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Propionaldehyde structure
Chemical Name:
Propin;C2H5CHO;PROPANAL;FEMA 2923;Propional;n-Propylal;NCI-C61029;Propionald;1-PROPANAL;N-PROPANAL
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Propionaldehyde Properties

Melting point:
-81 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:
46-50 °C (lit.)
0.805 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
vapor density 
2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
18.77 psi ( 55 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.362(lit.)
Flash point:
−16 °F
storage temp. 
Store at <= 20°C.
soluble in chloroform; miscible with alcohol and ether
Specific Gravity
0.815 (20/4℃)
explosive limit
Odor Threshold
0.3167 cP (at 26.7°C)
Water Solubility 
540 g/L (20 ºC)
Air Sensitive
JECFA Number
Stable. Highly flammable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases.
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)
CAS DataBase Reference
123-38-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EWG's Food Scores
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
Propionaldehyde (123-38-6)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H225-H302+H332-H315-H318-H335-H319
Precautionary statements  P210-P261-P280-P304+P340+P312-P305+P351+P338+P310-P403+P235-P305+P351+P338-P273-P403
Hazard Codes  F,Xi,Xn
Risk Statements  11-36/37/38-R36/37/38-R11-41-37/38-20/22
Safety Statements  9-16-29-S9-S29-S16
RIDADR  UN 1275 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  UE0350000
Autoignition Temperature 404 °F
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29121900
Toxicity LD50 orally in rats: 1.4 g/kg; LC for rats in air: 8000 ppm (Smyth)
NFPA 704
2 2

Propionaldehyde price More Price(27)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.22133 Propionaldehyde for synthesis 123-38-6 1 L $35.43 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.22133 Propionaldehyde for synthesis 123-38-6 100 mL $47.82 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W292303 Propionaldehyde ≥97%, FG 123-38-6 1 kg $67 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W292312 Propionaldehyde natural, ≥98%, FG 123-38-6 100 g $77.4 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 538124 Propionaldehyde reagent grade, 97% 123-38-6 250ml $84.7 2021-03-22 Buy

Propionaldehyde Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Propionaldehyde is a volatile liquid substance which consists of one carbonyl group and its characteristic functional group. The main functional group is an aldehyde which classifies propionaldehyde in the carbonyls. The main trunk of this substance is a short aliphatic chain. The carbonyl group determines, to a large extent, its chemical properties and most importantly its nucleophilic property. Propionaldehyde is readily oxidized if in contact to oxygen and should therefore be stored under inert gases.

Chemical Properties

Propionaldehyde has a characteristic sharp and pungent odor similar to acetaldehyde.It undergoes reactions typical for the low molecular weight aldehydes, which, because of the terminal carbonyl group, are very reactive. Contamination or the exposure to elevated temperatures may induce a hazardous polymerization.
Propionaldehyde is a colorless, flammable liquid with a suffocating fruity odor. It is used as Intermediate for the chemical industry, for example for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfumes and plastics.


Reported found in apple aroma and in the essential oils of camphor, Rosa centifolia, clary sage, Pinus excelsa and Pinus silverstris. Also reported found in over 100 natural products including apple, banana, sweet cherry, sour cherry, black currant grapes, melon, pineapple, strawberry, cabbage, carrot, celery, cucumber, garlic, onion, leek, potato, peas, rutabaga, tomato, Scotch spearmint oil, vinegar, bread and bread preferment, blue cheeses, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, butter, milk, cream, boiled egg, caviar, fatty fish, cooked turkey, beef, pork and chicken, beer, rum, cognac, whiskies, grape wines, coffee, cocoa, tea, roasted filberts and peanuts, peanut oil, potato chips, pecans, oats, honey, soybeans, Arctic bramble, beans, Bantu beer, plum brandy, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, rice, prickly pear, peated malt, clary sage, truffle, krill, oysters, loganberry, Chinese quince and maté.


Manufacture of propionic acid, polyvinyl, and other plastics; synthesis of rubber chemicals; disin- fectant; preservative.


Propionaldehyde is produced by the oxo reaction of ethylene with carbon monoxide and hydrogen. n-Propyl alcohol is produced by hydrogenation of propionaldehyde, and propionic acid is made by oxidation of propionaldehyde.
n-Propyl alcohol is used as solvent in printing inks and as an intermediate in the preparation of agricultural chemicals. Propionic acid is used as a grain preservative as, for example, in preventing spoilage of wet corn used as animal feed. The use of propionic acid as a grain preservative is an alterna tive to drying by heating, which consumes fuel, and is considered mostly when fuel is expensive.


Propionaldehyde is used in the productionof propionic acid, propionic anhydride, andmany other compounds. It is formed in theoxidative deterioration of corn products, suchas corn chips. It occurs in automobile exhaustgases.


