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抱水クロラール

抱水クロラール 化学構造式
302-17-0
CAS番号.
302-17-0
化学名:
抱水クロラール
别名:
抱水クロラール;クロラール水和物;2,2,2-トリクロロ-1,1-エタンジオール;2,2,2-トリクロロ-1,1-エタン-ジオール;2,2,2-トリクロロエタン-1,1-ジオール;エスクレ;抱水クロラ-ル;トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物;抱水クロラール標準原液;2,2,2トリクロロ1,1エタンジオル;トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物(抱水クロラール);抱水クローラル;トリクロロアセトアルデヒド,1水和物 抱水クロラール;クロラールハイドレート STANDARD;抱水クロラール標準液(1MG/ML T-ブチルメチルエーテル溶液);クロラール 水和物;抱水クロラール 溶液;トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物( 抱水クロラール);クロラールハイドレート Standard, 5.0 mg/mL in Acetone;抱水クロラール (JP17)
英語化学名:
Chloral hydrate
英語别名:
HS;TCA;oraL;Escre;Hynos;Tosyl;bi3411;Dormal;Hydral;Noctec
CBNumber:
CB0198709
化学式:
C2H3Cl3O2
分子量:
165.4
MOL File:
302-17-0.mol

抱水クロラール 物理性質

融点 :
57 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
97 °C
比重(密度) :
1.43 g/mL at 20 °C
屈折率 :
1.4603 (estimate)
闪点 :
16 °C
貯蔵温度 :
0-6°C
溶解性:
Very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
酸解離定数(Pka):
10(at 25℃)
比重:
1.91
PH:
3.5-5.5 (20℃, 10%)
水溶解度 :
660 g/100 mL
Merck :
13,2080
BRN :
1698497
安定性::
Stable, but may be air or light sensitive. Incompatible with alcohols, cyanides, iodine, strong bases, carbonates.
InChIKey:
RNFNDJAIBTYOQL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS データベース:
302-17-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC:
2A (Vol. 63, 84, 106) 2014
NISTの化学物質情報:
Chloral hydrate(302-17-0)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Chloral hydrate (302-17-0)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  T,F,Xn
Rフレーズ  25-36/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-36/37/38-36-20/21/22
Sフレーズ  26-45-25-23-36/37-16-27
RIDADR  UN 3286 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 FM8750000
国連危険物分類  6.1(b)
容器等級  III
HSコード  29055900
有毒物質データの 302-17-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 oral in rat: 479mg/kg
消防法 危-4-1-II
化審法 (2)-528
安衛法 57,57-2
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H301 飲み込むと有毒 急性毒性、経口 3 危険 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H312 皮膚に接触すると有害 急性毒性、経皮 4 警告 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H315 皮膚刺激 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 2 警告 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 吸入すると有害 急性毒性、吸入 4 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
注意書き
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P301+P310 飲み込んだ場合:直ちに医師に連絡すること。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。

抱水クロラール 価格 もっと(43)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0103-0216 トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物 99.5+% (Titration)
Trichloroacetaldehyde Monohydrate 99.5+% (Titration)
302-17-0 25g ¥1550 2021-03-23 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ACSM-551B-2 クロラールハイドレート Standard
Chloral hydrate Standard, 5.0 mg/mL in Acetone
302-17-0 1mL ¥5600 2021-03-23 購入
東京化成工業 C0073 抱水クロラール >99.7%(T)
Chloral Hydrate >99.7%(T)
302-17-0 25g ¥2000 2021-03-23 購入
東京化成工業 C0073 抱水クロラール >99.7%(T)
Chloral Hydrate >99.7%(T)
302-17-0 500g ¥7000 2021-03-23 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07208-21 トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物 >99.5%(T)
Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate >99.5%(T)
302-17-0 100g ¥2800 2021-03-23 購入

抱水クロラール 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水に易溶, エタノール, エーテルに可溶。水に極めて溶けやすく、エタノール及びアセトンに溶けやすい。

用途

睡眠?抗痙攣剤(有機化合物辞典(1985))GLUE PEPTIZING AGENT; MEDICINE (SEDATIVE), MANUFACTURE OF DDT, LINAMENTS. ; MANUFACTURE OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID IN THE LABORATORY.(HSDB(2010))

効能

抗不安薬, 催眠鎮静薬

商品名

エスクレ (久光製薬); エスクレ (久光製薬)

使用上の注意

強い吸湿性があり、強酸化剤と激しく反応する。

説明

Chloral hydrate was first synthesized in 1832 by Justus von Liebig and was the first synthetic central nervous system (CNS) depressant. It was used to treat delirium tremens, insomnia, and anxiety, although it is considered an unapproved drug by the US Food and Drug Administration. Initially considered to be a safer alternative to opium, it was noted to produce rapid unconsciousness when combined with ethanol. Physical dependence can occur with chronic use.

説明

Chloral hydrate (Item No. 21843) is an analytical reference standard that is categorized as a sedative. It is metabolized to trichloroethanol in vivo, which enhances Cl- currents activated by low concentrations of GABA. This product is intended for research and forensic applications.

