional crystallization from a solutioncontaining ammonium sulphateand sodium chloride or ammoniumcarbonate and calcium chloride. Puresamples may be made directly by thegas-phase reaction of ammonia andhydrogen chloride. Because of itsease of preparation it can be manufacturedindustrially alongside anyplant that uses or produces ammonia.The compound is used in drycells, metal finishing, and in thepreparation of cotton for dyeing andprinting.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid. Ammonium chloride is soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Ammonium chloride is used to make other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Soluble in water. Slowly releases hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].

Reaktivität anzeigen

Acidic salts, such as Ammonium chloride , are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.

Hazard

Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of fumes irritates respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Ammonium chloride, like all other ammonium salts, is used as a fertilizer. It contains 24 to 26% nitrogen and is available as white crystals or granules. A coarse form of this fertilizer is preferred to the powdered form for direct application. Its crystals are used in compound fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is a good source of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane and fiber crops. It is easy to handle. In some cases, however, the material tends to become lumpy and difficult to spread.
Ammonium chloride is used either directly for fertilization or in a variety of compound fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate chloride or ammonium potassium chloride or in combination with urea or ammonium sulphate.
As a fertilizer, ammonium chloride has an advantage in that it contains 26% nitrogen, which is higher than that found in ammonium sulphate (20.5%). In terms of per unit cost of nitrogen, ammonium chloride is relatively cheaper than ammonium sulphate and has some agronomic advantages for rice. Nitrification of ammonium chloride is less rapid than that of urea or ammonium sulphate. Therefore, nitrogen losses are lower and yields, higher.
However, ammonium chloride is a highly acid forming fertilizer and the amount of calcium carbonate required to neutralize the acidity is more than the fertilizer itself, Further, it has a lower nitrogen content and a higher chloride content compared to urea and ammonium nitrate, making it harmful to some plants.
Several methods are used to produce ammonium chloride. The most important is the dual-salt process (modified Solvay process) wherein ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate are produced simultaneously using common salt and anhydrous ammonia as the principal starting materials. When ammonium chloride is mixed with phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, a large amount of soil calcium is lost as its conversion into soluble calcium chloride causes it to leach out easily.
Like ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride can be applied to wet land crops. In terms of the agronomic suitability, it is generally rated as equal to other straight nitrogenous fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is, however, not ideal for grapes, chilies, potatoes and tobacco as the added chlorine affects the quality and storability of these crops.
Industrial uses of ammonium chloride are in dry-battery manufacture and as a flux for soldering and brazing.

Pharmazeutische Anwendungen

Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations. It is also used as a food additive and antiseptic agent.
Ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis. It is also used as an expectorant in cough medicines.

Sicherheit(Safety)

Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.3 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IM): 0.03 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.65 g/kg

mögliche Exposition

Ammonium chloride is used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug; to make dry batteries; in galvanizing; as a soldering flux.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

The veterinary indications for ammonium chloride are as a urinary acidifying agent to help prevent and dissolve certain types of uroliths (e.g., struvite), to enhance renal excretion of some types of toxins (e.g., strontium, strychnine) or drugs (e.g., quinidine), or to enhance the efficacy of certain antimicrobials (e.g., chlortetracycline, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G or tetracycline) when treating urinary tract infections. Ammonium chloride has also been used intravenously for the rapid correction of metabolic alkalosis.
Because of changes in feline diets to restrict struvite and as struvite therapeutic diets (e.g., s/d) cause aciduria, ammonium chloride is not commonly recommended for struvite uroliths in cats.

Lager

Ammonium chloride is chemically stable. It decomposes completely at 3388℃ to form ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.

Versand/Shipping

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

läuterung methode

Crystallise it several times from conductivity water (1.5mL/g) between 90o and 0o. It sublimes. After one crystallisation, ACS grade has: metal(ppm) As (1.2), K (1), Sb (7.2), V (10.2). [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 812 1963.]

Inkompatibilitäten

Ammonium chloride is incompatible with strong acids and strong bases. It reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate, causing fire and explosion hazards. It also attacks copper and its compounds.

Waste disposal

Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral syrup, tablets). Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in medicines licensed in the UK (eye drops; oral syrup).

Ammoniumchlorid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Ammoniumchlorid Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 437)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Hangzhou Bayee Chemical Co., Ltd.
0086-571-86990109; 0086-18605816692
0086-571-85775919 rachelhoo@bayeechem.com China 98 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20672 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32447 55
Shanghai Yingrui Biopharma Co., Ltd.
+86-21-33585366 E-mail:sales03@shyrchem.com
+86-21-34979012 sales03@shyrchem.com CHINA 661 60
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418684 18949823763
86-0551-65418684 info@tnjchem.com China 1852 55
Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8613292890173
0311 66567340 luna@speedgainpharma.com CHINA 1017 58
City Chemical LLC
2039322489
203.937.8400 sales@citychemical.com United States 98 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51086038
86-21-51861608 chemwill_asia@126.com;sales@chemwill.com;chemwill@hotmail.com;chemwill@gmail.com CHINA 23967 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 sales@jushengtech.com CHINA 28236 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930501651
breeduan@crovellbio.com CHINA 2299 58

12125-02-9(Ammoniumchlorid)Verwandte Suche:


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