ChEBI: An aldehyde that consists of ethane bearing a formyl substituent. The parent of the class of propanals.


By oxidation of propyl alcohol, or by dry distillation of barium propionate with calcium formate.


Propionaldehyde is prepared in the usual way by the oxidation of n-propyl alcohol. It can also be prepared by dehydrogenating the alcohol by passing the vapors over a heated copper or brass catalyst. This avoids the danger of further oxidation to propionic acid.
The reactions of propionaldehyde are practically like those of acetaldehyde. It must be remembered that only the two alpha hydrogen atoms are active in replacement and condensation reactions.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with an overpowering fruity-like odor. Less dense than water. Flash point 15°F. Vapors are heavier than air.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Propionaldehyde may form explosive peroxides. Reacts vigorously with oxidizing agents. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame [Lewis]. Incompatible with strong bases and strong reducing agents. Vigorous polymerization reaction with methyl methacrylate. Polymerization may also occur in the presence of acids or caustics .


Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive limits in air 3.0–16%. Upper respiratory tract irri- tant.

Health Hazard

Propionaldehyde is a mild irritant to humanskin and eyes. The irritation effect from40 mg was severe in rabbits’ eyes. The toxicityof this compound observed in test animalswas low. Subcutaneous administration in ratsexhibited the symptoms of general anestheticeffect, convulsion, and seizure. Inhalationtoxicity was determined to be low. A concentrationof 8000 ppm (19,000 mg/m3) inair was lethal to rats.
LD50 value, oral (rats): 1400 mg/kg
LD50 subcutaneous (rats): 820 mg/kg.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by skin contact, ingestion, and subcutaneous routes. Mddly toxic by inhalation. A skin and severe eye irritant. Flammable liquid. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; reacts vigorously with oxidizers. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Vigorous polymerization reaction with methyl methacrylate. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ALDEHYDES.

Potential Exposure

Used as a synthetic flavoring; as a disinfectant and preservative; to make propionic acid; in plastic and rubber manufacturing; to make alkyl resins and plasticizers.


In a mutagenic test in V79 cells, Eder et al. observed that propionaldehyde is not mutagenic at 1 mM, but is toxic at 2mM. Similar to acrolein, Eder et al. suggested that the mutagenicity of this compound is mediated by its bifunctionality, whereas its cytotoxicity is mediated by the aldehyde function.


UN1275 Propionaldehyde, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
Propionaldehyde is readily oxidized if in contact to oxygen and should therefore be stored under inert gases.

Purification Methods

the aldehyde with CaSO4 or CaCl2, and fractionally distil it under nitrogen or in the presence of a trace of hydroquinone (to retard oxidation). Blacet and Pitts [J Am Chem Soc 74 3382 1952] repeatedly distilled the middle fraction in a vacuum until it no longer gave a solid polymer when cooled to -80o. It is stored with CaSO4. [Beilstein 1 IV 3165.]


Incompatible with strong acids; amines. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoa- cids, epoxides. Strong caustics; reducing agents can cause explosive polymerization. Can self-ignite if finely dispersed on porous or combustible material, such as fabric. Heat or UV light can cause decomposition. Aldehydes are fre- quently involved in self-condensation or polymerization reactions. These reactions are exothermic; they are often catalyzed by acid. Aldehydes are readily oxidized to give carboxylic acids. Flammable and/or toxic gases are gener- ated by the combination of aldehydes with azo, diazo com- pounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. Aldehydes can react with air to give first peroxo acids, and ultimately carboxylic acids. These autoxidation reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by the products of the reaction). The addition of stabilizers (anti- oxidants) to shipments of aldehydes retards autoxidation

Waste Disposal

Propionaldehyde is destroyed by burning in achemical incinerator equipped with an afterburnerand scrubber. Permanganate oxidationis a suitable laboratory method of destruction.

Propionaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Propionaldehyde Suppliers

Global( 280)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886 China 21032 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 22607 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258 CHINA 29961 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
027-59599243 CHINA 28229 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930503282 China 5392 58
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 592-605 1114 CHINA 6369 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
027-59338440 CHINA 23035 58
Standardpharm Co. Ltd.
86-714-3992388 United States 14344 58
Chongqing Chemdad Co., Ltd
+86-13650506873 CHINA 37282 58
86-18523575427 CHINA 47496 58

View Lastest Price from Propionaldehyde manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-08-26 Sulfuryl chloride
US $9.10 / KG 1KG 98% 10 ton Hebei Crovell Biotech Co Ltd
2021-02-08 Propionaldehyde
US $1.00 / KG 1KG 99% 10 mt Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
2020-04-21 Propionaldehyde
US $1.00 / KG 1KG 99% 20T Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd

Propionaldehyde Spectrum

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