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Propyl gallate

Description References
Propyl gallate
Propyl gallate structure
Chemical Name:
Propyl gallate
nipa49;tenoxpg;Nipa 49;Tenox PG;FEMA 2947;FEMA 2974;Sustane PG;NCI-C50588;PROGALLIN P;nci-c505888
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Propyl gallate Properties

Melting point:
146-149 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
312.03°C (rough estimate)
refractive index 
1.5140 (estimate)
Flash point:
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
ethanol: 50 mg/mL
8.11(at 25℃)
White to light beige
Water Solubility 
0.35 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
CAS DataBase Reference
121-79-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
184.1660; 582.3660; 172.615; 175.125; 175.300; 181.24
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)
Propyl Gallate
EWG's Food Scores
NIST Chemistry Reference
Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester(121-79-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
Propyl gallate (121-79-9)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Signal word  Warning
Hazard statements  H302-H317
Precautionary statements  P280g-P301+P312a-P321-P333+P313-P501a-P280-P301+P312+P330-P261-P272-P302+P352+P333+P313+P363-P501
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  22-43-36/37/38
Safety Statements  24-37-36-26
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  LW8400000
HS Code  29182950
Toxicity LD50 in mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits (g/kg): 1.70-3.50, 2.1-7, 2.48, 2.75 orally; LD50 i.p. in rats: 0.38 g/kg (J. Am. Coll. Toxicol.)

Propyl gallate price More Price(50)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W294705 Propyl gallate ≥98%,FCC 121-79-9 1 SAMPLE-K $50 2021-12-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 48710 Propyl gallate antioxidant, ≥98.0% (HPLC) 121-79-9 100 g $64.8 2021-12-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 02370 Propyl gallate for microscopy, ≥98.0% (HPLC) 121-79-9 100g $75 2021-12-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.20599 Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate for synthesis 121-79-9 500 g $120.25 2021-12-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.20599 Propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate for synthesis 121-79-9 100 g $57.81 2021-12-16 Buy

Propyl gallate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Propyl gallate (also known as propyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenoate) is a kind of ester formed through the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. It appears as a fine white to creamy-white crystalline powder. It has long been used as a kind of antioxidants to be supplied to foods especially animal fats and vegetable oil, being especially effective with polyunsaturated fats. Propyl gallate, as an anti-oxidant, can protect the food and oils from the attack of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen free radicals, having an effect similar to the superoxide dismutase. It can also be applied to ethers, emulsion, waxes, and transformer oil as the antioxidants.



It caused contact dermatitis in a baker and in a female confectioner who fried doughnuts, primarily sensitized by her night cream; the margarine probably contained gallates.


Propyl gallate is an antioxidant with antimicrobial activity. It is hepatoprotective in vitro and in vivo, preventing CCl4 induced lipoperoxidation and reduction in polysomes in rat liver. Propyl gallate (100 mg/kg, i.p.) increases expression of HIF-1α, EPO, and VEGF mRNA levels and the number of normal neurons in rat brains after 8 minutes of forebrain ischemia. Propyl gallate in combination with potassium sorbate is bactericidal and bacteriostatic against S. aureus strains known to produce enterotoxins in food. Propyl gallate is commonly added to foods to prevent autoxidation and microbial growth.

Chemical Properties

Propyl gallate is an odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. It functions particularly well in stabilizing animal fats and vegetable oils. With a melting point of 148°C, propyl gallate loses its effectiveness during heat processing and is therefore not suitable in frying applications that involve temperatures exceeding 190°C. Propyl gallate chelates iron ions and forms an unappealing, blue–black complex. Hence, it is always used with chelators such as citric acid to eliminate the pro-oxidative iron and copper catalysts. Good synergism is obtained with BHA and BHT; however, application with TBHQ is not permitted. For additional details, refer to Burdock (1997).

Chemical Properties

white to light beige crystalline powder

Chemical Properties

Propyl gallate is a white, odorless or almost odorless crystalline powder, with a bitter astringent taste that is not normally noticeable at the concentrations employed as an antioxidant.


Propyl Gallate is an antioxidant that is the n-propylester of 3,4,5-tri- hydroxybenzoic acid. natural occurrence of propyl gallate has not been reported. it is commercially prepared by esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove excess alcohol.


propyl gallate is an anti-oxidant with preservative properties.


Propyl Gallate is a known inhibitor of Tyrosinase, a polyphenol oxidase, which is an important enzyme in pigment biosynthesis in various organisms. It has also recently been seen to boost biodiesel li pid biosynthesis in cultures.


Antioxidant for cosmetics, foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, transformer oils.


Produced commercially by the esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove the excess alcohol.

Production Methods

Propyl gallate is prepared by the esterification of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) with n-propanol. Other alkyl gallates are prepared similarly using an appropriate alcohol of the desired alkyl chain length.

