Neuronal Signaling

The neural signals directly characterize the meaning of the human self. Studying the neural signal provides an approach for understanding and identifying the human body. Nerve signals share some similar features with other human biological signals, but also have some of its unique features. According to the research in neurobiology, nerve signal, resembling a pulse electric signal, has a frequency of generally around 1 kHz and can be as high as 10 kHz. For example, for a bundle of movement nerves that control muscle, when there is potential impulse signal arriving, the muscle fiber will have contractile response. The contraction strength, depending on the difference of the impulse frequency of nerve, will have the strength difference.

Learning and memory is an important area of research, not only because they dominate the normal human behavior, but also because it plays an important role in the development of nervous system diseases and disorders, which includes addiction, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. At present, we haven’t achieved any significant efficacy for treatment aim to alleviate the learning and memory dysfunction. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies are quite interested in drug target which can improve the cognitive function including specific serotonin or serotonin receptors. What the serotonin system dominated are the specific brain regions which play an important regulatory role in the memory and learning processes.

This kind of neural domination is related the expression of a series of serotonin receptors (the drug target of serotonin). An important feature of the serotonin system is the universality of the neural domination of forebrain, which is originated from the discrete cluster located in raphe nuclei and the diversity of its receptors. The number of its receptors is up to 14, including 5-HT1A, 5 -HT4 and 5-HT6, and these receptors are all densely presented in the brain regions associated with learning and memory, and have impact on human cognitive impairment. Furthermore, selective agonist and/or antagonist compounds may take effect through acting on the three postsynaptic receptors to affect the clinical behavior patterns. These compounds, upon binding to the receptor, may also modulate neurotransmitter system instead of altering the release of 5-HT, thereby affecting the learning and memory.
GluR related chemicals are very popular. Ampakines, one kind of pyrrolidone derivatives, can act on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor with its upregulation may enhance the synaptic plasticity. Early results of clinical studies have indicated ampakines may have a role in schizophrenia. Similarly, D-serine and D-cycloserine can stimulate the glycine co-agonist site located in the NMDA receptor which is insensitive to strychnine on, but also can enhance NMDA receptor activity. Such agents can improve the conditioned reflex of the clinical fear, and may also moderately improve the negative reactions and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Dopamine receptor is a hot filed in neurology and psychiatry. Receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) are related the physiological functions of catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopaminergic neurotransmission have been used to study Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome.The target of the neurological and psychiatric studies also include H3 receptor antagonists, COX receptors, γ- secretion, Glu receptor, adrenergic receptor, acetylcholine receptor, P-gp, P2 receptors and opioid receptors.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Nepafenac Nepafenac 78281-72-8 C15H14N2O2