化学的特性

colourless crystals with a pentrating odour

化学的特性

Chloral is a combustible, oily liquid with a pungent irritating odor.

使用

Trichloroacetaldehyde Hydrate is a useful chemical reagent used as a sedative/hypnotic agent for the short-term treatment of insomnia. First developed in 1832, chloral hydrate is the oldest sleep medication still in use today. This medication is also used to calm you just before surgery or other procedures. It works by affecting certain parts of the brain to cause calmness.
Studies have shown that when used in pediatric sedation side effects such as hallucination, excessive sleep and seizures were observed. Drowsiness and trouble waking up in the morning, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, and headache may occur. Stomach problems can be reduced by taking chloral hydrate with a full glass of water. It is sometimes administered to patients being treated with cyclophosphamide and it is known to inhibit some aldehyde dehydrogenases.
Besides, Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds. It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which serves as the desiccant.

使用

Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative hypnotic, more commonly in pediatrics. With the advent of newer sedative hypnotics, its use has significantly decreased. It is also a drug of abuse, particularly in combination with ethanol to produce an amnestic effect in an individual who ingests it unknowingly.

使用

The sedative–hypnotic action of chloral hydrate should be explained by the formation of trichloroethanol, which is synthesized as a result of its reduction in tissues. Despite the fact that the precise mechanism of action of chloral hydrate is not known, it evidently acts analogous to ethanol on the CNS by increasing membrane permeability, which leads to sedation or sleep. Chloral hydrate can be used for insomnia as an alternative to benzodiazepines.

定義

ChEBI: An organochlorine compound that is the hydrate of trichloroacetaldehyde.

生物学の機能

Chloral hydrate (Noctec, Somnos) was developed in the late 1800s and is still used as a sedative–hypnotic agent. It is a hydrated aldehyde with a disagreeable smell and taste that is rapidly reduced in vivo to trichloroethanol, which is considered to be the active metabolite. It produces a high incidence of gastric irritation and allergic responses, occasionally causes cardiac arrhythmias, and is unreliable in patients with liver damage.

一般的な説明

Chloral hydrate, trichloroacetaldehydemonohydrate, CCl3CH(OH)2 (Noctec), is analdehyde hydrate stable enough to be isolated. The relativestability of this gem-diol is largely a result of an unfavorabledipole–dipole repulsion between the trichloromethyl carbonand the carbonyl carbon present in the parent carbonylcompound.
Chloral hydrate is unstable in alkaline solutions, undergoingthe last step of the haloform reaction to yield chloroformand formate ion. In hydroalcoholic solutions, it formsthe hemiacetal with ethanol. Whether or not this compoundis the basis for the notorious and potentially lethal effect of the combination of ethanol and chloral hydrate (the “MickeyFinn”) is controversial. Synergism between two differentCNS depressants also could be involved. Additionally,ethanol, by increasing the concentration of nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide (NADH), enhances the reduction ofchloral to the more active metabolite trichloroethanol, andchloral can inhibit the metabolism of alcohol because it inhibitsalcohol dehydrogenase. Chloral hydrate is a weak acidbecause its CCl3 group is very strong electron withdrawing.A 10% aqueous solution of chloral hydrate has pH 3.5 to4.4, which makes it irritating to mucous membranes in thestomach. As a result, GI upset commonly occurs for thedrug if undiluted or taken on an empty stomach. Chloral hydrateas a capsule, syrup, or suppository is currently available.

一般的な説明

Transparent colorless crystals or white crystalline solid. Aromatic penetrating slightly acrid odor and a slightly bitter caustic taste. Alcoholic solution (1 in 20) does not at once redden moistened blue litmus paper.

空気と水の反応

Water soluble.

反応プロフィール

Chloral hydrate is incompatible with alkalis, alkaline earth metals, alkali carbonates and soluble barbiturates. Chloral hydrate is decomposed by sodium hydroxide. Chloral hydrate reduces ammoniacal silver nitrate. Chloral hydrate liquefies when triturated with an equal quantity of menthol, camphor or thymol. . Reaction of Chloral hydrate with hydroxylamine produces toxic hydrogen cyanide gas, Org. Synth., 1941, Vol. 1, 377.

危険性

Overdose toxic, hypnotic drug, dangerous to eyes. Probable carcinogen.

火災危険

Flash point data for Chloral hydrate are not available; however, Chloral hydrate is probably combustible.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Chloral hydrate is a sedative/hypnotic.

臨床応用

Although it is suggested that chloral hydrate per semay act as a hypnotic,chloral hydrate is very quickly convertedto trichloroethanol, which is generally assumed toaccount for almost all of the hypnotic effect. Thetrichloroethanol is metabolized by oxidation to chloral andthen to the inactive metabolite, trichloracetic acid, which is also extensively metabolized to acylglucuronidesvia conjugation with glucuronic acid. It appears tohave potent barbiturate-like binding to GABAAreceptors.Although an old drug, it still finds use as a sedative in nonoperatingroom procedures for the pediatric patient.

