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Nickel

Nickel Suppliers list
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Products Intro: Product Name:Nickel
CAS:7440-02-0
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1kg,5kg,10kg
Company Name: Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
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Products Intro: CAS:7440-02-0
Purity:99% Package:500G;1KG;5KG;25KG
Company Name: Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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Products Intro: Product Name:Nickel
CAS:7440-02-0
Company Name: Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Products Intro: Product Name:nickel atom
CAS:7440-02-0
Purity:99% Package:5KG;1KG Remarks:Ni
Company Name: Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
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Products Intro: Product Name:RaneyNickel
CAS:7440-02-0
Nickel Basic information
History Uses Production Reactions Toxicity
Product Name:Nickel
Synonyms:Nickel wire, 0.01mm (0.0004 in.) dia., Hard, Temper: as drawn;Nickel tubing, OD: 1.59mm (0.0626 in.) ID: 0.51mm (0.02 in.);Nickel wire, 1.0mm (0.04 in.) dia., Annealed;Nickel, p.a.;ACTIMET 8040P;ACTIMET C;CHLORIDE TITRANT;BETZ 0207
CAS:7440-02-0
MF:Ni
MW:58.69
EINECS:231-111-4
Product Categories:Metals;Inorganics;Catalysts for Organic Synthesis;Classes of Metal Compounds;Heterogeneous Catalysts;Ni (Nickel) Compounds;Synthetic Organic Chemistry;Transition Metal Compounds;NickelMetal and Ceramic Science;Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry;Chemical Synthesis;Alternative Energy;Electrode MaterialsMetal and Ceramic Science;Materials Science;Metal and Ceramic Science;Industrial Raw Materials;Industrial Raw MaterialsApplication CRMs;Industrial Raw MaterialsCertified Reference Materials (CRMs);IRMM/BCR Certified Reference Materials;Matrix CRMs;Metals&AlloysAlphabetic;N;NA - NICertified Reference Materials (CRMs);Physical Properties;supported metal catalyst;metal or element;nano structured material;Reference/Calibration Standards;NA - NIReference/Calibration Standards;Application CRMs;-;Certified Reference Materials (CRMs);Industrial Raw MaterialsAlphabetic;Reactor DosimetryCertified Reference Materials (CRMs);Reactor Neutron Dosimetry;Reactor Neutron DosimetryCertified Reference Materials (CRMs);28: Ni;Nanomaterials;Nanoparticles: Metals and Metal AlloysMetal and Ceramic Science;Nanopowders and Nanoparticle Dispersions;NickelNanomaterials
Mol File:7440-02-0.mol
Nickel Structure
Nickel Chemical Properties
Melting point 212 °C (dec.)(lit.)
Boiling point 2732 °C(lit.)
density 8.9
vapor density 5.8 (vs air)
storage temp. Flammables area
form wire
color White to gray-white
Specific Gravity8.9
PH8.5-12.0
resistivity6.97 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility It is insoluble in water.
Sensitive air sensitive
Merck 14,8107
Stability:Stable in massive form. Powder is pyrophoric - can ignite spontaneously. May react violently with titanium, ammonium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, hydrazoic acid. Incompatible with acids, oxidizing agents, sulfur.
CAS DataBase Reference7440-02-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceNickel(7440-02-0)
EPA Substance Registry SystemNickel(7440-02-0)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,Xi,Xn,F,T
Risk Statements 34-50/53-43-40-10-17-52/53-48/23
Safety Statements 26-45-60-61-36-22-36/37-16-15-5-36/37/39-43-28
RIDADR UN 1493 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
RTECS VW4725000
8
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 4.1
PackingGroup II
HS Code 38151100
Hazardous Substances Data7440-02-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Nickel Usage And Synthesis
HistoryNickel was isolated first and recognized as an element by Cronstedt in 1751. The metal was derived in pure form by Richter in 1804. The metal takes its name from two German words ‘Nickel’ and ‘kupfernickel’, which mean Old Nick’s (or Satan) and Old Nick’s copper, respectively.
The abundance of nickel in the earth’s crust is only 84 mg/kg, the 24th most abundant element. It is found in most meteorites, particularly in the iron meteorites or siderites, alloyed with iron. Its average concentration in seawater is 0.56 μg/mL. Nickel is one of the major components of the earth’s core, comprising about 7%.
The most common nickel ores are pentlandite, (Ni,Fe)9S16, limonite, (Fe,Ni)O(OH)•nH2O, and garnierite, (Ni,Mg)6Si4O10(OH)8. Other ores that are of rare occurrence are the sulfide ores, millerite, NiS, polydymite Ni3S4 and siegenite, (Co,Ni)3S4; the arsenide ores niccolite, NiAs, gersdorffite, NiAsS, and annabergite, Ni3As2O8•8H2O; and the antimonide ore, NiSb.
UsesThe most important applications of nickel metal involve its use in numerous alloys. Such alloys are used to construct various equipment, reaction vessels, plumbing parts, missile, and aerospace components. Such nickel-based alloys include Monel, Inconel, Hastelloy, Nichrome, Duranickel, Udinet, Incoloy and many other alloys under various other trade names. The metal itself has some major uses. Nickel anodes are used for nickel plating of many base metals to enhance their resistance to corrosion. Nickel-plated metals are used in various equipment, machine parts, printing plates, and many household items such as scissors, keys, clips, pins, and decorative pieces. Nickel powder is used as porous electrodes in storage batteries and fuel cells.