Venlafaxine hydrochloride Venlafaxine hydrochloride 99300-78-4 C17H28ClNO2
Olopatadine hydrochloride Olopatadine hydrochloride 140462-76-6 C21H24ClNO3
Palonosetron Hydrochloride Palonosetron Hydrochloride 135729-62-3 C19H25ClN2O
Fexofenadine hydrochloride Fexofenadine hydrochloride 153439-40-8 C32H40ClNO4
Tolterodine tartrate Tolterodine tartrate 124937-52-6 C26H37NO7
Mirtazapine Mirtazapine 85650-52-8 C17H19N3
ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE 99614-01-4 C18H20ClN3O
Histamine phosphate Histamine phosphate 51-74-1 C5H12N3O4P
Clopidogrel Bisulfate Clopidogrel Bisulfate 120202-66-6 C16H16ClNO2S.H2O4S
Scopine Scopine 498-45-3 C8H13NO2
Synephrine hydrochloride Synephrine hydrochloride 5985-28-4 C9H14ClNO2
Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 93793-83-0 C19H29ClN2O4
Ketorolac tromethamine Ketorolac tromethamine 74103-07-4 C19H24N2O6
Asenapine Maleate Asenapine Maleate 85650-56-2 C21H20ClNO5
Orphenadrine citrate Orphenadrine citrate 4682-36-4 C24H31NO8
Xylazine Hydrochloride Xylazine Hydrochloride 23076-35-9 C12H17ClN2S
Solifenacin succinate Solifenacin succinate 242478-38-2 C27H32N2O6
Acebutolol hydrochloride Acebutolol hydrochloride 34381-68-5 C18H29ClN2O4
(S)-Timolol maleate (S)-Timolol maleate 26921-17-5 C17H28N4O7S
Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride 145108-58-3 C13H17ClN2
Eletriptan hydrobromide Eletriptan hydrobromide 177834-92-3 C22H26N2O2S
Rizatriptan benzoate Rizatriptan benzoate 145202-66-0 C22H25N5O2
Silodosin Silodosin 160970-54-7 C25H32F3N3O4
Lafutidine Lafutidine 118288-08-7 C22H29N3O4S
Levosulpiride Levosulpiride 23672-07-3 C15H23N3O4S
Fesoterodinefumarate Fesoterodinefumarate 286930-03-8 C30H41NO7
Histamine dihydrochloride Histamine dihydrochloride 56-92-8 C5H11Cl2N3
(R)-4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (R)-4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride 86347-15-1 C13H17ClN2
Terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate Terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate 70024-40-7 C19H30ClN5O6
Ropinirole hydrochloride Ropinirole hydrochloride 91374-20-8 C16H25ClN2O
Atomoxetine hydrochloride Atomoxetine hydrochloride 82248-59-7 C17H22ClNO
Detomidine hydrochloride Detomidine hydrochloride 90038-01-0 C12H15ClN2
Donepezil Hydrochloride Donepezil Hydrochloride 120011-70-3 C24H30ClNO3
Tolfenamic acid Tolfenamic acid 13710-19-5 C14H12ClNO2
Trospium chloride Trospium chloride 10405-02-4 C25H30ClNO3
Mosapride citrate Mosapride citrate 112885-42-4 C27H33ClFN3O10
Otilonium bromide Otilonium bromide 26095-59-0 C29H43BrN2O4
Oxymetazoline hydrochloride Oxymetazoline hydrochloride 2315-02-8 C16H25ClN2O
Duloxetine hydrochloride Duloxetine hydrochloride 136434-34-9 C18H20ClNOS
Tiotropium bromide hydrate Tiotropium bromide hydrate 139404-48-1 C19H22BrNO4S2.H2O
Cisatracurium besylate Cisatracurium besylate 96946-42-8 C53H72N2O12.2C6H5O3S
Ivabradine hydrochloride Ivabradine hydrochloride 148849-67-6 C27H36N2O5.HCl
Bethanechol Bethanechol 590-63-6 C7H17ClN2O2
Brimonidine Tartrate Brimonidine Tartrate 70359-46-5 C15H16BrN5O6
Loxapine succinate salt Loxapine succinate salt 27833-64-3 C22H24ClN3O5
Blonanserin Blonanserin 132810-10-7 C23H30FN3
Varenicline tartrate Varenicline tartrate 375815-87-5 C17H19N3O6
Paliperidone Paliperidone 144598-75-4 C23H27FN4O3
Memantine HCl Memantine HCl 41100-52-1 C12H22ClN
