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몰식자산프로필;벤조산,3,4,5-트리하이드록시-,프로필에스터;프로필3,4,5-트리하이드록시벤조산;프로필3,4,5-트리하이드록시벤조산염;프로필3,4,5-트리히드록시벤조산염;프로필갈레이트;프로필3,4,5-트리하이드록시벤조산염;프로필 갈레이트
Propyl gallate
nipa49;tenoxpg;Nipa 49;Tenox PG;FEMA 2947;FEMA 2974;Sustane PG;NCI-C50588;PROGALLIN P;nci-c505888
포뮬러 무게:
MOL 파일:

몰식자산프로필 속성

146-149 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
312.03°C (rough estimate)
1.5140 (estimate)
저장 조건
Store below +30°C.
ethanol: 50 mg/mL
물리적 상태
산도 계수 (pKa)
8.11(at 25℃)
White to light beige
0.35 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
CAS 데이터베이스
121-79-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, propyl ester(121-79-9)
Propyl gallate (121-79-9)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-43-36/37/38
안전지침서 24-37-36-26
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 LW8400000
HS 번호 29182950
유해 물질 데이터 121-79-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits (g/kg): 1.70-3.50, 2.1-7, 2.48, 2.75 orally; LD50 i.p. in rats: 0.38 g/kg (J. Am. Coll. Toxicol.)
기존화학 물질 KE-34290
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P272 작업장 밖으로 오염된 의복을 반출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P321 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P333+P313 피부자극성 또는 홍반이 나타나면 의학적인 조치·조언를 구하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

몰식자산프로필 MSDS

3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester

몰식자산프로필 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산


It caused contact dermatitis in a baker and in a female confectioner who fried doughnuts, primarily sensitized by her night cream; the margarine probably contained gallates.

화학적 성질

Propyl gallate is an odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. It functions particularly well in stabilizing animal fats and vegetable oils. With a melting point of 148°C, propyl gallate loses its effectiveness during heat processing and is therefore not suitable in frying applications that involve temperatures exceeding 190°C. Propyl gallate chelates iron ions and forms an unappealing, blue–black complex. Hence, it is always used with chelators such as citric acid to eliminate the pro-oxidative iron and copper catalysts. Good synergism is obtained with BHA and BHT; however, application with TBHQ is not permitted. For additional details, refer to Burdock (1997).

화학적 성질

white to light beige crystalline powder

화학적 성질

Propyl gallate is a white, odorless or almost odorless crystalline powder, with a bitter astringent taste that is not normally noticeable at the concentrations employed as an antioxidant.


Propyl Gallate is an antioxidant that is the n-propylester of 3,4,5-tri- hydroxybenzoic acid. natural occurrence of propyl gallate has not been reported. it is commercially prepared by esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove excess alcohol.


propyl gallate is an anti-oxidant with preservative properties.


Propyl Gallate is a known inhibitor of Tyrosinase, a polyphenol oxidase, which is an important enzyme in pigment biosynthesis in various organisms. It has also recently been seen to boost biodiesel li pid biosynthesis in cultures.


Antioxidant for cosmetics, foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, transformer oils.

제조 방법

Produced commercially by the esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove the excess alcohol.

생산 방법

Propyl gallate is prepared by the esterification of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) with n-propanol. Other alkyl gallates are prepared similarly using an appropriate alcohol of the desired alkyl chain length.

일반 설명

Fine white to creamy-white crystalline powder. Odorless or with a faint odor. Melting point 150°C. Insoluble in water. Slightly bitter taste.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Propyl gallate can react with oxidizing agents. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases and strong reducing agents. Darkens in the presence of iron and iron salts. Contact with metals should be avoided .


Use in foods restricted to 0.02% of fat con- tent.


Propyl gallate is combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Propyl gallate has become widely used as an antioxidant in cosmetics, perfumes, foods, and pharmaceuticals since its use in preventing autoxidation of oils was first described in 1943.It is primarily used, in concentrations up to 0.1% w/v, to prevent the rancidity of oils and fats;it may also be used at concentrations of 0.002% w/v to prevent peroxide formation in ether, and at 0.01% w/v to prevent the oxidation of paraldehyde. Synergistic effects with other antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene have been reported. Propyl gallate is also said to possess some antimicrobial properties;
Studies have shown that, when added to powder blends containing ketorolac, propyl gallate significantly increases the drug stability in the preparation.
Other alkyl gallates are also used as antioxidants and have approximately equivalent antioxidant properties when used in equimolar concentration; however, solubilities vary;
Propyl gallate has also been investigated for its therapeutic properties, mainly in animal studies.

색상 색인 번호

This gallate ester (E 311) is an antioxidant frequently used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids into rancid-smelling compounds. It causes cosmetic dermatitis mainly from lipsticks and induced contact dermatitis in a baker, and in a female confectioner, primarily sensitized by her night cream, who fried doughnuts the margarine probably containing gallates.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.


Propyl gallate (n-propyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate) is used in vegetable oils and butter. When 1.2 or 2.3% propyl gallate was added to feed for rats, loss of weight was observed. This may be due to the rats reluctance to eat food that was contaminated with the bitter taste of propyl gallate. When it was given for 10 to 16 months at the 2 to 3% level, 40% of the rats died within the first month and the remainder showed severe growth inhibition. Autopsies of rats indicated kidney damage resulting from the ingestion of propyl gallate. However, no other animal studies show serious problems and further studies indicated that propyl gallate does not cause serious chronic toxicities.


It has been reported, following animal studies, that propyl gallate has a strong contact sensitization potential.Propyl gallate has also produced cytogenic effects in CHO-K1 cells.However, despite this, there have been few reports of adverse reactions to propyl gallate.Those that have been described include contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis,and methemoglobinemia in neonates.
The WHO has set an estimated acceptable daily intake for propyl gallate at up to 1.4 mg/kg body-weight.
(cat, oral): 0.4 g/kg
(mouse, oral): 1.7 g/kg
(rat, oral): 2.1 g/kg
(rat, IP): 0.38 g/kg


Propyl gallate is unstable at high temperatures and is rapidly destroyed in oils that are used for frying purposes.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed, nonmetallic container, protected from light, in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Crystallise the ester from aqueous EtOH or *C6H6 (m 146-146.5o). [Beilstein 10 III 2078, 10 IV 2003.]

비 호환성

The alkyl gallates are incompatible with metals, e.g. sodium, potassium, and iron, forming intensely colored complexes. Complex formation may be prevented, under some circumstances, by the addition of a sequestering agent, typically citric acid. Propyl gallate may also react with oxidizing materials.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM injections; oral, and topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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