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시아노코발아민

시아노코발아민
시아노코발아민 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
68-19-9
한글명:
시아노코발아민
동의어(한글):
시아노코발아민;사이아노코발아민
상품명:
Vitamin B12
동의어(영문):
Vb12;cotel;covit;Bedoz;vibalt;vitral;cn-b12;cyomin;embiol;CN-CBL
CBNumber:
CB6126463
분자식:
C63H88CoN14O14P
포뮬러 무게:
1355.37
MOL 파일:
68-19-9.mol

시아노코발아민 속성

녹는점
>300°C
알파
23656 -59 ± 9° (dil aq soln)
끓는 점
>300 °C
인화점
9℃
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
Sparingly soluble in water and in ethanol (96 per cent), practically insoluble in acetone. The anhydrous substance is very hygroscopic.
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 3.28±0.04(H2O,D2O t=23±0.5 Iunspeci?ed) (Uncertain)
물리적 상태
Crystalline Powder or Crystals
색상
Red to dark red
수용성
Soluble
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,10014
BRN
4122889
안정성
Hygroscopic. Keep cold and dry.
InChIKey
RMRCNWBMXRMIRW-WZHZPDAFSA-L
EPA
Vitamin B12 (68-19-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기
유해 물질 데이터 68-19-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 intravenous in mouse: 2gm/kg
기존화학 물질 KE-11218
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.

시아노코발아민 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

그 복잡한 형태 덕분에 그 어떤 진균류도, 식물도, 동물도 합성하지 못하며 드물게 박테리아나 고세균들이 합성효소를 가지고 있다. 합성과정이 67 단계(!)라는 정신나간 복잡함을 자랑하며, 비타민 B12 합성 메카니즘의 규명에는 12년이 걸렸다. 이정도면 도대체 세균들이 어떻게 합성 효소를 가지게 된것인지가 의문일 정도. 게다가 코발트는 지각상에서 그렇게 흔한 물질은 아닌 탓에생체적 이용은 더더욱 없는 편이다.
 

용도

DNA 합성과 아미노산 및 지방 대사에 관여하는 것으로 알려진 조효소로써, 구체적으로는 이성질체 생성, 할로겐 제거, 메틸기 이동을 하는 효소 반응들에 조효소로써 작용한다. 간접적으로는 뇌내 전달물질의 합성에도 조효소관여하고 있다.
 

제품 소개

이것이 부족하면 혈소판 감소증의 원인이 될 수 있다고 한다.
비타민 B12는 여러 염증들에 관여되어있는 것으로 지속적으로 알려져왔다.
아토피 피부염의 개선에 도움이 될 수 있다는 보고가 있다.

화학적 성질

Dark red, crystalline powder or dark red crystals.

Originator

Berubigen,Upjohn,US,1949

역사

VITAMIN B12 (Cobalamin), Sometimes also called cyanocobalamin, this vitamin is one of the more recent of the major B complex vitamins to be fully identified, with its structure not definitized (by Hodkin et al.)

용도

vitamin, coenzyme B12

용도

Prototype of the family of naturally occurring cobalt coordination compounds knows as corrinoids. Analogs of vitamin B12 which differ only in the β-ligand of the cobalt are termed cobalamins. Synthesi zed almost exclusively by bacteria. Dietary sources include fish, meat, liver, and dairy products; plants have little or no cobalamins. Converted by the body into its bioactive forms, methylcobalamin and cobamamide, which serve as enzyme cofactors. Severe deficiency may result in megaloblastic anemia and/or neurological impairment.

용도

A coenzyme for synthesis of nucleic acids and metabolism carbohydrates.

용도

Vitamin B12 is water-soluble required for the normal development of red blood cells. Its deficiency causes pernicious anemia. It is stable in neutral conditions and is more stable for storage than for processing conditions. It is found in meat, fish, and milk.

생산 방법

Vitamin B12 dietary supplements are often prepared commercially by the fermentation of S. griseus, S. aureofaciens, Propionibacterium; or as a by-product of antibiotic production.

Manufacturing Process

The following is taken from US Patent 3,057,851. Milorganite was extracted with water to obtain an aqueous extract containing vitamin B12 active substances. This aqueous extract was purified by treatment with an ion exchange resin according to the following method. An aqueous extract of milorganite, 100 ml containing 300 μg of vitamin B12 active substances and 4.5 grams of total solids, was combined with 0.5 gram of sodium nitrite and 0.4 gram of potassium cyanide. The resulting solution was adjusted to pH 4.0 with hydrochloric acid and heated to boiling. The boiled solution was filtered through a Super-Cel filter surface, and the filter was then washed with water. The filtrate was obtained in a total volume of 130 ml including the washings. Amerlite XE-97, an ion exchange resin of the carboxyl type (Rohm and Haas), was classified to an average wet particle size of 100 to 150 mesh. The classified resin was utilized in the hydrogen form, and was not buffered during the ion exchange fractionation. The classified resin, in the amount of 35 ml, was packed into a glass column having a diameter of 25 mm and a height of 250 mm. The cyanide-treated aqueous extract of milorganite was infused gravitationally into the ion exchange bed at a rate of 3 ml per minute. The effluent was discarded and the resin bed was then washed with the following solutions in the specified sequence: (1) 120 ml of an aqueous 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution; (2) 75 ml of an aqueous 85% acetone solution; and (3) 70 ml of an aqueous 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. After washing, the resin bed was eluted with an aqueous 60% dioxane solution containing 0.1 N of hydrochloric acid. In this elution, 8 ml of colored eluate was collected. This portion of the eluate was found to contain 295 μg of cyanocobalamin and 9 mg of total solids.

