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Carbon disulphide

Carbon disulphide
Carbon disulphide structure
CAS No.
75-15-0
Chemical Name:
Carbon disulphide
Synonyms
CS2;CLSTN2;Weeviltox;NCI-C04591;caswellno162;Calsyntenin-2;Carbon sulfide;carbonsulphide;Kohlendisulfid;Alcadein-gamma
CBNumber:
CB6279761
Molecular Formula:
CS2
Formula Weight:
76.14
MOL File:
75-15-0.mol

Carbon disulphide Properties

Melting point:
-112--111 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
46 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.266 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density 
2.67 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
5.83 psi ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.627(lit.)
Flash point:
−29 °F
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, oil, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.
form 
Liquid
color 
≤10(APHA)
Odor
Cabbage-like odor detectable at 0.016 to 0.42 ppm (mean = 0.2 ppm)
Relative polarity
0.065
explosive limit
1-60%(V)
Water Solubility 
2.9 g/L (20 ºC)
FreezingPoint 
-110.3℃
λmax
λ: 386 nm Amax: ≤1.0
λ: 388 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 394 nm Amax: 0.25
λ: 403 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 410 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 500-750 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,1811
BRN 
1098293
Henry's Law Constant
24.25 (atm?m3/mol) at 24 °C (Elliott, 1989)
Exposure limits
NIOSH REL: TWA 1 ppm, STEL 10 ppm, IDLH 500 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 20 ppm, C 30 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 10 ppm.
Stability:
Stable. Extremely flammable. Highly volatile. Note low flash point and very wide explosion limits. Protect from heat, friction, shock, sunlight. Reacts violently with fluorine, azide solutions, zinc dust, liquid chlorine in the presence of iron. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, azides, aluminium, zinc, most common met
CAS DataBase Reference
75-15-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Carbon disulfide(75-15-0)
EPA Substance Registry System
Carbon disulfide(75-15-0)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Symbol(GHS) 
GHS06,GHS08,GHS02,GHS07
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H302-H333-H361-H301+H311+H331-H370-H373-H225-H315-H319-H335-H351-H361fd-H372-H332
Precautionary statements  P260-P280-P301+P310+P330-P302+P352+P312-P308+P311-P403+P233-P210-P305+P351+P338-P370+P378-P403+P235-P201-P261-P304+P340+P312-P308+P313-P303+P361+P353-P405-P501a
Hazard Codes  F,T
Risk Statements  11-36/38-48/23-62-63-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-48/20-40-36/37/38-19
Safety Statements  16-33-36/37-45-7-26
RIDADR  UN 1131 3/PG 1
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  FF6650000
Autoignition Temperature 90 °C
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2813 10 00
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  I
Toxicity LC50 inhal (rat) 25,000 mg/m3 (2 h)
STEL (OSHA) 12 ppm (36 mg/m3)-skin
PEL (OSHA) 4 ppm (12 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 10 ppm (31 mg/m3)-skin

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
4
3 0
Health   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
Flammability   4 Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Includes pyrophoric substances. Flash point below room temperature at 22.8 °C (73 °F). (e.g. acetylene, propane, hydrogen gas)
Instability   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)
Special  

(NFPA, 2010)

Carbon disulphide price More Price(34)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 180173 Carbon disulfide ACS reagent, ≥99.9% 75-15-0 1l $148 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 180173 Carbon disulfide ACS reagent, ≥99.9% 75-15-0 2l $208 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar 032472 Carbon disulfide, 99.9% 75-15-0 250ml $38.9 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 032472 Carbon disulfide, 99.9% 75-15-0 1L $106 2018-11-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 342270 Carbon disulfide ≥99.9% 75-15-0 100ml $107 2018-11-20 Buy

Carbon disulphide Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

colourless to light yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor. soluble in water and alcohol.It is used as an organic solvent for oils, fats, rubbers, in paint removers,and in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride and rayon.

Chemical Properties

Pure carbon disulfi de is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor similar to that of chloroform, while impure carbon disulfi de is a yellowish liquid with an unpleasant odor, like that of rotting radishes. Exposure to carbon disulfi de occurs in industrial workplaces. Industries associated with coal gasifi cation plants release more carbon disulfi de, carbonyl sulfi de, and hydrogen sulfi de. Carbon disulfi de is used in large quantities as an industrial chemical for the production of viscose rayon fi bers. In fact, the major source of environmental pollution by carbon disulfi de both indoors and outdoors is caused by emissions released into the air from viscose plants

Chemical Properties

Carbon disulfide is a highly refractive, flammable liquid; which, in pure form has a sweet odor and in commercial and reagent grades has a foul smell. It can be detected by odor at about 1 ppm but the sense of smell fatigues rapidly and, therefore, odor does not serve as a good warning property.