安全性プロファイル

A human poison by ingestion and possibly other routes. Poison experimentally by ingestion, intravenous, and rectal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes, Experimental reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by ingestion: general anesthetic, cardiac arrhythmias, blood pressure depression, eye effects, coma, pulse rate increase, arrhythmias. Human mutation data reported. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data by skin contact. A sedative, anesthetic, and narcotic. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-.

Chemical Synthesis

Chloral hydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethandiol (4.3.1), is synthesized either by chlorination of ethanol or chlorination of acetaldehyde and the subsequent addition of water molecules to the resulting trichloroacetic aldehyde [31].

職業ばく露

Chloral is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of such pesticides as DDT, methoxychlor, DDVP, naled, trichlorfon, and TCA. Chloral is also used in the production of chloral hydrate; used as a therapeutic agent with hypnotic, sedative, and narcotic effects; used in a time prior to the introduction of barbiturates

Carcinogenicity

Chloral hydrate has not been adequately tested for teratogenicity, reproductive effects, or chronic toxicity. Similarly, no histological evaluations have been conducted.

環境運命予測

Chloral hydrate is a CNS depressant, but its mechanism of action is not well known. Coingestion with ethanol produces enhanced effects by several mechanisms. First, ethanol competes for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which then prolongs the half-life of ethanol. The metabolism of ethanol generates the reduced form of NADH, which is a cofactor for the metabolism of chloral hydrate to its active metabolite trichloroethanol. Finally, ethanol inhibits the conjugation of trichloroethanol to its inactive form urochloralic acid. This results in enhanced CNS depression.

輸送方法

UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

Toxicity evaluation

Chloral hydrate has been detected at 5 mg l-1 in the US drinking water supply. Although chloral hydrate does not exist naturally, it can be produced as a by-product of chlorination of water at water treatment facilities, specifically in exposed water with high amounts of humic and fulvic substances.

不和合性

Chloral hydrate reacts with strong bases forming chloroform. Contact with acids, or exposure to light may cause polymerization. Reacts with water, forming chloral hydrate. Reacts with oxidizers, with a risk of fire or explosions.

廃棄物の処理

Incineration after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be taken to assure complete combustion to prevent phosgene formation; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

抱水クロラール 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品


抱水クロラール 生産企業

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302-17-0(抱水クロラール)キーワード:


  • 302-17-0
  • 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-ethanediol
  • 2,2,2-TRICHLOROETHANE-1,1-DIOL
  • 2,2,2-TRICHLOROETHANE-1,1-DIOL HYDRATE
  • TRICHLOROACETALDEHYDE HYDRATE
  • TRICHLOROACETALDEHYDE MONOHYDRATE
  • 'SCHLIFF-AUF'
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE, CRYSTALLIZED
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE SOLUTION (1 G/ML) REAG. DAB
  • 'SCHLIFF-AUF' FLUKA
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE--DEA SCHEDULE IV ITEM
  • CHLORAL HYDRAT 99%
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE INHIBITOR OF ALCOHOL
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE SOLUTION
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE DAB, PH. EUR., B.P., PH. FRANC., U.S.P.
  • CHLORAL HYDRATE, PH EUR
  • Trichloroacetaldehyde Hydrate 2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-diol
  • Chloral hydrate (TCA)
  • 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-dihydroxyethane
  • 1,1-Ethanediol, 2,2,2-trichloro-
  • 1,1-Ethanediol,2,2,2-trichloro-
  • 1-Ethanediol,2,2,2-trichloro-1
  • 2,2,2-trichloro-1-ethanediol
  • trichloroethanalhydrate
  • trichloroethylideneglycol
  • Chloral hydrate crystallized, >=98.0% (T)
  • Threechloralhydrate
  • Chloral hydrate, 99.0%(T)
  • Chloral hydrate (302-17-0) chloral hydrate
  • ‘Ground joint separation aid’ Fluka
  • Chloral hydrate meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.5-101%
  • 抱水クロラール
  • クロラール水和物
  • 2,2,2-トリクロロ-1,1-エタンジオール
  • 2,2,2-トリクロロ-1,1-エタン-ジオール
  • 2,2,2-トリクロロエタン-1,1-ジオール
  • エスクレ
  • 抱水クロラ-ル
  • トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物
  • 抱水クロラール標準原液
  • 2,2,2トリクロロ1,1エタンジオル
  • トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物(抱水クロラール)
  • 抱水クローラル
  • トリクロロアセトアルデヒド,1水和物 抱水クロラール
  • クロラールハイドレート STANDARD
  • 抱水クロラール標準液(1MG/ML T-ブチルメチルエーテル溶液)
  • クロラール 水和物
  • 抱水クロラール 溶液
  • トリクロロアセトアルデヒド一水和物( 抱水クロラール)
  • クロラールハイドレート Standard, 5.0 mg/mL in Acetone
  • 抱水クロラール (JP17)
  • 除草剤
  • 催眠鎮静薬
  • 浸透性農薬
  • 抗痙攣薬
  • 麻酔薬
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