Tianeptine sodium salt Tianeptine sodium salt 30123-17-2 C21H24ClN2NaO4S
2-Acetoxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid 2-Acetoxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid 322-79-2 C10H7F3O4
Pergolide mesylate salt Pergolide mesylate salt 66104-23-2 C20H30N2O3S2
Tropisetron hydrochloride Tropisetron hydrochloride 105826-92-4 C17H21ClN2O2
Desvenlafaxine succinate Desvenlafaxine succinate 386750-22-7 C16H25NO2.C4H6O4.H2O
SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE 6101-15-1 C14H34Cl2N2O6
(R)-Baclofen (R)-Baclofen 69308-37-8 C10H12ClNO2
LY310762 LY310762 192927-92-7 C24H27O2N2FHCl
1-Naphthalenol, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-6-[propyl[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]amino]- 1-Naphthalenol, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-6-[propyl[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]amino]- 92206-54-7 C19H25NOS
Bromfenac sodium Bromfenac sodium 91714-93-1 C15H11BrNNaO3
(R)-5-HydroxyMethyl Tolterodine (R)-5-HydroxyMethyl Tolterodine 207679-81-0 C22H31NO2
LY2811376 LY2811376 1194044-20-6 C15H14F2N4S
VU 0364439 VU 0364439 1246086-78-1 C18H13Cl2N3O3S
APREPITANT (SUBSTANCE P antagonist) APREPITANT (SUBSTANCE P antagonist)
LUMIRACOXIB LUMIRACOXIB 220991-20-8 C15H13ClFNO2
MRS 2578 MRS 2578 711019-86-2 C20H20N6S4
Prucalopride Prucalopride 179474-81-8 C18H26ClN3O3
Mirabegron Mirabegron 223673-61-8 C21H24N4O2S
VU 0357121 VU 0357121 433967-28-3 C17H17F2NO2
ALMOTRIPTAN ALMOTRIPTAN 181183-52-8 C21H31N3O7S
Ciproxifan Ciproxifan 184025-18-1 C16H18N2O2
BRL 54443 BRL 54443 57477-39-1 C14H18N2O
BUCLIZINE, DIHYDROCHLORIDE BUCLIZINE, DIHYDROCHLORIDE 129-74-8 C28H35Cl3N2
(R)-Tomoxetine (R)-Tomoxetine 83015-26-3 C17H21NO
Rupatadine Fumarate Rupatadine Fumarate 182349-12-8 C26H26ClN3.C4H4O4
10,11-Dihydro-alpha-methyl-10-oxo-dibenzo[b,f]thiepin-2-acetic acid 10,11-Dihydro-alpha-methyl-10-oxo-dibenzo[b,f]thiepin-2-acetic acid 74711-43-6 C17H14O3S
Prucalopride Succinate Prucalopride Succinate 179474-85-2 C18H26ClN3O3.C4H6O4
Naratriptan Hydrochloride Naratriptan Hydrochloride 143388-64-1 C17H25N3O2S.ClH
SB271046 SB271046 209481-20-9 C20H22ClN3O3S2
BRL 15572 HYDROCHLORIDE BRL 15572 HYDROCHLORIDE 193611-72-2 C25H28Cl2N2O
Fenazox Fenazox 61618-27-7 C15H12NNaO3.H2O
LY2886721 LY2886721 1262036-50-9 C18H16F2N4O2S
Vilazodone Hydrochloride Vilazodone Hydrochloride 163521-08-2 C26H28ClN5O2
Indacaterol Maleate Indacaterol Maleate 753498-25-8 C28H32N2O7
BMY 7378 DIHYDROCHLORIDE BMY 7378 DIHYDROCHLORIDE 21102-95-4 C22H32ClN3O3
Naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate Naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate 51481-60-8 C19H26ClNO6
Pizotifen Malate Pizotifen Malate 5189-11-7 C23H27NO5S
Nitenpyram Nitenpyram 150824-47-8 C11H15ClN4O2
ROTIGOTINE ROTIGOTINE 99755-59-6 C19H25NOS
Aclidinium bromide Aclidinium bromide 320345-99-1 C13H10BrN
Indacaterol Indacaterol 312753-06-3 C24H28N2O3
O-Desmethylvenlafaxine O-Desmethylvenlafaxine 93413-62-8 C16H25NO2
DEXMEDETOMIDINE DEXMEDETOMIDINE C13H16N2
N-(5-CHLORO-2,4-DIMETHOXYPHENYL)-N'-(5-METHYL-3-ISOXAZOLYL)-UREA N-(5-CHLORO-2,4-DIMETHOXYPHENYL)-N'-(5-METHYL-3-ISOXAZOLYL)-UREA 501925-31-1 C13H14ClN3O4
Licofelone Licofelone 156897-06-2 C23H22ClNO2
MPEP MPEP 96206-92-7 C14H11N
IFENPRODIL HEMITARTRATE IFENPRODIL HEMITARTRATE 23210-58-4 C25H33NO8
Nebivolol hydrochloride Nebivolol hydrochloride 152520-56-4 C22H26ClF2NO4
JTC 801 JTC 801 244218-51-7 C26H25N3O2.ClH
Darifenacin hydrobromide Darifenacin hydrobromide 133099-07-7 C28H29BrN2O2
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