Carboxylic acids and esters

Carboxylic acid is also known as "organic acid". It refers to the general term of the organic compound formed through the combination between hydrocarbon group and carboxyl group with the general formula being RCOOH.It is mostly in the form of an ester to be widespread in nature. Based on the hydrocarbon structure, it is divided into: 1 aliphatic carboxylic acid: it is formed through connection between aliphatic hydrocarbon group and carboxyl group, such as acetic acid CH3COOH. 2 aromatic carboxylic acids: it is formed through the connection between aromatic rings with a carboxyl group, such as benzoic acid C6H5-COOH. 3 cyclic acid; it is formed through the connection between carboxyl group and cyclic hydrocarbon group such as cyclohexane carboxylic acid. 4 saturated carboxylic acids: it refers to saturated hydrocarbon-containing acids, such as butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH. 5 unsaturated carboxylic: acids; it refers to acid containing an unsaturated hydrocarbon group such as acrylic acid CH2 = CHCOOH.

Based on the number of carboxyl groups contained in the molecules, it can be divided into monobasic acid, dibasic acids and poly-acids. Those which have substituents groups contained inside the hydrocarbon are called as "substituted carboxylic acid." Saturated mono-carboxylic acids containing one to nine carbon atoms inside the molecule appear as liquid while those containing more than ten carbon atoms appear as solid while aromatic carboxylic acids and saturated dicarboxylic acids both appear as solid. Carboxylic acids have weak acidicity, and have been largely applied to the manufacturing of esters, acyl chlorides, amides and anhydrides, with reduction of the carboxylic acid yielding the corresponding alcohol. A large number of carboxylic acids have widely applied to dyes, rubber, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, cosmetics, light industry and other industries.

Esters spices refer to the ester compound synthesized through the reaction between alcohols and carboxylic acids. It is a very important large class in spice. Depending on the raw materials used in the synthesis, it can be roughly divided into: aliphatic carboxylates, aromatic carboxylate ester, alkene & alkyne unsaturated bond-containing carboxylic acid ester, and other esters.

The main features of ester series spices are: carboxylic ester can be taken as the product of the substitution of the hydroxy group in acid with alkoxy group. Because the hydroxyl group contained in a carboxyl group may be substituted with one or more alkoxy groups, thus leading to the synthesis of monoester, diester or polyesters. Furthermore, there may also be several hydroxy groups contained in the alcohols, and therefore its alkoxy groups can be connected with one or more carboxyl groups to yield mono- or carboxylate. The aroma, fragrance type, fragrance intensity and features are all related to the structure of the esters. The esters formed through low-grade carboxylic acid and low grade alcohol generally appear as volatile liquid with aroma of flowers, fruit and grass. The ester formed between low grade carboxylic acid and low grade terpene has flower aroma. Esters containing aromatic groups mostly have flower aroma. Esters results from aromatic acids and aromatic alcohols, although with not very strong aroma, has relative higher boiling points and long-lasting aroma. Esters spices are widely distributed in nature with existence in plant roots, stems, leaves, fruits, seeds, bark, flowers and other parts as well as in the secretion products of some animals. There are even more kinds of artificially synthetic ester spices. Because of the easy process of synthesis of esters and the wide source of raw materials, there are many fragrance types for the synthetic esters; the price is also low, and therefore they have achieved widely applications.

Fatty acid esters spices occupy an important status in the fragrance industry, which is characterized by variety, easy synthesis and low prices, and it has been widely used in daily flavor, food flavor as well as industrial flavor. The mainly preparation methods include the esterification reaction between alcohol and fatty acid, the reaction between alcohol and acid anhydride, the reaction between acyl chloride and alcohol, interchange reaction of ester and the reaction between carboxylic acid salt and alkyl halide.