General Description

Fine white to creamy-white crystalline powder. Odorless or with a faint odor. Melting point 150°C. Insoluble in water. Slightly bitter taste.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Propyl gallate can react with oxidizing agents. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases and strong reducing agents. Darkens in the presence of iron and iron salts. Contact with metals should be avoided .


Use in foods restricted to 0.02% of fat con- tent.

Fire Hazard

Propyl gallate is combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Propyl gallate has become widely used as an antioxidant in cosmetics, perfumes, foods, and pharmaceuticals since its use in preventing autoxidation of oils was first described in 1943.It is primarily used, in concentrations up to 0.1% w/v, to prevent the rancidity of oils and fats;it may also be used at concentrations of 0.002% w/v to prevent peroxide formation in ether, and at 0.01% w/v to prevent the oxidation of paraldehyde. Synergistic effects with other antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene have been reported. Propyl gallate is also said to possess some antimicrobial properties;
Studies have shown that, when added to powder blends containing ketorolac, propyl gallate significantly increases the drug stability in the preparation.
Other alkyl gallates are also used as antioxidants and have approximately equivalent antioxidant properties when used in equimolar concentration; however, solubilities vary;
Propyl gallate has also been investigated for its therapeutic properties, mainly in animal studies.

Contact allergens

This gallate ester (E 311) is an antioxidant frequently used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids into rancid-smelling compounds. It causes cosmetic dermatitis mainly from lipsticks and induced contact dermatitis in a baker, and in a female confectioner, primarily sensitized by her night cream, who fried doughnuts the margarine probably containing gallates.

Biochem/physiol Actions

An antioxidant that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Propyl gallate has been reported to be an effective antioxidant-based hepatoprotector, both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis and block the death of neurons exposed to FeSO4/GA as well as partially protect endothelial cells against TNF-induced apoptosis.


Propyl gallate (n-propyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate) is used in vegetable oils and butter. When 1.2 or 2.3% propyl gallate was added to feed for rats, loss of weight was observed. This may be due to the rats reluctance to eat food that was contaminated with the bitter taste of propyl gallate. When it was given for 10 to 16 months at the 2 to 3% level, 40% of the rats died within the first month and the remainder showed severe growth inhibition. Autopsies of rats indicated kidney damage resulting from the ingestion of propyl gallate. However, no other animal studies show serious problems and further studies indicated that propyl gallate does not cause serious chronic toxicities.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.


It has been reported, following animal studies, that propyl gallate has a strong contact sensitization potential.Propyl gallate has also produced cytogenic effects in CHO-K1 cells.However, despite this, there have been few reports of adverse reactions to propyl gallate.Those that have been described include contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis,and methemoglobinemia in neonates.
The WHO has set an estimated acceptable daily intake for propyl gallate at up to 1.4 mg/kg body-weight.
(cat, oral): 0.4 g/kg
(mouse, oral): 1.7 g/kg
(rat, oral): 2.1 g/kg
(rat, IP): 0.38 g/kg


Propyl gallate is unstable at high temperatures and is rapidly destroyed in oils that are used for frying purposes.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed, nonmetallic container, protected from light, in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Crystallise the ester from aqueous EtOH or *C6H6 (m 146-146.5o). [Beilstein 10 III 2078, 10 IV 2003.]


The alkyl gallates are incompatible with metals, e.g. sodium, potassium, and iron, forming intensely colored complexes. Complex formation may be prevented, under some circumstances, by the addition of a sequestering agent, typically citric acid. Propyl gallate may also react with oxidizing materials.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM injections; oral, and topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Propyl gallate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Propyl gallate Suppliers

Global( 538)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
HuBei Bass Electronic Material Co.,Ltd
18971568347 CHINA 75 58
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418697 China 3000 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 China 22607 55
Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,Ltd.
+86-571-56059825 CHINA 9150 55
Shanghai Zheyan Biotech Co., Ltd.
18017610038 CHINA 3623 58
career henan chemical co
+86-0371-55982848 China 29953 58
13867897135 CHINA 925 58
Chengdu GLP biotechnology Co Ltd
13350802083 028-87075086 CHINA 1824 58
Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd.
18482058008 18080483897 China 2712 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
027-59599243 CHINA 28229 58

View Lastest Price from Propyl gallate manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-12-01 Propyl Gallate
US $5.70 / Kg/Bag 10g 99% 10000kg Hebei Crovell Biotech Co Ltd
2021-11-15 Propyl Gallate
US $100.00 / KG 100g 99% 500ton/Month Hebei Yirun Sega Biological Technology Co. Ltd
2021-10-16 Propyl gallate
US $10.00 / Kg/Bag 1KG 99% 20 tons Hebei Zhanyao Biotechnology Co. Ltd

Propyl gallate Spectrum

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