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Dichloroacetic acid

Description Dosage Physical and Chemical Properties Mechanism of Action Indications Side Effects Warnings
Dichloroacetic acid
Dichloroacetic acid
CAS No.
79-43-6
Chemical Name:
Dichloroacetic acid
Synonyms
DKhUK;dichloro;dca(acid);urner’sliquid;dichloroacetic;Urner's liquid;Dichloressigsure;dichloraceticacid;bichloraceticacid;Bichloracetic acid
CBNumber:
CB5671951
Molecular Formula:
C2H2Cl2O2
Formula Weight:
128.94
MOL File:
79-43-6.mol

Dichloroacetic acid Properties

Melting point:
9-11 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
194 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.563 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
4.5 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
0.19 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.466(lit.)
Flash point:
>230 °F
storage temp. 
0-6°C
pka
1.48(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid
color 
APHA: <50
PH
1.2 (129g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
soluble
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,3050
BRN 
1098596
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong reducing agents. Reacts with water. Protect from moisture. Hygroscopic.
CAS DataBase Reference
79-43-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Acetic acid, dichloro-(79-43-6)
EPA Substance Registry System
Acetic acid, dichloro-(79-43-6)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,N,C,Xi,F
Risk Statements  36/38-40-50-35-36/37/38-67-38-65-48/20-11-63-50/53
Safety Statements  26-45-61-36/37-36-16-62-36/37/39
RIDADR  UN 1764 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  AG6125000
3-10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II
Hazardous Substances Data 79-43-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in rats: 2.82 g/kg (Smyth)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H290 May be corrosive to metals Corrosive to Metals Category 1 Warning P234, P390, P404
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H311 Toxic in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 3 Danger P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects Germ cell mutagenicity Category 2 Warning P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H371 May cause damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P234 Keep only in original container.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.
P406 Store in corrosive resistant/… container with a resistant inner liner.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Dichloroacetic acid price More Price(19)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 442559 Dichloroacetic acid analytical standard 79-43-6 1EA $21.6 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 36545 Dichloroacetic acid PESTANAL 79-43-6 1g $26 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical D0308 Dichloroacetic Acid >98.0%(GC)(T) 79-43-6 25g $14 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical D0308 Dichloroacetic Acid >98.0%(GC)(T) 79-43-6 500g $50 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 031249 Dichloroacetic acid, 99+% 79-43-6 1kg $55 2018-11-16 Buy

Dichloroacetic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is an analogous form of acetic acid where 2 out 3 of the hydrogen atoms from the methyl group are substituted by chlorine atoms. Dichloroacetic acid salts and esters have been used as active ingredients in medical drugs based on their ability to suppress the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. It is also administered to stem the secretion of lactic acid as a method of treatment for lactic acidosis. Dichloroacetic acid is clinically fundamental in children for the treatment of lactic acidosis. It slows down the growth of brain cancer cells hence DCA has been used as an effective self-treatment medication. DCA is generally safe for this indication, but its overall effectiveness is not established.

Dosage

Dichloroacetic acid can be administered intravenously or orally, but it is most effective when administered intravenously. The side effects associated with DCA are significantly minimal when the drug is administered intravenously, which makes it the optimum method of delivery.

Physical and Chemical Properties

DCA has a molecular weight of 128.936 g/mol, a monoisotopic mass of 127.943 g/mol and an exact mass of 127.943 g/mol. DCA is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 490 F. Dichloroacetic acid is miscible in acetone, diethyl ether, and ethanol; partially dissolves in carbon tetrachloride; soluble in water (1000000 mg/l at 200 C. When heated, the crystalline solid decomposes to produce hydrogen chloride and nitrogen oxide, which are both toxic vapors.

Mechanism of Action

DCA is an established cancer agent as it does not necessarily kill the cancerous cells, but instead, it modifies the metabolic properties of the cancer cells. This differs from the basic mechanism of a majority of chemo agents hence implying that they can result in notable toxicity. Cancer cells secrete copious amounts of glucose which results in immense energy in a dysfunctional manner. Cancer cells also hold the potential to increase the frequency of transcription of insulin receptors whose function is to convey glucose molecules into the cancer cell. Through glycolysis, glucose is converted into energy in the presence or absence of oxygen. Tumor cells illustrate about 200 times the rate of glycolysis as compared to healthy cells and the subsequent energy is used as a key factor in influencing the rapid growth of cancer. Healthy cells do not primarily depend on glycolysis for energy production as it is an ineffective method hence their intracellular activity revolves around the integration of oxygen as a key ingredient for the production of energy in the mitochondria. The mitochondria induce apoptosis where the functionality of mitochondria is reduced, and they can undergo mitosis. Not all tumor cells function this way, but those that take on this mechanism become the dominant cells in charge of growth, metastasis, and reoccurrence of the disease. Dichloroacetic acid aims at these dominant cells to influence total cure or stabilization of disease.

Indications

Based on its mechanism of action, Dichloroacetic acid can be relevant to breast cancer, colorectal and colon cancer, lung cancer, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma, acute myeloid leukemia, prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin’s Follicular Lymphoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma amongst other types of cancer.

Side Effects

DCA treatment can result in peripheral neuropathy, reduced memory/confusion, and fatigue when administered orally. All the side effects associated with DCA are reversible and short-lived. There are no significant observations of hypersensitivity to DCA.

Warnings

Concentrated DCA can irritate when it comes to contact with the eyes or skin when inhaled or ingested. Prolonged use of the drug can result in organ damage, bronchial infection or respiratory tract irritation especially when a spray mist is in use.

Chemical Properties

Dichloroacetic acid, CHCI2COOH, also known as dichlorethanoic acid, is a colorless,strong liquid acid. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Dichloroacetic acid is prepared by the chlorination of acetic acid.It is used in organic synthesis.

Definition

ChEBI: An organochlorine compound comprising acetic acid carrying two chloro substituents at the 2-position. It occurs in nature in seaweed, Asparagopsis taxiformis.

General Description

A colorless crystalline solid melting at 49°F. Corrosive to metals and tissue.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Dichloroacetic acid is probably hygroscopic. Dichloroacetic acid reacts with water or steam. Dichloroacetic acid is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases and strong reducing agents.

Health Hazard

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.

Purification Methods

Crystallise this strong acid from *benzene or pet ether. Dry it with MgSO4 and fractionally distil it. [Bernasconi et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 3612 1985, Beilstein 2 IV 498.]

Dichloroacetic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Dichloroacetic acid Suppliers

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