The aromatic esters spices mainly include benzoate, phenylacetic acid ester, cinnamic acid ester and salicylic acid esters. Methods of synthesizing mainly include esterification between alcohol and aromatic acids, reaction between alcohol and benzoyl chloride, ester exchange reaction as well as the reaction between alkyl halide and aromatic acid salt. They play an important role in the daily flavors and edible flavors.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
2,3,6-Trimethylphenol 2,3,6-Trimethylphenol 2416-94-6 C9H12O
trans-2-Hexenoic acid trans-2-Hexenoic acid 13419-69-7 C6H10O2
Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 104-55-2 C9H8O
Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal 2568-25-4 C10H12O2
PROPYL BENZOATE PROPYL BENZOATE 2315-68-6 C10H12O2
Dimethyl adipate Dimethyl adipate 627-93-0 C8H14O4
4-Methylvaleric acid 4-Methylvaleric acid 646-07-1 C6H12O2
alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde alpha-Methylcinnamaldehyde 101-39-3 C10H10O
Ethyl butyrylacetate Ethyl butyrylacetate 3249-68-1 C8H14O3
4-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol 123-07-9 C8H10O
DL-3-Methylvaleric acid DL-3-Methylvaleric acid 105-43-1 C6H12O2
4-Hexanolide 4-Hexanolide 695-06-7 C6H10O2
Ethyl benzoylacetate Ethyl benzoylacetate 94-02-0 C11H12O3
alpha-Angelica lactone alpha-Angelica lactone 591-12-8 C5H6O2
3-Methoxybenzoic acid 3-Methoxybenzoic acid 586-38-9 C8H8O3
2',4'-Dimethylacetophenone 2',4'-Dimethylacetophenone 89-74-7 C10H12O
METHYL MYRISTATE METHYL MYRISTATE 124-10-7 C15H30O2
ETHYL (METHYLTHIO)ACETATE ETHYL (METHYLTHIO)ACETATE 4455-13-4 C5H10O2S
Isobutyric acid Isobutyric acid 79-31-2 C4H8O2
2-Methyl-2-pentenoic acid 2-Methyl-2-pentenoic acid 3142-72-1 C6H10O2
Octyl 4-methoxycinnamate Octyl 4-methoxycinnamate 5466-77-3 C18H26O3
4-Methyloctanoic acid 4-Methyloctanoic acid 54947-74-9 C9H18O2
gamma-Valerolactone gamma-Valerolactone 108-29-2 C5H8O2
Diethyl 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3,5-dicarboxylate Diethyl 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3,5-dicarboxylate 2436-79-5 C12H17NO4
gamma-Octanoic lactone gamma-Octanoic lactone 104-50-7 C8H14O2
Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate 2021-28-5 C11H14O2
2',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 2',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone 1201-38-3 C10H12O3
Ethyl crotonate Ethyl crotonate 623-70-1 C6H10O2
Pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid 127-17-3 C3H4O3
Tributyrin Tributyrin 60-01-5 C15H26O6
Butyl hexanoate Butyl hexanoate 626-82-4 C10H20O2
4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one 4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one 28664-35-9 C6H8O3
(1R)-(-)-Menthyl acetate (1R)-(-)-Menthyl acetate 2623-23-6 C12H22O2
delta-Dodecalactone delta-Dodecalactone 713-95-1 C12H22O2
Ethyl L(-)-lactate Ethyl L(-)-lactate 687-47-8 C5H10O3
Benzyl cinnamate Benzyl cinnamate 103-41-3 C16H14O2
4-Ethyl-2-methoxyphenol 4-Ethyl-2-methoxyphenol 2785-89-9 C9H12O2
gamma-Nonanolactone gamma-Nonanolactone 104-61-0 C9H16O2
Ethyl levulinate Ethyl levulinate 539-88-8 C7H12O3
2-Ethylbutyric acid 2-Ethylbutyric acid 88-09-5 C6H12O2
4-Heptanolide 4-Heptanolide 105-21-5 C7H12O2
Methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate 119-36-8 C8H8O3
Dibutyl sebacate Dibutyl sebacate 109-43-3 C18H34O4
Allyl isothiocyanate Allyl isothiocyanate 57-06-7 C4H5NS
