ChemicalBook
Chinese English Japanese Germany Korea

불산

불산
불산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7664-39-3
한글명:
불산
동의어(한글):
플루오르화수소산;OHS여301;히드로플루오릭산(HYDROFLUORICACID);불산;불화수소;불화수소산;수소플루오르화;하이드로플루오릭산;무수불화수소산;하이드로플루오릭애씨드;하이드로플루오릭애씨드,그노르말염,그착화합물및하이드로플루오라이드
상품명:
Hydrofluoric acid
동의어(영문):
HF;HF2;Rubigine;antisal2b;60% HF/DMF;Fluorowodor;caswellno484;Fluoric acid;hydrofluoric;Hydrofluoride
CBNumber:
CB8380315
분자식:
FH
포뮬러 무게:
20.01
MOL 파일:
7664-39-3.mol

불산 속성

녹는점
-35°C
끓는 점
105°C
밀도
1.15 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
1.27 (vs air)
증기압
25 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
인화점
112°C
산도 계수 (pKa)
3.17(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
Liquid, Double Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
색상
max. 10
Specific Gravity
1.15
냄새
Acrid, irritating odor
수용성
soluble
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,4790
노출 한도
Ceiling limit 3 ppm (~2.5 mg/m3) as F (ACGIH); TWA 3 ppm (MSHA and OSHA).
안정성
Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with glass, alkali metals, light metals, alkaline earth metals
CAS 데이터베이스
7664-39-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Hydrogen fluoride(7664-39-3)
EPA
Hydrofluoric acid(7664-39-3)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T+,C,T,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 26/27/28-35-36/37/38-20/21/22
안전지침서 26-36/37/39-45-7/9-36/37-28-36
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1790 8/PG 2
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 MW7875000
위험 참고 사항 Corrosive
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 28111100
유해 물질 데이터 7664-39-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LC50 (15 min.) in rats, guinea pigs: 2689, 4327 ppm (Rosenholtz)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H300 삼키면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 1,2 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 피부와 접촉하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 1,2 위험 P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H330 흡입하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 1, 2 위험 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
예방조치문구:
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P320 긴급히 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.

불산 MSDS


Hydrofluoric acid

불산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. Hydrofluoric acid is highly corrosive inorganic acid. It is utilized widely in the manufacture of ceramics and graphite, in the electropolishing and pickling of metals, in the etching and frosting of glass, in the semiconductor industry as etchant and cleaning agent, in the chemical and oil-refining industries, and in cleaning solutions, laundry powder and pesticides. Hydrofluoric acid is also widely used in the preparation of many useful fluorine compounds, such as Teflon, Freon, fluorocarbons, and many medications such as fluoxetine (Prozac).

화학적 성질

colourless gas with a pungent odour

물리적 성질

Colorless gas or liquid at ambient temperatures; fumes in air; highly irritating; gas density 0.878 g/L at 25°C; liquid density 1.002 g/mL at 0°C; boils at 19.85°C; freezes at –83.55°C; vapor pressure 360 torr at 0°C; critical temperature 187.85°C; critical pressure 63.95 atm; critical volume 69 cm3/mol; viscosity 0.256 centipoise at 0°C; surface tension 10.1x10–4 dyn/cm at 0°C; dielectric constant 83.6 at 0°C; highly soluble in water and alcohols; forms an azeotrope with water at a composition 38.2 HF: 61.8 H2O (weight percent); the azeotrope boils at 112.2°C; moderately soluble in benzene (2.55 g/100 g at 5°C). Hydrofluoric acid is a colorless, fuming liquid which is an aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride; densities of 20%, 40% and 60% acid at 20°C are 1.070, 1.135, and 1.215 g/mL, respectively; a 70% solution boils at 66.4°C; the same solution freezes at –69°C to a solid phase that has a composition of HF•H2O; vapor pressure of 70% solution at 25°C 150 torr; partial pressures of HF over HF—H2O solutions at 20°C are 0.412, 12.4 and 115.3 torr, respectively, for 20, 50 and 70% HF solutions by weight; equivalent conductance of 0.01 M and 0.1 M solutions at 20°C, 93.5 and 37.7 mhos-cm2, respectively; a weak acid, pKa 3.20 at 25°C; a 0.1M aqueous solution ionized <10%

물리적 성질

Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. While this acid is extremely corrosive and difficult to handle, it is technically a weak acid. Hydrogen fluoride, often in the aqueous form as hydrofluoric acid, is a valued source of fluorine, being the precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine (Prozac), diverse polymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), and most other synthetic materials that contain fluorine. Hydrofluoric acid is best known to the public for its ability to dissolve glass by reacting with SiO2 (silicon dioxide), the major component of most glass, to form silicon tetrafluoride gas and hexafluorosilicic acid. This property has been known since the seventeenth century, even before hydrofluoric acid had been prepared in large quantities by Scheele in 1771. Because of its high reactivity toward glass, hydrofluoric acid must be stored (in small quantities) in polyethylene or Teflon containers. It is also unique in its ability to dissolve many metal and semimetal oxides. Hydrofluoric acid attacks glass by reaction with silicon dioxide to form gaseous or water-soluble silicon fluorides.
Hydrofluoric acid is very dangerous to handle, because the human skin becomes easily saturated with the acid. Even though skin absorption of small areas of only 25 square inches (160 cm2) may be relatively painless, yet the exposure may be ultimately fatal. High concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen fluoride gas will also quickly destroy the corneas of the eyes.

