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Phosphorus pentachloride

Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity
Phosphorus pentachloride
Phosphorus pentachloride structure
Chemical Name:
Phosphorus pentachloride
PCl5;phosphoricchloride;PHOSPHORUS CHLORIDE;Fosforpentachloride;Phosphoric chloride;pieciochlorekfosforu;Phosphorus pentachlo;Phosphorpentachlorid;Pieciochlorek fosforu;phosphorusperchloride
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Phosphorus pentachloride Properties

Melting point:
179-181°C (subl.)
Boiling point:
160 °C
vapor pressure 
0.016 hPa (20 °C)
storage temp. 
Soluble in carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride.
Specific Gravity
1 (5g/l, H2O)acidic
Water Solubility 
Moisture Sensitive
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 0.85 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) (ACGIH), ~1 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) (OSHA). .
CAS DataBase Reference
10026-13-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Phosphorus pentachloride(10026-13-8)
EPA Substance Registry System
Phosphorane, pentachloro-(10026-13-8)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  T+
Risk Statements  14-22-26-34-48/20
Safety Statements  26-36/37/39-45-7/8
RIDADR  UN 1806 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  TB6125000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  28121045
Hazardous Substances Data 10026-13-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 660 mg/kg
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H330 Fatal if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 1, 2 Danger P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see … on this label).
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
3 2
HEALTH   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
FIRE  0 Materials that will not burn under typical fire conditions, including intrinsically noncombustible materials such as concrete, stone, and sand. Materials that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 820 °C (1,500 °F) for a period of 5 minutes.(e.g. Carbon tetrachloride)
REACT   2 Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water (e.g. white phosphorus, potassium, sodium)

(NFPA, 2010)

Phosphorus pentachloride price More Price(16)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 157775 Phosphorus pentachloride reagent grade, 95% 10026-13-8 5g $43.8 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 157775 Phosphorus pentachloride reagent grade, 95% 10026-13-8 1kg $91.5 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010523 Phosphorus(V) chloride, 98% 10026-13-8 100g $35.4 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010523 Phosphorus(V) chloride, 98% 10026-13-8 *4x500g $129 2018-11-16 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-1545 Phosphorus(V) chloride, 98% 10026-13-8 1kg $132 2018-11-13 Buy

Phosphorus pentachloride Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Physical Properties

Yellowish-white tetragonal crystals; pungent odor; fumes in air; deliquescent; density 2.1 g/cm3; decomposes on heating; melts at 166.8°C under the pressure of its own vapor(triple point); sublimes at 160°C; critical temperature 373°C; hydrolyzes in water; soluble in carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride.


Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a chlorinating agent in many organic syntheses, such as production of alkyl and acid chlorides. It also is a catalyst in manufacturing acetylcellulose.


Phosphorus pentachloride is prepared by reacting white phosphorus with excess dry chlorine. The white phosphorus is placed over sand in a retort from which air and moisture have been purged. The reaction is indicated by inflaming phosphorus:
P4 + 10Cl2 → 4PCl5
Also, the compound is obtained by reaction of dry chlorine with phosphorus trichloride:
PCl3 + Cl2 → PCl5


Phosphorus pentachloride absorbs moisture from air forming phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2HCl
The above reaction is difficult to control and progresses to complete hydrolysis. Thus, in the presence of excess water or when treated with water, the pentachloride is hydrolyzed to phosphoric acid:
PCl5 + 4H2O → H3PO4 + 5HCl
Reaction with sulfur dioxide yields thionyl chloride and phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + SO2 → SOCl2 + POCl3
Reaction with liquid hydrogen sulfide forms thiophosphoryl chloride, PSCl3:
PCl5 + H2S → PSCl3 + 2HCl
Phosphorus pentachoride converts arsenic to arsenic trichloride:
3PCl5 + 2As → 3AsCl3 + 3PCl3
Reaction with oxalic acid or boric acid yields phosphoryl chloride:
PCl5 + (COOH)2 → POCl3 + CO + CO2 + 2HCl
3PCl5 + 2B(OH)3 → 3POCl3 + B2O3 + 6HCl
Reaction with phosphorus pentoxide produces phosphoryl chloride:
3PCl5 + P2O5 → 5POCl3


The compound is strongly irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes.


Phthalic anhydride is a white lustrous needle-like solid, phthalic anhydride is slightly soluble in water.
Phthalic anhydride is an important chemical intermediate in the plastics industry. It has extensive industrial applications in the production of phthalic plasticisers, alkydic resins, polyesters resins, and synthetic resins. It is also used in dyes phenolphthalein, PVC stabilisers, drying agents for paints and aro. Phthalic anhydride itself is used as a monomer for synthetic resins such as glyptal, the alkyd resins, and the polyester resins. It is also used to make unsaturated polyesters that are used to manufacture fibreglassreinforced plastics, halogenated anhydrides used as fire retardants; polyester polyols for urethanes, phthalocyanine pigments; dyes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, tanning and curing agents, as solvents, as insect repellents, and various chemical intermediates. Phthalic anhydride is released to the environment from chemical plants, mainly those that manufacture the chemical or use it in the production of plastics and resins. Phthalic anhydride is used in the synthesis of primary amines, the agricultural fungicide phaltan, and thalidomide.

