Amino Acids and Derivatives

Amino acids and their derivatives belong to a compound containing both amino group and carboxyl group. They are presented in both the form of free-state and bound-state in vivo. Free amino acids are distributed in all kinds of animal cells and body fluids with the bound amino acids being the mainly basic components of proteins and peptides.

Natural amino acids act as colorless crystalline materials with relatively high melting points being mostly above 200 ℃. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents. However, tyrosine and cystine are insoluble in water; proline and hydroxyl proline are soluble in ethanol and ether. All amino acids are soluble in strong acid and alkali solution.

According to the polar characterization of the R group of the side chain of the α-amino acid; those 20 common amino acids that constitute protein can be divided into four groups:
① Amino acids with R group being non-polar; There are 8 kinds in total, wherein five kinds have aliphatic side chains, namely alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline; two kinds are aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan; one kind belongs to sulfur-containing amino acid, namely methionine; amino acids belonging to this group have lower water solubility than polar R-group amino acid; proline is generally different with α-amino acid, it is formed through the substitution of one hydrogen atom of the amino acid with the side chains of the α- amino acid, belonging actually to imino acid.
② Amino acids with polar but non-charged R group; There are seven kinds in total, namely serine, threonine and tyrosine with R group having hydroxy group; cysteine with R group having a mercapto group of cysteine; glutamine and asparagine with R-group containing amide group, another amino acid is glycine ; glycine molecule has no R group, but having certain polarity, and thus being classified into this group; the side chains in this group of amino acid contain unassociated polar groups and can form hydrogen bonds with water, and is easily soluble in water.
③Amino acids with R group being positively charged amino acids. There are three kinds in total, namely, lysine, arginine, and histidine; they carry positive charge at pH7.0 and are also known as alkaline amino acids.
④Amino acids with R group being negatively charged. There are two kinds in total, namely glutamate and aspartate; at pH7.0, the molecules are negatively charged, also known as acidic amino acids. The formula, abbreviations symbols and related constants of 20 kinds of amino acid structures can be seen from the table. In addition to the 20 common amino acids mentioned above, there are also diiodotyrosine, thyroxine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine existing in certain proteins. In addition to amino acids involved in protein composition, it has been also found of more than 200 kinds of other kinds amino acids in a variety of tissues and cells; these amino acids are mostly derivatives of those α- amino acid composition of proteins.

However, there are some β-, γ- or δ- amino acids and some amino acids belong to D-type amino acids such as [beta]-alanine, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and the phenylalanine contained in the antibiotics gramicidin-S, the D-alanine and D-glutamate contained in Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. Some non-protein amino acids can act as metabolically important precursors or intermediates, wherein β-alanine is the precursors of vitamin pantothenic acid; ornithine, and citrulline are the precursors in the synthesis of arginine; [gamma]-aminobutyric acid is the chemical neurotransmitter. Plants contain a large amount of non-protein amino acids, belonging to plant secondary substances, such as theanine, canavanine, djenkolic acid, β- Cyanoalanine and so on.

In addition to 20 kinds of amino acids found in the body and animal protein products, it has been found of nearly 200 kinds of other kinds of amino acids in nature. Most of them have been discovered in the plant kingdom and have complex molecular structures with no relation with the protein metabolism. There have been less that have been seen in the animal kingdom with some of them being originated from the chemical modification of certain incorporated amino acids in the specific proteins, for example, the proline and lysine contained in collagen protein are often partially subject to re-hydroxylation of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; Another example is that there are often a small amount of lysine and histidine contained in actin and myosin protein containing hypermethylated εN methyl-lysine and 3N-histidine; it has been also found in the histone protein that the ∈ amino group contained in lysine is acetylated and the OH group in the serine is phosphorylated; thyroglobulin contains iodinated tyrosine and thyronine iodide; The heavy chain of τ myosin and the N-terminal of certain proteins contain pyroglutamate formed by glutamine; there also exists the cystine constituting of two cysteine molecules in the general protein.