Physical properties

Clear, colorless to pale yellow liquid; ethereal odor when pure. Technical grades have strong, foul, rotten, radish-like odor. Leonardos et al. (1969) reported an odor threshold in air of 210 ppbv.

Uses

Formerly used as an insecticide

Uses

Carbon disulfide is used in the manufacture of regenerated cellulose rayon, cellophane, soil disinfectants, and electronicvacuum tubes. Other major uses are in theproduction of carbon tetrachloride, xanthates,thiocyanates, plywood adhesives, and rubberaccessories. It is also used as a solvent and asan eluant for organics adsorbed on charcoalin air analysis.

Uses

Suitable for industrial hygiene analysis

Uses

In the manufacture of rayon, carbon tetrachloride, xanthogenates, soil disinfectants, electronic vacuum tubes. Solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubbers.

General Description

Pure carbon disulphide is a colourless liquid with a pleasant odour similar to that of chloroform, while the impure carbon disulphide is a yellowish liquid with an unpleasant odour, like that of rotting radishes. Exposure to carbon disulphide occurs in industrial workplaces. Industries associated with coal gasification plants release more of carbon disulphide, carbonyl sulphide, and hydrogen sulphide. Carbon disulphide is used in large quantities as an industrial chemical for the production of viscose rayon fibres. In fact, the major source of environmental pollution both indoor and outdoor by carbon disulphide is caused by emission released into the air from viscose plants.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Carbon disulphide has an extremely low autoignition temperature (125°C). May ignite or even explode when heated. The vapor or liquid has been known to ignite on contact with steam pipes, particularly if rusted [Anon., J. Roy. Inst. Chem., 1956, 80, p.664]. Explosion hazard when exposed to flame, heat, sparks or friction. Mixtures with lithium, sodium, potassium or dinitrogen tetraoxide may detonate when shocked. Potentially explosive reaction with nitrogen oxide, chlorine, permanganic acid(strong oxidizing agents). Vapor ignites in contact with aluminum powder or fluorine. Reacts violently with azides, ethylamine ethylenediamine, ethylene imine. Emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur when heated to decomposition [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 663]. Sodium amide forms toxic and flammable H2S gas with CS2. (714)

Hazard

A poison. Toxic by skin absorption. Highly flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk, can be ignited by friction. Explosive limits in air 1–50%. Questionable carcinogen. Peripheral ner- vous system impairment.

Health Hazard

The material affects the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, eyes, kidneys, liver, and skin. It may be absorbed through the skin as a vapor or liquid, inhaled or ingested. The probable oral lethal dose for a human is between 0.5 and 5 g/kg or between 1 ounce and 1 pint (or 1 pound) for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. In chronic exposures, the central nervous system is damaged and results in the disturbance of vision and sensory changes as the most common early symptoms. Lowest lethal dose for humans has been reported at 14 mg/kg or 0.98 grams for a 70 kg person. Alcoholics and those suffering from neuropsychic trouble are at special risk.

Health Hazard

Laboratory animals exposed to carbon disulfi de experienced deleterious health effects, i.e., developmental effects, skeletal and visceral malformations, embryotoxicity, and functional and behavioral disturbances. Studies have also shown that animals exposed to carbon disulfi de indicate destruction of the myelin sheath and axonal changes in both central and peripheral neurons along with changes in the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stern, and spinal cord. Neuropathy and myelopathy were extensively studied in rats and rabbits. In the muscle fi bers, atrophy of the denervation type occurred secondary to polyneuropathy. Studies have also shown that carbon disulfi de causes vascular changes in various organs of animals as well as myocardial lesions. Occupational workers exposed to carbon disulfi de showed symptoms of irritability, anger, mood changes, manic delirium and hallucinations, paranoic ideas, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal disturbances, and reproductive disorders. The slowing down of nerve conduction velocity in the sciatic nerves preceded clinical symptoms. Studies have indicated that carbon disulfi de can affect the normal functions of the brain, liver, and heart. Occupational workers exposed to high concentrations of carbon disulfi de have suffered with skin burns when the chemical accidentally touched people’s skin

