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디클로로디플루오로메탄

디클로로디플루오로메탄
디클로로디플루오로메탄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
75-71-8
한글명:
디클로로디플루오로메탄
동의어(한글):
다이클로로다이플루오로메테인;디클로로디플루오로메탄
상품명:
Dichlorodifluoromethane
동의어(영문):
f12;r12;CF12;F 12;f-12;HC12;R 12;R-12;FC-12;fcc12
CBNumber:
CB1202887
분자식:
CCl2F2
포뮬러 무게:
120.91
MOL 파일:
75-71-8.mol

디클로로디플루오로메탄 속성

녹는점
-158°C
끓는 점
-29.79°C
밀도
1.329
증기압
4,306 at 20 °C (McConnell et al., 1975)
굴절률
1.2850
인화점
11 °C
저장 조건
-20°C
용해도
Soluble in acetic acid, acetone, chloroform, ether (Weast, 1986), and ethanol (ITII, 1986)
물리적 상태
buffered aqueous glycerol solution
색상
Colorless gas with an ethereal odor
수용성
Insoluble. 0.028 g/100 mL
Henry's Law Constant
1.72, 2.63, and 3.91 at 10, 20, and 30 °C, respectively (Munz and Roberts, 1987)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: TWA 1,000 ppm (4,950 mg/m3), IDLH 15,000 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 1,000 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 1,000 ppm (adopted).
안정성
Stable. Non-flammable. May react violently with aluminium.
InChIKey
PXBRQCKWGAHEHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
75-71-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Dichlorodifluoromethane(75-71-8)
EPA
CFC-12 (75-71-8)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn;N,Xi,N,Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 20-59-23/25-11-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-22
안전지침서 23-24/25-59-61-45-24-16-7-36/37
유엔번호(UN No.) 1028
WGK 독일 1
위험 참고 사항 Irritant
DOT ClassificationII 2.2 (Nonflammable gas)
위험 등급 2.2
유해 물질 데이터 75-71-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 for rats >1 g/kg (quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
IDLA 15,000 ppm
기존화학 물질 KE-10106
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H420 대기 상층부의 오존층을 파괴하여 공공의 건강 및 환경에 유해함 오존층에 유해 함 구분 1 경고 P502
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
NFPA 704
0
1 0

디클로로디플루오로메탄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Dichlorodifluoromethane is known as CFC-12, also called R-12, or Freon-12. R-12 is a general name for Refrigerant-12. Freon is a trade name for DuPont. CFC stands for chlorofl uorocarbons, which are nontoxic, nonfl ammable, synthetic chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine.CFC use climbed steadily worldwide as it was incorporated in refrigeration and air conditioning, as well as being used as propellants, blowing agents, and solvents.
dichlorodifluoromethane structure
dichlorodifluoromethane structure

화학적 성질

Dichlorodifluoromethane is a liquefied gas and exists as a liquid at room temperature when contained under its own vapor pressure, or as a gas when exposed to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The liquid is practically odorless and colorless. The gas in high concentrations has a faint etherlike odor. Dichlorodifluoromethane is noncorrosive, nonirritating, and nonflammable. Ethereal odor at .20% by volume. Shipped as a compressed gas.
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane is a colorless, nonflammable liquefied gas with a faint, ethereal odor.
Trichloromonofluoromethane is a clear, volatile liquid at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It has a characteristic carbon tetrachloride-like odor and is nonirritating and nonflammable.

역사

CFCs were developed in the 1930s as coolants for refrigerator, freezer, and motor vehicle air conditioners.they subsequently found use as metal cleaners, degreasers, propellants, solvents, and blowing agents in the production of foams. CFCs have received widespread environmental attention because of their potential to deplete stratospheric ozone.

용도

Refrigerant, aerosol propellant.
Dichlorodifluoromethane is used as a refrigerant gas in refrigerators and air conditioners.
Dichlorodifluoromethane is also used in aerosol sprays, in plastics, and as an aid in detecting leaks.
Dichlorodifluoromethane harms the ozone layer, which protects the earth from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

생산 방법

Dichlorodifluoromethane is prepared by the reaction of hydrogen fluoride with carbon tetrachloride in the presence of a suitable catalyst, such as polyvalent antimony. The dichlorodifluoromethane formed is further purified to remove all traces of water and hydrochloric acid as well as traces of the starting and intermediate materials.
Trichloromonofluoromethane is also obtained by this process.
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane is prepared by the reaction of hydrogen fluoride with chlorine and perchloroethylene in the presence of a suitable catalyst such as polyvalent antimony.