Click on the specific product, view the latest prices of the products, information, serving information
Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PYRROLIDINE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER 2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PYRROLIDINE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER 170491-63-1 C10H19NO3
3-AMINO-3-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL 3-AMINO-3-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL 14593-04-5 C9H13NO
H-ILE-NH2 HCL H-ILE-NH2 HCL 10466-56-5 C6H15ClN2O
H-PRO-OTBU H-PRO-OTBU 2812-46-6 C9H17NO2
H-PHE-NH2 H-PHE-NH2 5241-58-7 C9H12N2O
2-Amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol 2-Amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol 115-69-5 C4H11NO2
H-ASP(OET)-OET HCL H-ASP(OET)-OET HCL 16115-68-7 C8H16ClNO4
H-HIS(TRT)-OH H-HIS(TRT)-OH 35146-32-8 C25H23N3O2
N-alpha-Boc-L-tryptophanol N-alpha-Boc-L-tryptophanol 82689-19-8 C16H22N2O3
(2S)-1-(3-Acetylthio-2-methyl-1-oxopropyl)-L-proline (2S)-1-(3-Acetylthio-2-methyl-1-oxopropyl)-L-proline 64838-55-7 C11H17NO4S
BOC-D-TYR(BZL)-OH BOC-D-TYR(BZL)-OH 63769-58-4 C21H25NO5
Fmoc-D-proline Fmoc-D-proline 101555-62-8 C20H19NO4
Potassium L-aspartate Potassium L-aspartate 14007-45-5 C4H5K2NO4
FMOC-GLU(OALL)-OH FMOC-GLU(OALL)-OH 133464-46-7 C23H23NO6
5-AMINOVALERIC ACID 5-AMINOVALERIC ACID 660-88-8 C5H11NO2
BOC-D-2-Fluorophe BOC-D-2-Fluorophe 114873-10-8 C14H18FNO4
N-Acetyl-L-leucine N-Acetyl-L-leucine 1188-21-2 C8H15NO3
Fmoc-p(NH-Boc)-L-Phe-OH Fmoc-p(NH-Boc)-L-Phe-OH 174132-31-1 C29H30N2O6
H-D-ASP(OBZL)-OH H-D-ASP(OBZL)-OH 13188-89-1 C11H13NO4
BOC-1,4-TRANS-ACHC-OH BOC-1,4-TRANS-ACHC-OH 53292-89-0 C12H21NO4
N-BOC-O-Benzyl-L-serine N-BOC-O-Benzyl-L-serine 23680-31-1 C15H21NO5
3-(2-Naphthyl)-D-alanine 3-(2-Naphthyl)-D-alanine 76985-09-6 C13H13NO2
Acetylleucine Acetylleucine 99-15-0 C8H15NO3
FMOC-L-3-Methylphe FMOC-L-3-Methylphe 211637-74-0 C25H23NO4
N-Cbz-L-glutamic acid N-Cbz-L-glutamic acid 1155-62-0 C13H15NO6
3,3,3-Trifluoro-DL-alanine 3,3,3-Trifluoro-DL-alanine 17463-43-3 C3H4F3NO2
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-alanine 15761-38-3 C8H15NO4
Ethyl (S)-2-[(S)-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl]-4-phenylbutyrate Ethyl (S)-2-[(S)-4-methyl-2,5-dioxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl]-4-phenylbutyrate 84793-24-8 C16H19NO5
BOC-L-2,4-DIAMINOBUTYRIC ACID(FMOC) BOC-L-2,4-DIAMINOBUTYRIC ACID(FMOC) 117106-21-5 C24H28N2O6
N-Ethyl-N-hydroxyethylaniline N-Ethyl-N-hydroxyethylaniline 92-50-2 C10H15NO
N-Boc-N'-benzyloxymethyl-L-histidine N-Boc-N'-benzyloxymethyl-L-histidine 79950-65-5 C19H25N3O5
9-Fluorenemethanol 9-Fluorenemethanol 24324-17-2 C14H12O
Fmoc-Asp-OAll Fmoc-Asp-OAll 144120-53-6 C22H21NO6
N-BENZOYL-DL-ALANINE N-BENZOYL-DL-ALANINE 1205-02-3 C10H11NO3
L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate 7048-04-6 C3H10ClNO3S
Nα-Boc-Nω-nitro-D-arginine Nα-Boc-Nω-nitro-D-arginine 50913-12-7 C11H21N5O6