Health Hazard

Although carbon disulfide exhibits lowtoxicity in most experimental animals, itstoxicity is relatively greater in humans. Theprimary route of exposure is inhalation ofvapors. It may also enter the body throughskin absorption. The toxic effect from single exposure is narcosis. Repeated exposure causes headache, dizziness, fatigue, nervousness, insomnia, psychosis, irritation, tremors,loss of appetite, indigestion, and gastric disturbances. The symptoms above may be manifested in humans after a few months of 4-hour daily exposure to 150 ppm. A concentration below 30 ppm does not produce anynotable toxic effects. A 15-minute exposureto 5000 ppm of carbon disulfide in air can befatal to humans. Ingestion of 5–10 mL of theliquid may be fatal. The oral LD50 value inrats is in the range 3000 mg/kg.
Chapman et al. (1991) reported finger tremor in humans similar to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease resulting from chronic exposureto carbon disulfide-based pesticides. Similarneurotoxic effects of the pesticide disulfiram have been earlier attributed to its metabolite,CS2 (Rainey Jr. 1977). Sills et al. (2005) haveconducted neurotoxicity inhalation studies ofCS2 onthetargetorgansspinalcordofthecen-tral nervous system and the distal portions oflong myelinated axons of peripheral nervoussystem in F344 rats. The authors observedthat CS2 produced intra- and intermolecularprotein cross-linking in vivo. Such covalentcross-linking in neurofilament proteins priorto the onset of lesions contributed to the neu-rofilamentous axonal swellings.
Chou et al. (2005) have investigated CS2-induced skin toxicity in mice and alterationsin epidermal permeability leading to physiological and pathological changes from topicalexposure to CS2. The authors have postulated two mechanistic pathways to accountfor CS2-induced epidermal alterations, oneinvolving intercellular lipid depletion and theother with keratinocyte damage.

Fire Hazard

Ignition temperature dangerously low: 212F. Vapors may be ignited by contact with ordinary light bulb, when heated to decomposition, Carbon disulphide emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur. When heated to decomposition, emits highly toxic fumes of sulfur oxides and can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Avoid air, rust, halogens, metal azides, metals, oxidants; when exposed to heat or flame reacts violently with aluminum, chlorine, azides, hypochlorite, ethylamine diamine, ethylene imine, fluorine, metallic azides of lithium, potassium, cesium, rubidium and sodium, nitrogen oxides, potassium, zinc and (sulfuric acid plus permanganate). Decomposes on standing for a long time.

Flammability and Explosibility

Carbon disulfide is extremely flammable and is a dangerous fire hazard (NFPA rating = 3). It is has a high vapor pressure and extremely low autoignition temperature. Its vapor is heavier than air and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. The vapor forms explosive mixtures in air at concentrations of 1.3 to 50%. Carbon disulfide can be ignited by hot surfaces such as steam baths that would ordinarily not constitute an ignition source for other flammable vapors. Rust (iron oxide) may increase the likelihood of ignition by hot surfaces. Carbon disulfide fires should be extinguished with CO2 or dry chemical extinguishers.

Safety Profile

A human poison by unspecified route. Mildly toxic to humans by inhalation. An experimental poison by intraperitoneal route. Human reproductive effects on spermatogenesis by inhalation. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. The main toxic effect is on the central nervous system, acting as a narcotic and anesthetic in acute poisoning with death following from respiratory failure. In chronic poisoning, the effect on the nervous system is one of central and peripheral damage, which may be permanent if the damage has been severe. Flammable liquid. A dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, sparks, friction, or oxidning materials. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Ignition and potentially explosive reaction when heated in contact with rust or iron. Mixtures with sodium or potassiumsodum alloys are powerful, shock-sensitive explosives. Explodes on contact with permanganic acid. Potentially explosive reaction with nitrogen oxide, chlorine (catalyzed by iron). Mixtures with dinitrogen tetraoxide are heat-, spark-, and shocksensitive explosives. Reacts with metal azides to produce shockand heat-sensitive, explosive metal azidodtthioformates. Aluminum powder ignites in CS2 vapor. The vapor ignites on contact with fluorine. Reacts violently with azides, CsN3, Cl0, ethylamine diamine, ethylene imine, Pb(N3)2, LiN3, (H2so4 + permanganates), KN3, RbN3, NaN3, phenylcoppertriphenylphosphine complexes. Incompatible with air, metals, oxidants. To fight fire, use water, CO2, dry chemical, fog, mist. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of SO,.

