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Citric acid monohydrate

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CAS:5949-29-1
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  • Citric Acid Monohydrate
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Citric acid monohydrate Basic information
Product Name:Citric acid monohydrate
Synonyms:1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, monohydrate;1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid,2-hydroxy-,monohydrate;2,3-propanetricarboxylicacid,2-hydroxy-monohydrate;citric;Citric acid hydrate;Citricacidhydrate;Citronensαure-hydrat;Citric acid monohydrate, 99.5+%
CAS:5949-29-1
MF:C6H10O8
MW:210.1388
EINECS:200-662-2
Product Categories:BioXtra Buffers;Biological Buffers;Buffers A to Z;Building Blocks;C6;Carbonyl Compounds;Carboxylic Acids;Chemical Synthesis;Nutrition Research;Organic Building Blocks;Other Biochemical;Phytochemicals by Chemical Classification;ACS Grade;Essential Chemicals;C-D, Puriss p.a. ACS;Puriss p.a. ACS;Buffers A to ZCarbonyl Compounds;Other BiochemicalBiological Buffers;Biochemicals Found in Plants;C6Nutrition Research;Carboxylic Acids;SigmaUltra Buffers;ACS GradeCarbonyl Compounds;Essential Chemicals;Other Biochemical;Inorganic Salts;Research Essentials;Solutions and Reagents;Citric Acid Monohydrate is mainly used as acidulating, flavoring and preservative in foods and beverages;Food additive and acidulant;Analytical Reagents;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Puriss;Buffers A to ZEssential Chemicals;USP/MultiCompendial Grade Buffers;USPBiological Buffers;Biological Buffers;Routine Reagents;Buffers A to ZNutrition Research;Reagent GradeMetabolic Pathways;Metabolites and Cofactors on the Metabolic Pathways Chart;Other BiochemicalEssential Chemicals;TCA;5949-29-1
Mol File:5949-29-1.mol
Citric acid monohydrate Structure
Citric acid monohydrate Chemical Properties
Melting point -94 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 56 °C760 mm Hg(lit.)
density 0.791 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 184 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.359(lit.)
Fp 1 °F
storage temp. no restrictions.
solubility Citric Acid Monohydrate is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol and sparingly soluble in ether.
pka3.138, 4.76, 6.401
form Solid
color White
Specific Gravity0.810 (20/4℃)
PH1.85 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃)
Water Solubility 1630 g/L (20 oC) ;H2O: soluble 54% (w/w) at 10°C (Citric acid in water)
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Merck 14,2326
BRN 4018641
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, nitrates.
InChIKeyYASYEJJMZJALEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference5949-29-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceCitric acid monohydrate(5949-29-1)
EPA Substance Registry System1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1) (5949-29-1)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F,Xi
Risk Statements 11-36-66-67-41-36/37/38-37/38
Safety Statements 9-16-26-37/39-36/37/39-36
RIDADR UN 1090 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS AL3150000
TSCA Yes
HS Code 29181400
ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: 3000 mg/kg
MSDS Information
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Citric acid monohydrate English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Citric acid monohydrate Usage And Synthesis
Chemical PropertiesCitric acid monohydrate occurs as colorless or translucent crystals, or as a white crystalline, efflorescent powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. The crystal structure is orthorhombic. monohydrate crystals lose water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 40 to 50 °C. Citric acid monohydrate softens at 75 °C and melts at approximately 100 °C.
Citric acid monohydrate
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural preservative and is used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks.
Citric acid monohydrate acts as a preservative and antioxidant. It is also used as an acidulant, flavoring agent and antistaling agent in fruit drinks, candy, cookies, biscuits, canned fruits, jams, and jellies. It differs from other forms of citric acid by having a moisture percentage ranging from 7.5-9.0.
UsesCitric Acid Monohydrate is used as an Acidulate, Food additive, Pharmaceutical application and as a synergist in antioxidant mixtures.
Citric Acid Monohydrate is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. Citric acid is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to its antioxidant properties. It maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. It is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.
Uses
Citric acid monohydrate has been used:
  • as carbon source of carbon nanodot synthesis
  • in the preparation of citric acid monohydrate solution/buffer of pH-6.0 for tissue sample preparation
  • to treat various samples in citric acid solubilisation technique

UsesCitric acid monohydrate is used in the preparation of citrate buffer in platelets for intravital microscopy. It acts as a pH-control agent in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals applications. It acts as an iron chelator. In animals, it improves the utilization of nutritional calcium. It is a useful buffer component for antigen and epitope unmasking. It is also used as an acidifier, a flavoring agent and a chelating agent.