N,N'-Di-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine N,N'-Di-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine 20866-46-0 C16H25N3O6
Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide 538-75-0 C13H22N2
Boc-4-Bromo-L-beta-phenylalanine Boc-4-Bromo-L-beta-phenylalanine 261380-20-5 C14H18BrNO4
(R)-N-Boc-1-Naphthylalanine (R)-N-Boc-1-Naphthylalanine 76932-48-4 C18H21NO4
Boc-Dap-OH Boc-Dap-OH 73259-81-1 C8H16N2O4
4-ACETAMIDOANTIPYRINE 4-ACETAMIDOANTIPYRINE 83-15-8 C13H15N3O2
FMOC-LEU-OPFP FMOC-LEU-OPFP 86060-88-0 C27H22F5NO4
4-Amino-3-methylbenzoic acid 4-Amino-3-methylbenzoic acid 2486-70-6 C8H9NO2
N-BENZYL-L-PROLINE N-BENZYL-L-PROLINE 31795-93-4 C12H15NO2
3-AMINO-2-CHLOROBENZOIC ACID 3-AMINO-2-CHLOROBENZOIC ACID 108679-71-6 C7H6ClNO2
L-Alanine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate L-Alanine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate 42854-62-6 C17H21NO5S
1-Boc-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-Boc-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid 84358-12-3 C11H19NO4
3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid 3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid 614-19-7 C9H11NO2
D(+)-Phenylalaninol D(+)-Phenylalaninol 5267-64-1 C9H13NO
AC-D-ALA-OH AC-D-ALA-OH 19436-52-3 C5H9NO3
3-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE 3-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE 19883-77-3 C9H10FNO2
N-Cbz-L-serine methyl ester N-Cbz-L-serine methyl ester 1676-81-9 C12H15NO5
Z-TYR-OME Z-TYR-OME 13512-31-7 C18H19NO5
Methyl L-leucinate hydrochloride Methyl L-leucinate hydrochloride 7517-19-3 C7H16ClNO2
Fmoc-L-glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl ester Fmoc-L-glutamic acid 5-tert-butyl ester 71989-18-9 C24H27NO6
N-(Diphenylmethylene)glycerine tert-butyl ester N-(Diphenylmethylene)glycerine tert-butyl ester 81477-94-3 C19H21NO2
Fmoc-O-benzyl-L-tyrosine Fmoc-O-benzyl-L-tyrosine 71989-40-7 C31H27NO5
D-(-)-ALPHA-PHENYLGLYCINE ETHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE D-(-)-ALPHA-PHENYLGLYCINE ETHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE 17609-48-2 C10H14ClNO2
3-Methylamino-1,2-propanediol 3-Methylamino-1,2-propanediol 40137-22-2 C4H11NO2
QUISQUALIC ACID QUISQUALIC ACID 52809-07-1 C5H7N3O5
Melanotan II Melanotan II 121062-08-6 C50H69N15O9
DL-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate DL-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate 123333-71-1 C6H12ClN3O3
Z-PYR-OH Z-PYR-OH 32159-21-0 C13H13NO5
3-Methoxypropylamine 3-Methoxypropylamine 5332-73-0 C4H11NO
Boc-3-(3-pyridyl)-L-alanine Boc-3-(3-pyridyl)-L-alanine 117142-26-4 C13H18N2O4
BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CYANO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID BOC-(S)-3-AMINO-4-(2-CYANO-PHENYL)-BUTYRIC ACID 270065-83-3 C16H20N2O4
N-Boc-N'-(9-xanthenyl)-L-glutamine N-Boc-N'-(9-xanthenyl)-L-glutamine 55260-24-7 C23H26N2O6
FMOC-TYR(PO(OBZL)OH)-OH FMOC-TYR(PO(OBZL)OH)-OH 191348-16-0 C31H28NO8P
5-Aminopyridine-2-carboxylic Acid 5-Aminopyridine-2-carboxylic Acid 24242-20-4 C6H6N2O2