Butyl formate Butyl formate 592-84-7 C5H10O2
2-Ethoxynaphthalene 2-Ethoxynaphthalene 93-18-5 C12H12O
Dimethyl succinate Dimethyl succinate 106-65-0 C6H10O4
Isobutyl acetoacetate Isobutyl acetoacetate 7779-75-1 C8H14O3
ETHYL STEARATE ETHYL STEARATE 111-61-5 C20H40O2
2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol 2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol 93-51-6 C8H10O2
Undecanolactone Undecanolactone 710-04-3 C11H20O2
Isopropenyl acetate Isopropenyl acetate 108-22-5 C5H8O2
Diethyl succinate Diethyl succinate 123-25-1 C8H14O4
Palmitic acid ethyl ester Palmitic acid ethyl ester 628-97-7 C18H36O2
1-Octen-3-yl acetate 1-Octen-3-yl acetate 2442-10-6 C10H18O2
Isobutyl salicylate Isobutyl salicylate 87-19-4 C11H14O3
Methyl propionate Methyl propionate 554-12-1 C4H8O2
NERYL ACETATE NERYL ACETATE 141-12-8 C12H20O2
ALLYL CINNAMATE ALLYL CINNAMATE 1866-31-5 C12H12O2
Propyl cinnamate Propyl cinnamate 7778-83-8 C12H14O2
Styralyl acetate Styralyl acetate 93-92-5 C10H12O2
Benzyl acetate Benzyl acetate 140-11-4 C9H10O2
Butyl butyrate Butyl butyrate 109-21-7 C8H16O2
5-Hydroxyoctanoic acid lactone 5-Hydroxyoctanoic acid lactone 698-76-0 C8H14O2
Ethyl caprate Ethyl caprate 110-38-3 C12H24O2
TETRAHYDROFURFURYL ACETATE TETRAHYDROFURFURYL ACETATE 637-64-9 C7H12O3
Ethanethioic acid S-ethyl ester Ethanethioic acid S-ethyl ester 625-60-5 C4H8OS
OCTYL BUTYRATE OCTYL BUTYRATE 110-39-4 C12H24O2
ISOAMYL HEXANOATE ISOAMYL HEXANOATE 2198-61-0 C11H22O2
2-METHYLVALERIC ACID 2-METHYLVALERIC ACID 97-61-0 C6H12O2
Isoamyl o-hydroxybenzoate Isoamyl o-hydroxybenzoate 87-20-7 C12H16O3
AMYL BUTYRATE AMYL BUTYRATE 540-18-1 C9H18O2
(+)-Isobutyl D-lactate (+)-Isobutyl D-lactate 61597-96-4 C7H14O3
Cinnamyl propionate Cinnamyl propionate 103-56-0 C12H14O2
Hexyl benzoate Hexyl benzoate 6789-88-4 C13H18O2
Diethyl malonate Diethyl malonate 105-53-3 C7H12O4
Isobutyl acetate Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 C6H12O2
Ethyl valerate Ethyl valerate 539-82-2 C7H14O2
Ethyl isobutyrate Ethyl isobutyrate 97-62-1 C6H12O2
Propyl acetate Propyl acetate 109-60-4 C5H10O2
Ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate Ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate 5466-06-8 C5H10O2S
Methyl acetate Methyl acetate 79-20-9 C3H6O2
Butyl propionate Butyl propionate 590-01-2 C7H14O2
Ethyl cinnamate Ethyl cinnamate 103-36-6 C11H12O2
NONYL ACETATE NONYL ACETATE 143-13-5 C11H22O2
Furfuryl thiopropionate Furfuryl thiopropionate 59020-85-8 C8H10O2S
4-Ethyloctanoic acid 4-Ethyloctanoic acid 16493-80-4 C10H20O2
Ethyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate 93-89-0 C9H10O2
Cinnamyl chloride Cinnamyl chloride 2687-12-9 C9H9Cl
Butyl benzoate Butyl benzoate 136-60-7 C11H14O2
Methyl dihydrojasmonate Methyl dihydrojasmonate 24851-98-7 C13H22O3
CYCLOHEXYL BUTYRATE CYCLOHEXYL BUTYRATE 1551-44-6 C10H18O2
Isobutyl 3,5-diamino-4-chloro benzoate Isobutyl 3,5-diamino-4-chloro benzoate 32961-44-7 C11H15ClN2O2
Isoamyl propionate Isoamyl propionate 105-68-0 C8H16O2
Maltol isobutyrate Maltol isobutyrate 65416-14-0 C10H12O4
Ethyl isovalerate Ethyl isovalerate 108-64-5 C7H14O2
Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate 103-60-6 C12H16O3
CIS-3-HEXENYL ISOBUTYRATE CIS-3-HEXENYL ISOBUTYRATE 41519-23-7 C10H18O2
Isobutyl hexanoate Isobutyl hexanoate 105-79-3 C10H20O2
Methyl isovalerate Methyl isovalerate 556-24-1 C6H12O2
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