Chemical Properties

Yellowish crystalline powder and scales

Chemical Properties

Phosphorus pentachloride is a pale yellow, fuming solid with an odor like hydrochloric acid.


Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a chlorinating agent to convert acids into acid chlorides, as a dehydrating agent, and as a catalyst.


As catalyst in manufacture of acetylcellulose; for replacing hydroxyl groups by Cl, particularly for converting acids into acid chlorides.

General Description

Phosphorus pentachloride is a greenish-yellow crystalline solid with an irritating odor. Phosphorus pentachloride is decomposed by water to form hydrochloric and phosphoric acid and heat. This heat may be sufficient to ignite surrounding combustible material. Phosphorus pentachloride is corrosive to metals and tissue. Long term exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations can result in adverse health effects from inhalation.

Reactivity Profile

Phosphorus pentachloride is a lightly yellow, fuming crystalline material, highly caustic, corrosive and toxic. Flammable by chemical reaction. Violent exothermic reaction with water or steam. When heated to decomposition Phosphorus pentachloride emits highly toxic fumes of chlorides and oxides of phosphorus. Explosive reaction with alkaline metals (sodium, potassium), urea. Ignites on contact with fluorine. Violent reaction with aluminum, chlorine trioxide, hydroxylamine, magnesium oxide, nitrobenzene, phosphorus(III) oxide, potassium. Carbamates form explosive products [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 1360]. Reaction with the mixture of chlorine and chlorine dioxide causes explosion [Mellor, 1941, vol. 2, p. 281; 1940, vol. 8, p. 1013].

Health Hazard

Phosphorus pentachloride can cause death due to pulmonary edemaor by circulatory shock.

Health Hazard

Phosphorus pentachloride vapors are a strong irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes. Contact with skin can cause acid burns, as it reacts readily with moisture to form hydrochloric and phosphoric acids:
PCl5+4H2O→ H3PO4+5HCl
Chronic exposure to this compound can result in bronchitis.
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 205 mg (24 ppm)/m3 (NIOSH 1986).

Fire Hazard

When heated to decomposition, Phosphorus pentachloride emits highly toxic fumes of chlorides and chlorine. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Reacts violently with moisture, chlorine trioxide, fluorine hydroxylamine, magnesium oxides, diphosphorus trioxide, sodium and potassium. Decomposed by water to form hydrogen chloride, phosphoric acids, corrosive materials, and heat. This heat may be sufficient to ignite surrounding combustible materials. Incompatible with water, magnesium oxide, chemically active metals: sodium, potassium; alkalis; aluminum; chlorine dioxide; chlorine; diphosphorus trioxide; fluorine; hydroxylamine; magnesium oxide; 3'-methyl-2-nitrobenzanilide; nitrobenzene; sodium; urea; water.

Safety Profile

Poison by inhalation. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A severe eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Corrosive to body tissues. Flammable by chemical reaction. Explosive reaction with chlorine dioxide + chlorine, sodium, urea + heat. Reacts to form explosive products with carbamates, 3'-methy-2-nitrobenzanilide (product explodes on contact with air). Ignites on contact with fluorine. Reacts violently with moisture, ClO3, hydroxyl- amine, magnesium oxide, nitrobenzene, phosphorus(Ⅲ) oxide, K. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with aluminum, chlorine dioxide, chlorine,diphosphorus trioxide, fluorine, hydroxylamine, magnesium oxide, 3'-methyl- 2-nitrobenzanilide, nitrobenzene, sodium, urea, water. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Used as a catalyst, chlorinating and dehydrating agent. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cland POx.

Potential Exposure

Phosphorus pentachloride is used as a as a chlorinating and dehydrating agent and as a catalyst. It is used in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals;chlorinated compounds; gasoline additives, plasticizers and surfactants; and in pharmaceutical manufacture

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water, or milk. Do not induce vomiting. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.


UN1806 Phosphorus pentachloride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

[All operations should be carried out in an efficient fume cupboard.] Sublime it at 160-170o in an atmosphere of chlorine. Excess chlorine is then displaced by dry N2 gas. All subsequent manipulations should be performed in a dry-box [Downs & Johnson J Am Chem Soc 77 2098 1955]. It fumes in moist air and attacks the eyes and the mucous membranes of the nose. It should not be breathed in and has very HARMFUL VAPOURS (wash burning eyes with aqueous NaHCO3).


Phosphorus pentachloride is a powerful oxidizer. Reacts with water (violent), magnesium oxide, chemically active metals, such as sodium and potassium, alkalis, amines, carbamates, aluminum powder, combustibles, fluorine, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus trioxide, and many other substances. Hydrolyzes in water (even in humid air) to form hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid. Corrosive to many metals, forming flammable and explosive hydrogen gas. Attacks plastic and rubber.

Waste Disposal

Decompose with water, forming phosphoric and hydrochloric acids. Neutralize acids and dilute if necessary for discharge into the sewer system.

Phosphorus pentachloride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Phosphorus pentachloride Suppliers

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