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포수클로랄

포수클로랄
포수클로랄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
302-17-0
한글명:
포수클로랄
동의어(한글):
클로랄수화물;포수클로랄;클로랄수화물;2,2,2-트라이클로로에탄-1,1-다이올
상품명:
Chloral hydrate
동의어(영문):
HS;TCA;Escre;Hynos;Tosyl;bi3411;Dormal;Hydral;Noctec;Nortec
CBNumber:
CB0198709
분자식:
C2H3Cl3O2
포뮬러 무게:
165.4
MOL 파일:
302-17-0.mol

포수클로랄 속성

녹는점
57 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
97 °C
밀도
1.43 g/mL at 20 °C
굴절률
1.4603 (estimate)
인화점
16 °C
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
Very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
산도 계수 (pKa)
10(at 25℃)
Specific Gravity
1.91
수소이온지수(pH)
3.5-5.5 (20℃, 10%)
수용성
660 g/100 mL
Merck
13,2080
BRN
1698497
안정성
Stable, but may be air or light sensitive. Incompatible with alcohols, cyanides, iodine, strong bases, carbonates.
InChIKey
RNFNDJAIBTYOQL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
302-17-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Chloral hydrate(302-17-0)
EPA
1,1-Ethanediol, 2,2,2-trichloro-(302-17-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,F,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 25-36/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-36/37/38-36-20/21/22
안전지침서 26-45-25-23-36/37-16-27
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3286 3/PG 2
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 FM8750000
위험 등급 6.1(b)
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29055900
유해 물질 데이터 302-17-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H301 삼키면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 3 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H312 피부와 접촉하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 4 경고 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 흡입하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 4 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
예방조치문구:
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.

포수클로랄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Barbiturates와는 달리 효소 유도 효과를 지니지 않으며 REM 수면에 영향을 미치지 않는다. 또한 상용량에서는 호흡, 혈압, 반사 등에 거의 영향을 미치지 않으며, 숙취효과도 barbiturates보다 적다.

용도

수면진정제 및 신경안정제.

화학적 성질

colourless crystals with a pentrating odour

화학적 성질

Chloral is a combustible, oily liquid with a pungent irritating odor.

용도

Trichloroacetaldehyde Hydrate is a useful chemical reagent used as a sedative/hypnotic agent for the short-term treatment of insomnia. First developed in 1832, chloral hydrate is the oldest sleep medication still in use today. This medication is also used to calm you just before surgery or other procedures. It works by affecting certain parts of the brain to cause calmness.
Studies have shown that when used in pediatric sedation side effects such as hallucination, excessive sleep and seizures were observed. Drowsiness and trouble waking up in the morning, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, and headache may occur. Stomach problems can be reduced by taking chloral hydrate with a full glass of water. It is sometimes administered to patients being treated with cyclophosphamide and it is known to inhibit some aldehyde dehydrogenases.
Besides, Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds. It is the starting material for the production of chloral, which is produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which serves as the desiccant.

정의

ChEBI: An organochlorine compound that is the hydrate of trichloroacetaldehyde.

Biological Functions

Chloral hydrate (Noctec, Somnos) was developed in the late 1800s and is still used as a sedative–hypnotic agent. It is a hydrated aldehyde with a disagreeable smell and taste that is rapidly reduced in vivo to trichloroethanol, which is considered to be the active metabolite. It produces a high incidence of gastric irritation and allergic responses, occasionally causes cardiac arrhythmias, and is unreliable in patients with liver damage.

일반 설명

Chloral hydrate, trichloroacetaldehydemonohydrate, CCl3CH(OH)2 (Noctec), is analdehyde hydrate stable enough to be isolated. The relativestability of this gem-diol is largely a result of an unfavorabledipole–dipole repulsion between the trichloromethyl carbonand the carbonyl carbon present in the parent carbonylcompound.
Chloral hydrate is unstable in alkaline solutions, undergoingthe last step of the haloform reaction to yield chloroformand formate ion. In hydroalcoholic solutions, it formsthe hemiacetal with ethanol. Whether or not this compoundis the basis for the notorious and potentially lethal effect of the combination of ethanol and chloral hydrate (the “MickeyFinn”) is controversial. Synergism between two differentCNS depressants also could be involved. Additionally,ethanol, by increasing the concentration of nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide (NADH), enhances the reduction ofchloral to the more active metabolite trichloroethanol, andchloral can inhibit the metabolism of alcohol because it inhibitsalcohol dehydrogenase. Chloral hydrate is a weak acidbecause its CCl3 group is very strong electron withdrawing.A 10% aqueous solution of chloral hydrate has pH 3.5 to4.4, which makes it irritating to mucous membranes in thestomach. As a result, GI upset commonly occurs for thedrug if undiluted or taken on an empty stomach. Chloral hydrateas a capsule, syrup, or suppository is currently available.

일반 설명

Transparent colorless crystals or white crystalline solid. Aromatic penetrating slightly acrid odor and a slightly bitter caustic taste. Alcoholic solution (1 in 20) does not at once redden moistened blue litmus paper.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble.

반응 프로필

Chloral hydrate is incompatible with alkalis, alkaline earth metals, alkali carbonates and soluble barbiturates. Chloral hydrate is decomposed by sodium hydroxide. Chloral hydrate reduces ammoniacal silver nitrate. Chloral hydrate liquefies when triturated with an equal quantity of menthol, camphor or thymol. . Reaction of Chloral hydrate with hydroxylamine produces toxic hydrogen cyanide gas, Org. Synth., 1941, Vol. 1, 377.

위험도

Overdose toxic, hypnotic drug, dangerous to eyes. Probable carcinogen.

화재위험

Flash point data for Chloral hydrate are not available; however, Chloral hydrate is probably combustible.

Clinical Use

Although it is suggested that chloral hydrate per semay act as a hypnotic,chloral hydrate is very quickly convertedto trichloroethanol, which is generally assumed toaccount for almost all of the hypnotic effect. Thetrichloroethanol is metabolized by oxidation to chloral andthen to the inactive metabolite, trichloracetic acid, which is also extensively metabolized to acylglucuronidesvia conjugation with glucuronic acid. It appears tohave potent barbiturate-like binding to GABAAreceptors.Although an old drug, it still finds use as a sedative in nonoperatingroom procedures for the pediatric patient.

Safety Profile

A human poison by ingestion and possibly other routes. Poison experimentally by ingestion, intravenous, and rectal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes, Experimental reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by ingestion: general anesthetic, cardiac arrhythmias, blood pressure depression, eye effects, coma, pulse rate increase, arrhythmias. Human mutation data reported. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data by skin contact. A sedative, anesthetic, and narcotic. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-.

잠재적 노출

Chloral is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of such pesticides as DDT, methoxychlor, DDVP, naled, trichlorfon, and TCA. Chloral is also used in the production of chloral hydrate; used as a therapeutic agent with hypnotic, sedative, and narcotic effects; used in a time prior to the introduction of barbiturates

운송 방법

UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

비 호환성

Chloral hydrate reacts with strong bases forming chloroform. Contact with acids, or exposure to light may cause polymerization. Reacts with water, forming chloral hydrate. Reacts with oxidizers, with a risk of fire or explosions.

폐기물 처리

Incineration after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be taken to assure complete combustion to prevent phosgene formation; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

포수클로랄 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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