일반 설명

A colorless gas having a faint ethereal odor. Shipped as a liquid confined under its own vapor pressure. Contact with the unconfined liquid can cause frostbite. Both components are noncombustible. Can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Exposure of the closed container to prolonged heat or fire can cause Dichlorodifluoromethane to rupture violently and rocket.

공기와 물의 반응

The liquefied gas poured into water can be violently explosive. This is due to the phase transition from superheated liquid to vapor.

반응 프로필

The reaction of aluminum with various halogenated hydrocarbons produces a self-sustaining reaction with sufficient heat to melt aluminum pieces, examples of other halogenated hydrocarbons are fluorotrichloromethane, Dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, tetrafluoromethane. The vigor of the reaction appears to be dependent on the combined degree of fluorination and the vapor pressure, [Chem. Eng. News 39(27):44(1961)].

건강위험

INHALATION: some narcosis when 10% in air is breathed.

Safety Profile

Dichlorodifluoromethane is a colorless, non-flammable gas that can affect you when breathed in. Acute (short-term) exposure to dichlorodifluoromethane can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and trouble with concentration. Exposure to high concentrations of the gas can cause the heart to beat irregularly or to stop. The health effects of chronic (long-term) exposure to dichlorodifluoromethane are unknown at this time. There is no evidence of an increase in cancer risk due to exposure to dichlorodifluoromethane.

잠재적 노출

Dichlorodifluoromethane is used as an aerosol propellant, refrigerant and foaming agent

Carcinogenicity

There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were given oral doses of 15 or 150 mg/kg of CFC 12 daily for 2 years. As described above, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity when groups of 90 male and 90 female rats and of 60 male and 60 female mice were exposed by inhalation to levels of 1000 and 5000 ppm, 4 h/day, 5 days/ week.

환경귀착

Surface Water. Estimated half-lives of dichlorodifluoromethane from an experimental marine mesocosm during the spring (8–16 °C) and winter (3–7 °C) were 20 and 13 d, respectively (Wakeham et al., 1983).

저장

Chlorofluorocarbon propellants are nonreactive and stable at temperatures up to 5508℃. The liquefied gas is stable when used as a propellant and should be stored in a metal cylinder in a cool, dry place.

운송 방법

UN1028 Dichlorodifluoromethane or Refrigerant gas R-12, Hazard class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2-Nonflammable compressed gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

Purification Methods

Pass the gas through saturated aqueous KOH then conc H2SO4, and a tower packed with activated copper on Kielselguhr at 200o removed CO2 and O2. A trap cooled to -29o removed a trace of high boiling material. It is a non-flammable propellant.

비 호환성

The presence of greater than 5% water in solutions that contain trichloromonofluoromethane may lead to hydrolysis of the propellant and the formation of traces of hydrochloric acid, which may be irritant to the skin or cause corrosion of metallic canisters. Trichloromonofluoromethane may also react with aluminum, in the presence of ethanol, to cause corrosion within a cylinder with the formation of hydrogen gas. Similarly, alcohols in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen, peroxides, or other free-radical catalysts may react with trichloromonofluoromethane to form trace quantities of hydrochloric acid.
Both dichlorodifluoromethane and dichlorotetrafluoroethane are compatible with most ingredients used in pharmaceutical aerosols. Because of their poor miscibility with water, most MDIs are formulated as suspensions. However, solution MDIs can be prepared through the use of ethanol as a cosolvent for water and propellant, resulting in a clear solution (provided the water content is less than 5%).

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. Because of potential ozone decomposition in the stratosphere, R-12 should be released to the atmosphere only as a last resort. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (aerosol formulations for inhalation, nasal, oral, and topical applications). With few exceptions for existing MDIs, the FDA and EPA have banned the use of CFCs in the USA after 31st December 2008, with all CFCs to be phased out by 2010–2015. Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK.

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