상표명

Nascobal (QOL).

Therapeutic Function

Hematinic

건강위험

Deficiency diseases or disorders include retarded growth; pernicious anemia; megaloblastic anemia; macrocytic, hyperchromic anemia; glossitis; spinal cord degeneration; and sprue.

생물학적 활성

Principal physiological functions include: (1) Coenzyme in nucleic acid, protein, and lipid synthesis; (2) maintains growth; (3) participates in methylations; (4) maintains epithelial cells and nervous system (myelin sheath); (5) erythropoiesis (with folic acid); (6) leukopoiesis.

Safety Profile

Poison by subcutaneous route. Moderately toxic by intraperitoneal route. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of POx and NOx. See also COBALT COMPOUNDS.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Cyanocobalamin is used for treating deficiencies of vitamin B12. Malabsorption of the nutrient secondary to gastrointestinal tract disease, or dietary chromium deficiencies (in ruminants) can be associated with dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12. As there appears to be a high percentage of cats with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or gastrointestinal disease that are deficient in cobalamin, there is considerable interest in evaluating serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) in these patients. Giant schnauzers may have a genetic defect affecting the location of the cobalamin-intrinsic factor, causing cobalamin deficiency. Dogs with inflammatory bowel disease may also develop cobalamin deficiency.

Purification Methods

Vitamin B12 crystallises from de-ionized H2O, with a solubility in H2O of 1g/80g, and is dried under vacuum over Mg(ClO4)2. The dry red crystals are hygroscopic and can absorb 12% of 2O. A solution at pH 4.5-5 can be autoclaved for 20minutes at 120o without decomposition. Aqueous solutions are stabilised by addition of (NH4)2SO4. [Golding Comprehensive Organic Chem Vol 5 (Ed. Haslam; Pergamon Press, NY, 1979) pp 549584.] Alternatively an aqueous solution of the coenzyme can be concentrated, if necessary in a vacuum at 25o or less, until the concentration is 0.005 to 0.01M (as estimated by the OD at 522nm of an aliquot diluted with 0.01M K-phosphate buffer pH 7.0). If crystals begin to form on the walls of the container, they should be re-dissolved with a little H2O. The concentrated solution is placed in a glass stoppered flask and diluted with 5volumes of Me2CO. After 2-3hours at 3o it is centrifuged (10,000xg/10minutes) in Me2CO-insoluble plastic tubes to remove some amorphous precipitate. The clear supernatant is inoculated with a small crystal of the vitamin and allowed to crystallise overnight at 3o. Crystals are formed on the walls and the bottom of the container. A further 2volumes of Me2CO are added and set aside at 3o to further crystallise. Crystallisation is followed by observing the OD522 of the supernatant. When the OD falls to 0.27, then ca 94% of the crystals have separated. The supernatant is decanted (saved for obtaining a second crop), and the crystals are washed with a little cold 90% aqueous Me2CO (2x), 100% Me2CO (2x), Et2O (2x) at which time the crystals separate from the glass walls. Allow them to settle and remove residual Et2O with a stream of dry N2. The process can be repeated if necessary. The crystals can be dried in air or in a vacuum for 2hours over silica gel at 100o with an 8-9% weight loss. [Barker et al. Biochemical Preparations 10 33 1963.] This material gives a single spot on paper chromatography [see Weissbach et al. J Biol Chem 235 1462 1960.] The vitamin is soluble in H2O (16.4mM at 24o, 6.4mM at 1o), in EtOH and PhOH but insoluble in Me2CO, Et2O, CH2Cl2 and dioxane. UV: max at 260, 375 and 522nm ( 34.7 x 106, 10.9 x 106 and 8.0 x 106 / mole) in H2O. The dry crystals are stable for months in the dark, but aqueous solutions decompose on exposure to VIS or UV light or alkaline CN-, but are stable in the dark at pH 6-7. The vitamin is inactivated by strong acids or alkalies. [Barker et al. J Biol Chem 235 480 1960, see also Vitamin B12 (Zagalak & Friedrich Eds) Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1979, Beilstein 2 6 IV 3117.]

시아노코발아민 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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