2,6-DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID 2,6-DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID 2577-62-0 C7H14N2O4
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine 39537-23-0 C8H15N3O4
L-Arginine ethyl ester dihydrochloride L-Arginine ethyl ester dihydrochloride 36589-29-4 C8H20Cl2N4O2
FMOC-CYS(TRT)-OPFP FMOC-CYS(TRT)-OPFP 115520-21-3 C43H30F5NO4S
4-NITRO-DL-PHENYLALANINE 4-NITRO-DL-PHENYLALANINE 2922-40-9 C9H10N2O4
DL-3,5-DIFLUOROPHENYLALANINE DL-3,5-DIFLUOROPHENYLALANINE 32133-37-2 C9H9F2NO2
Fmoc-(R)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid Fmoc-(R)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid 220498-02-2 C24H21NO4
Ethyl acetamidoacetate Ethyl acetamidoacetate 1906-82-7 C6H11NO3
FMOC-ASN(TRT)-OPFP FMOC-ASN(TRT)-OPFP 132388-64-8 C44H31F5N2O5
3-METHYL-L-HISTIDINE 3-METHYL-L-HISTIDINE 368-16-1 C7H13N3O3
H-LEU-GLY-OH H-LEU-GLY-OH 686-50-0 C8H16N2O3
L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride L-2-Allylglycine Hydrochloride 195316-72-4 C5H9NO2.ClH
BOC-TRP-OSU BOC-TRP-OSU 3392-11-8 C20H23N3O6
Z-SER-OBZL Z-SER-OBZL 21209-51-8 C18H19NO5
Fmoc-N-methyl-D-valine Fmoc-N-methyl-D-valine 103478-58-6 C21H23NO4
N-Fmoc-S-(4-methoxybenzyl)-L-cysteine N-Fmoc-S-(4-methoxybenzyl)-L-cysteine 141892-41-3 C26H25NO5S
D-4-Chlorophenylalanine D-4-Chlorophenylalanine 14091-08-8 C9H10ClNO2
Fmoc-3,3-diphenyl-L-alanine Fmoc-3,3-diphenyl-L-alanine 201484-50-6 C30H25NO4
Methyl L-isoleucinate hydrochloride Methyl L-isoleucinate hydrochloride 18598-74-8 C7H16ClNO2
Boc-L-Proline-methyl ester Boc-L-Proline-methyl ester 59936-29-7 C11H19NO4
(S)-(+)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol (S)-(+)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol 2026-48-4 C5H13NO
2-Aminopyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid 2-Aminopyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid 3167-50-8 C5H5N3O2
CHLOROACETYL-L-TYROSINE CHLOROACETYL-L-TYROSINE 1145-56-8 C11H12ClNO4
(R)-N-Boc-2-amino-3,3-diphenylpropionic acid (R)-N-Boc-2-amino-3,3-diphenylpropionic acid 143060-31-5 C20H23NO4
N-alpha-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-lysine N-alpha-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-L-lysine 13734-28-6 C11H22N2O4
N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine sulfate N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine sulfate 4327-84-8 C10H18N2O5S
Glycyl-L-valine Glycyl-L-valine 1963-21-9 C7H14N2O3
trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride 40216-83-9 C6H12ClNO3
GLYCYL-DL-PHENYLALANINE GLYCYL-DL-PHENYLALANINE 721-66-4 C11H14N2O3
N2-(1S-Ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenylpropyl)-N6-trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine N2-(1S-Ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenylpropyl)-N6-trifluoroacetyl-L-lysine 116169-90-5 C20H27F3N2O5
HomePage | Member Companies | Advertising | Contact us | Previous WebSite | MSDS | CAS Index | CAS DataBase
Copyright © 2016 ChemicalBook All rights reserved.