용도

Diluted hydrofluoric acid (1-3 %wt) is used in the "Oil Patch" in a mixture with other acids (HCl or organic acids) in order to stimulate the production of water, oil and gas wells specifically where sandstone is involved. HF is also used in oil refining. In a standard oil-refinery process known as Alkylation, isobutane is alkylated with low-molecular weight alkenes (primarily a mixture of propylene and butylene) in the presence of a strong acid catalyst, hydrofluoric acid. The catalyst is able to protonate the alkenes (propylene, butylene) to produce reactive carbo-cations , which cause alkylation of isobutane. The phases separate spontaneously, so the acid phase is vigorously mixed with the hydrocarbon phase to create sufficient contact surface. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is used principally in organofluorine chemistry. Additionally, most high-volume inorganic fluoride compounds are prepared from hydrofluoric acid. Foremost are Na3AlF6, (Cryolite), and AlF3(aluminum trifluoride). A molten mixture of these solids serves as a high-temperature solvent for the production of metallic aluminum. Concerns about fluorides in the environment have led to a search for alternative technologies. Other inorganic fluorides prepared from hydrofluoric acid include NaF and UF6.
The ability of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve metal oxides is the basis of several applications. It removes oxide impurities from stainless steel in a process called pickling. Surface oxides are removed from silicon with hydrofluoric acid in the Semiconductor Industry. For this purpose, dilute hydrofluoric acid is sold as a household rust stain remover. Recently, it has even been used in “Car-Wash” facilities in “wheel cleaner” compounds. Due to its ability to dissolve oxides, hydrofluoric acid is useful for dissolving rock samples (usually powdered) prior to analysis. Similarly, this acid has been used to extract organic fossils from silicate rocks. Fossiliferous rock may be immersed directly into the acid, or a cellulose nitrate film may be applied (dissolved in amyl acetate), which adheres to the organic component and allows the rock to be dissolved around it.

용도

Hydrofluoric acid is used as a fluorinatingagent, as a catalyst, and in uranium refining.It is also used for etching glass and forpickling stainless steel. Hydrogen fluoridegas is produced when an inorganic fluoride is distilled with concentrated sulfuricacid.

용도

Cleaning cast iron, copper, brass; removing efflorescence from brick and stone, or sand particles from metallic castings; working over too heavily weighted silks; frosting, etching glass and enamel; polishing crystal glass; decomposing cellulose; enameling and galvanizing iron; increasing porosity of ceramics. Its salts are used as insecticides and to arrest undesirable fermentation in brewing. Also used in analytical work to determine SiO2, etc.

정의

ChEBI: A diatomic molecule containing covalently bonded hydrogen and fluorine atoms.

정의

A colorless liquid produced by dissolving hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a weak acid, but will dissolve most silicates and hence can be used to etch glass. As the interatomic distance in HF is relatively small, the H–F bond energy is very high and hydrogen fluoride is not a good proton donor. It does, however, form hydrogen bonds.

화학 반응

Although anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is a very strong acid, its aqueous solution, hydrofluoric acid, is weakly acidic, particularly when dilute. The Ka value of aqueous acid at 25°C is 6.46x10–4 mol/L. It is an excellent solvent for many inorganic fluorides, forming bifluoride anion:

HF + NaF → Na+ + HF2¯ At lower temperatures (below 200°C), HF forms molecular aggregates that are held by hydrogen bonding containing linear chains of –F—H—-F—H—- F—H—-. However, above this temperature the weak hydrogen bond breaks producing monomolecular HF. Thermal dissociation of HF into elements probably occurs only at very high temperatures. Forty to 50% HF probably dissociates around 4,000°C, indicating that it is one of the most stable diatomic molecules. The most important reactions of HF involve formation of inorganic fluoridesalts. HF gas or hydrofluoric acid reacts with oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, chlorides and other metal salts forming the corresponding fluorides. Some examples are:

Bi2O3 + 6HF → 2BiF3 + 3H2O

LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O

CaCO3 + 2HF → CaF2 +CO2 + H2O

FeCl3 + 3HF → FeF3 + 3HCl

CoCl2 + 2HF → CoF2 + 2HCl Reaction with potassium dichromate yields chromyl fluoride:

K2Cr2O7 + 6HF → 2CrO2F2 + 2KF + 3H2O When ammonia gas is bubbled through a 40% ice-cold solution of hydrofluoric acid, the product is ammonium fluoride:

NH3 + HF → NH4F The addition of equimolar amount of NaOH or Na2CO3 to 40% HF instantaneously precipitates NaF:

NaOH + HF → NaF + H2O Excess HF, however, yields sodium bifluoride, NaHF2:

NaOH + 2HF → NaHF2 + H2O Reaction with phosphorus trichloride yields phosphorus trifluoride; and with phosphoryl fluoride and sulfur trioxide, the product is phosphorus pentafluoride:

PCl3 + 3HF → PF3 + HCl

POF3 + 2HF + SO3 → PF5 + H2SO4

공기와 물의 반응

Fumes in air. Fumes are highly irritating, corrosive, and poisonous. Generates much heat on dissolution [Merck, 11th ed., 1989]. Heat can cause spattering, fuming, etc.

반응 프로필

Hydrofluoric acid attacks glass and any other silica containing material. May react with common metals (iron, steel) to generate flammable hydrogen gas if diluted below 65% with water. Reacts exothermically with chemical bases (examples: amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides). Can initiate polymerization in certain alkenes. Reacts with cyanide salts and compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides. Additional gas-generating reactions may occur with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), and carbonates. Can catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions. Reacts explosively with cyanogen fluoride, methanesulfonic acid or glycerol mixed with nitric acid. Reacts violently with arsenic trioxide, phosphorus pentachloride, acetic anhydride, alkali metals, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylenediamine, fluorine, potassium permanganate, oleum, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, mercury(II) oxide. Emits highly corrosive fumes of hydrogen fluoride gas when heated [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 1839]. Contact with many silicon compounds and metal silicides causes violent evolution of gaseous silicon tetrafluoride [Mellor, 1956, Vol. 2, suppl. 1, p. 121].

위험도

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, highly corrosive to skin and mucous membranes.

건강위험

Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extremely corrosive to all tissues of the body. Skin contact results in painful deep-seated burns that are slow to heal. Burns from dilute (<50%) HF solutions do not usually become apparent until several hours after exposure; more concentrated solutions and anhydrous HF cause immediate painful burns and tissue destruction. HF burns pose unique dangers distinct from other acids such as HCl and H2SO4: undissociated HF readily penetrates the skin, damaging underlying tissue; fluoride ion can then cause destruction of soft tissues and decalcification of the bones. Hydrofluoric acid and HF vapor can cause severe burns to the eyes, which may lead to permanent damage and blindness. At 10 to 15 ppm, HF vapor is irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to higher concentrations can result in serious damage to the lungs, and fatal pulmonary edema may develop after a delay of several hours. Brief exposure (5 min) to 50 to 250 ppm may be fatal to humans. Ingestion of HF can produce severe injury to the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract and may be fatal. HF has not been reported to be a human carcinogen. No acceptable animal test reports are available to define the developmental or reproductive toxicity of this substance

건강위험

Ingestion of an estimated 1.5 grams produced sudden death without gross pathological damage. Repeated ingestion of small amounts resulted in moderately advanced hardening of the bones. Contact of skin with anhydrous liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or hydrogen fluoride mist or vapors can cause severe respiratory tract irritation that may be fatal.

건강위험

Hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen fluoride gasare extremely corrosive to body tissues, causing severe burns. The acid can penetrate theskin and destroy the tissues beneath and evenaffect the bones. Contact with dilute acid cancause burns, which may be perceptible hoursafter the exposure. The healing is slow. Contact with the eyes can result in impairment ofvision.
Prolonged exposure to 10–15 ppm concentrations of the gas may cause redness ofskin and irritation of the nose and eyes inhumans. Inhalation of high concentrations ofHF may produce fluorosis and pulmonaryedema. In animals, repeated exposure toHF gas within the range 20–25 ppm hasproduced injury to the lungs, liver, andkidneys.
LC50 value, inhalation (mice): 342 ppm/h.

화재위험

When heated, Hydrofluoric acid emits highly corrosive fumes of fluorides. Its corrosive action on metals can result in formation of hydrogen in containers and piping to create fire hazard. Toxic and irritating vapors are generated when heated. Will attack glass, concrete, and certain metals, especially those containing silica, such as cast iron. Will attack natural rubber, leather, and many organic materials. May generate flammable hydrogen gas in contact with some metals.