Production MethodsAt present, the production method of citric acid monohydrate crystal in industry includes first separating the citric acid fermentation liquid from solid-liquid to obtain citric acid clear liquid, Citric acid clear night through calcium salt method The purified solution obtained by (hydrogen calcium method), acidolysis and decolorization is heated, concentrated and crystallized to produce anhydrous citric acid. The mother liquor separated from anhydrous citric acid crystal slurry is put into the crystallization cylinder after being filtered by plate and frame, and the citric acid concentrated solution reaches the supersaturated state through cooling to precipitate the crystal. When the temperature is reduced to about 13 ℃, centrifugal separation is started, and the wet crystal enters the dryer for drying dry. After the mother liquor is filtered, decolorized and concentrated by plate and frame, it is injected into the crystallization cylinder, and the above steps are repeated for cooling crystallization, centrifugal separation and drying. In this way, it is repeated four to five times. Finally, the separated mother liquor is returned to the extraction workshop after chromatographic separation for re purification.
Production MethodsCitric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species and may be extracted from lemon juice, which contains 5–8% citric acid, or pineapple waste. Anhydrous citric acid may also be produced industrially by mycological fermentation of crude sugar solutions such as molasses, using strains of Aspergillus niger . Citric acid is purified by recrystallization; the anhydrous form is obtained from a hot concentrated aqueous solution and the monohydrate from a cold concentrated aqueous solution.
General Description
Citric acid monohydrate is an organic acid. Its molar enthalpy of solution in water has been reported to be ΔsolHm (298.15K, m = 0.0203molkg-1) = (29061 ± 123)Jmol-1
Pharmaceutical ApplicationsCitric acid (as either the monohydrate or anhydrous material) is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. It has also been used experimentally to adjust the pH of tablet matrices in enteric-coated formulations for colon-specific drug delivery. Citric acid monohydrate is used in the preparation of effervescent granules, while anhydrous citric acid is widely used in the preparation of effervescent tablets. Citric acid has also been shown to improve the stability of spray-dried insulin powder in inhalation formulations.
In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. Citric acid monohydrate is used as a sequestering agent and antioxidant synergist. It is also a component of anticoagulant citrate solutions. Therapeutically, preparations containing citric acid have been used to dissolve renal calculi.
Biochem/physiol ActionsCitric acid plays a major role in textile, food, pharmaceutical, metal and chemical industries. Melting citric acid monohydrate can give rise to itaconic anhydride. The crystals of citric acid monohydrate has the ability to preserve water up to 56 degree celsius.
Biotechnological ApplicationsCitric acid monohydrate was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.
It may be used:
As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.
SafetyCitric acid is found naturally in the body, mainly in the bones, and is commonly consumed as part of a normal diet. Orally ingested citric acid is absorbed and is generally regarded as a nontoxic material when used as an excipient. However, excessive or frequent consumption of citric acid has been associated with erosion of the teeth.
Citric acid and citrates also enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. It has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citric acid or citrate-containing products.
storageCitric acid monohydrate loses water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 408℃. It is slightly deliquescent in moist air. Dilute aqueous solutions of citric acid may ferment on standing.
Purification MethodsCrystallise it from hot H2O solution (w/w solubility is 54% at 10o, 71% at 50o and 84% at 100o. The monohydrate (softens at ~75o and melts at ~100o) dehydrates in air or when heated gently above 40o . The triethylester ( M 276.3, b 127o/1mm, 294o/atm, d 4 1.137, n D 1.4420.) is a bitter tasting oil. [Beilstein 3 H 556 and 568, 3 IV 1272.]
IncompatibilitiesCitric acid is incompatible with potassium tartrate, alkali and alkaline earth carbonates and bicarbonates, acetates, and sulfides. Incompatibilities also include oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, and nitrates. It is potentially explosive in combination with metal nitrates. On storage, sucrose may crystallize from syrups in the presence of citric acid.
Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. The anhydrous form is accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; IM, IV, and other injections; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in Japan and the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Tag:Citric acid monohydrate(5949-29-1) Related Product Information
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