Potential Exposure

Carbon disulfide is used in the manufacture of viscose rayon; ammonium salts; carbon tetrachloride; carbanilide, xantho genates; flotation agents; soil disinfectants; dyes; electronic vacuum tubes; optical glass; paints, enamels, paint removers; varnishes; varnish removers; tallow, textiles, explosives; rocket fuel; putty; preservatives, and rubber cement; as a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine; alkali cellulose; fats, waxes, lacquers, camphor, resins, and cold vulcanized rubber. It is also used in degreasing; chemical analysis; electroplating; grain fumigation; oil extraction; and drycleaning. It is widely used as a pesticide intermediate.

Source

Identified among 139 volatile compounds identified in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var.reticulates cv. Sol Real) using an automated rapid headspace solid phase microextraction method (Beaulieu and Grimm, 2001).

Environmental Fate

Chemical/Physical. Carbon disulfide hydrolyzes in alkaline solutions to carbon dioxide and hydrogen disulfide (Peyton et al., 1976).
In an aqueous alkaline solution containing hydrogen peroxide, dithiopercarbonate, sulfide, elemental sulfur and polysulfides may be expected to form (Elliott, 1990). In an aqueous alkaline solution (pH ≥8), carbon disulfide reacted with hydrogen peroxide forming sulfate and carbonate ions. However, when the pH is lowered to 7–7.4, colloidal sulfur is formed (Adewuyi and Carmichael, 1987).
An aqueous solution containing carbon disulfide reacts with sodium hypochlorite forming carbon dioxide, sulfuric acid and sodium chloride (Patnaik, 1992). Forms a hemihydrate which decomposes at –3°C (Keith and Walters, 1992).Agricultural fumigant Burns with a blue flame releasing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide (Windholz et al., 1983). Emits very toxic sulfur oxides when heated to decomposition (Lewis, 1990). Carbon disulfide oxidizes in the troposphere producing carbonyl sulfide. The atmospheric half-lives for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide were estimated to be approximately 2 years and 13 days, respectively (Khalil and Rasmussen, 1984).

storage

carbon disulfide should be used only in areas free of ignition sources (including hot plates, incandescent light bulbs, and steam baths), and this substance should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Shipping

UN1131 Carbon disulfide, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

Shake it for 3hours with three portions of KMnO4 solution (5g/L), twice for 6hours with mercury (to remove sulfide impurities) until no further darkening of the interface occurs, and finally with a solution of HgSO4 (2.5g/L) or cold, saturated HgCl2. Dry it with CaCl2, MgSO4, or CaH2 (with further drying by refluxing over P2O5), followed by fractional distillation in diffuse light. Alkali metals cannot be used as drying agents. It has also been purified by standing with bromine (0.5mL/L) for 3-4hours, shaking rapidly with KOH solution, then copper turnings (to remove unreacted bromine), and drying with CaCl2. CS2 is highly TOXIC and highly FLAMMABLE. Work in a good fumehood. Small quantities of CS2 have been purified (including removal of hydrocarbons) by mechanical agitation of a 45-50g sample with a solution of 130g of sodium sulfide in 150mL of H2O for 24hours at 35-40o. The aqueous sodium thiocarbonate solution is separated from unreacted CS2, then precipitated with 140g of copper sulfate in 350g of water, with cooling. After filtering off the copper thiocarbonate, it is decomposed by passing steam into it. The distillate is separated from H2O and distilled from P2O5. [Ruff & Golla Z Anorg Chem 138 17 1924, Beilstein 3 IV 395.]

Incompatibilities

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Also incompatible with chemically active metals (such as sodium, potassium, zinc), azides, organic amines, halogens. May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion. May explode on heating. The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air and on contact with hot surfaces, producing toxic fumes of sulfur dioxide. Reacts violently with oxidants to produce oxides of sulfur and carbon monoxide, and causing fire and explosion hazard. Attacks some forms of plastic, rubber, and coating.

Waste Disposal

This compound is a very flammable liquid which evaporates rapidly. It burns with a Blue flame to carbon dioxide (harmless) and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide has a strong suffocating odor; 1000 ppm in air is lethal to rats. The pure liquid presents an acute fire and explosion hazard. The following disposal procedure is suggested: All equipment or contact surfaces should be grounded to avoid ignition by static charges. Absorb on vermiculite, sand, or ashes and cover with water. Transfer underwater in buckets to an open area. Ignite from a distance with an excelsior trail. If quantity is large, Carbon disulfide may be recovered by distillation and repackaged for use.

Precautions

During handling of carbon disulfi de, occupational workers require proper clothing, eye protection, and respiratory protection. Workers should use the chemical under trained management. On contact with the eyes, immediately fl ush with large amounts of water. On skin contact, the worker should quickly remove contaminated clothing and immediately call for medical attention

Carbon disulphide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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Carbon disulphide Spectrum


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