화재위험

Hydrogen fluoride is not a combustible substance

인화성 및 폭발성

Hydrogen fluoride is not a combustible substance

공업 용도

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. It releases fumes when in contact with moist air. Hydrofluoric acid is manufactured from fluorite containing 96–97% CaF2 by reacting it with concentrated sulfuric acid:
CaF2+H2SO4 = 2HF+CaSO4 The acid is sold as a 40% solution. The hydrofluoric acid is used as an activator and depressant, mostly during flotation of industrial minerals (i.e. columbite, tantalite, silica, feldspars).

저장

All work with HF should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and neoprene gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Containers of HF should be stored in secondary containers made of polyethylene in areas separate from incompatible materials. Work with anhydrous HF should be undertaken using special equipment and only by well-trained personnel familiar with first aid procedures.

Purification Methods

It can be purified by trap-to-trap distillation, followed by drying over CoF2 at room temperature and further distillation. Alternatively, it can be absorbed on NaF to form NaHF2 which is then heated under vacuum at 150o to remove volatile impurities. The HF is regenerated by heating at 300o and is stored with CoF3 in a nickel vessel, being distilled as required. (Water content should be ca 0.01%.) To avoid contact with base metal, use can be made of nickel, polychlorotrifluoroethylene and gold-lined fittings [Hyman et al. J Am Chem Soc 79 3668 1957]. An aqueous solution is hydrofluoric acid (see above). It is HIGHLY TOXIC and attacks glass.

비 호환성

HF reacts with glass, ceramics, and some metals. Reactions with metals may generate potentially explosive hydrogen gas.

폐기물 처리

Excess hydrogen fluoride and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

참고 문헌

[1] David J. Monk, and David S. Soane, A review of the chemical reaction mechanism and kinetics for hydrofluoric acid etching of silicon dioxide for surface micromachining applications, Thin Solid Films, 1993, vol. 232, 1-12
[2] P. Sanz-Gallen, S. Nogue, P. Munne and A. Faraldo, Hybocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to hydrofluoric acid, Occup Med (Lond), 2001, vol. 51, 294-295

불산 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품

구리 플루오린붕산(구리 플루오르붕산) 6,9-Difluoropregn-4-ene-11,17,21-triol-3,20-dione17,21-diacetate 아연 테트라플루오로붕산염 9-Fluoropregna-1,4-diene-11,17,21-triol-3,20-dione17,21-diacetate 2-클로로-6-플로로톨루엔 탄탈 오산화물 란타넘 플루오라이드(란탄 플루오라이드) 세보플루란 3-TRIFLUOROMETHYL BENZOTRICHLORIDE 2,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride 플루오린화 이트륨(플루오르화 이트륨) emulsifier acid Boron trifluoride acetonitrile complex 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-헵타플루오로프로판 1,3-비스(플리프루오로메틸)벤젠 테트라플루오린화 타이타늄(테트라플루오르화 티타늄) 5-(trifluoromethyl)thiazol-2-amine 트리플루오로메탄술폰산 나트륨 플루오르화리튬 불가화 바륨 클로로트리플루오르메탄 Potassium fluoroaluminate 1-CHLORO-3-FLUOROISOPROPANOL 불화 스트론슘 2-메틸부틸산에틸 네오디뮴 플루오르화물 Lithium hexafluorophosphate 6alpha,9-difluoro-11beta,17,21-trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17,21-di(acetate) 9-fluoro-11beta,21-dihydroxypregna-1,4,16-triene-3,20-dione 21-acetate 디플루오르모노클로로에탄 트라이플루오린화 크로뮴 Potassium hexafluoraluminate ZINC TETRAFLUOROBORATE HYDRATE 독시싸이클린 불화 마그네슘 다이클로로모노플루오로메테인(디클로로모노플루오로메탄) 1,1,1-트라이클로로-2,2,2-트라이플루오로에테인 Chromium(III) fluoride tetrahydrate 9-Fluoro-11,16,17,21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate 칼륨 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-헵타데카플루오로-1- 옥탄술폰산

불산 공급 업체

글로벌( 243)공급 업체
공급자 전화 팩스 이메일 국가 제품 수 이점
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20672 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32447 55
Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8613292890173
0311 66567340 luna@speedgainpharma.com CHINA 1018 58
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 29955 58
SHANDONG ZHI SHANG CHEMICAL CO.LTD
+86 18953170293
+86 0531-67809011 sales@sdzschem.com CHINA 2995 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 sales@jushengtech.com CHINA 28236 58
Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
18631714998
sales@czwytech.com CHINA 911 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
86-13657291602
027-59338440 sales@guangaobio.com CHINA 23049 58
Chongqing Chemdad Co., Ltd
+86-13650506873
sales@chemdad.com CHINA 30864 58
Shanghai Mintchem Development Co., Ltd 021 6845 0923
0086 20 8234 8082 fluorine@tatichem.com China 38 68

불산 관련 검색:

Copyright 2019 © ChemicalBook. All rights reserved