Another major industrial use of nickel is in catalysis. Nickel and raney nickel are used in catalytic hydrogenation or dehydrogenation of organic compounds including olefins, fats, and oils.
ProductionNickel usually is recovered from its sulfide ore, pentlandite (Ni,Fe)9S16. Although laterite type oxide ores sometimes are used as starting materials, pentlandite is used in many commercial operations. Pentlandite often is found in nature associated with other sulfide minerals, such as pyrrhotite, Fe7S8,and chalcopyrite, CuFeS2.
The ores are crushed and powdered. Sulfides are separated from gangue by froth flotation or magnetic separation processes. After this, the ore is subjected to roasting and smelting. These steps are carried out initially in rotary kilns or multihearth furnaces and then smelting is done in either blast furnaces or reverberatory, or arc furnaces. Most sulfur is removed as sulfur dioxide. Iron and other oxides produced in roasting are also removed along with siliceous slag during smelting. A matte obtained after smelting usually contains impure nickel-iron-copper sulfides and sulfur. The molten matte is treated with silica and an air blower in a converter in the Bessemerizing stage to remove all remaining iron and sulfur.
Copper-nickel matte obtained in this stage is allowed to cool slowly over a few days to separate mineral crystals of copper sulfide, nickel sulfide and nickel-copper alloy. The cool matte is pulverized to isolate sulfides of nickel and copper by froth flotation. Nickel-copper alloy is extracted by magnetic separation. Nickel metal is obtained from the nickel sulfide by electrolysis using crude nickel sulfide cast into anodes and nickel-plated stainless steel cathodes.
Alternatively, nickel sulfide is roasted to nickel oxide, which then is reduced to crude nickel and is electrorefined as above.
Two other refining processes are also frequently employed. One involves hydrometallurgical refining in which sulfide concentrates are leached with ammonia solution to convert the copper, nickel, and cobalt sulfides into their complex amines. Copper is precipitated from this solution upon heating. Under such conditions, the sulfide-amine mixture of nickel and cobalt are oxidized to their sulfates. The sulfates then are reduced to metallic nickel and cobalt by heating with hydrogen at elevated temperatures under pressure. The metals are obtained in their powder form.
The more common carbonyl refining process involves reaction of crude nickel with carbon monoxide under pressure at 100°C to form nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4. The liquid tetracarbonyl upon heating at 300°C decomposes to nickel metal and carbon monoxide. Very pure nickel can be obtained by the carbonyl refining processes, as no other metal forms a similar carbonyl under these conditions.
ReactionsAt ordinary temperatures, bulk nickel in compact form has no perceptible reactivity with air or water. However, in finely-divided state, the metal reacts readily and can be pyrophoric under certain conditions. When heated in air at 400°C or with steam, nickel converts to its oxide, NiO.
When heated with bromine vapors or chlorine gas, nickel catches fire forming nickel bromide, NiBr2, and yellow nickel chloride, NiCl2, respectively. Finely divided nickel combines with carbon monoxide to form zero valent nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4. The reaction occurs at 50°C and one atmosphere, although it is usually carried out at 200°C under high CO pressure between 100 to 400 atm for high yield of carbonyl, and to prevent product decomposition. Carbon monoxide at ordinary pressure may be passed over freshly reduced metal to form the tetracarbonyl.
Finely divided nickel absorbs a large volume of hydrogen at high temperatures. Even at ordinary temperatures, considerable occlusion of hydrogen occurs on to the metal surface and no definite composition of any hydride formed is known. The metal activates molecular hydrogen to its atomic state, contributing to its catalytic action in hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds.
Dilute mineral acids attack nickel to a varying extent. The metal dissolves readily in dilute nitric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms emerald green crystals of nickel nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO3)2•6H2O.
Actions of dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid on nickel are relatively slow: slower than on iron. Concentrated nitric acid passivates the metal, oxidizing it and forming a protective film on its surface which prevents any further reaction.
Nickel is stable in caustic alkalies. At moderate temperatures, it decomposes gaseous ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen. Nickel combines with sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, arsenic, antimony, and aluminum at elevated temperatures. Fusion of nickel powder with molten sulfur yields nickel sulfide, NiS. Reaction with aluminum can be explosive at 1,300°C, forming nickelaluminum intermetallic products of varying compositions.
Nickel powder combines with carbon dioxide in ammonia solution forming nickel carbonate. Boiling the solution to expel ammonia precipitates pure carbonate, NiCO3.
Fine nickel powder reacts with sulfamic acid in hot aqueous solution under controlled conditions, forming nickel sulfamate tetrahydrate, Ni(SO3NH2)2•4H2O, used in electroplating baths.
ToxicitySkin contact can cause dermatitis and a type of chronic eczema, known as “nickel itch”, caused by hypersensitivity reactions of nickel on the skin (Patnaik, P. 1999. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 2nd ed. pp. 621-622, New York: John Wiley & Sons.) Although oral toxicity of the metal is very low, ingestion may cause hyperglycemia and depression of the central nervous system. Chronic inhalation of nickel dust can cause lung and sinus cancers in humans. Nickel and certain of its compounds are listed by IARC under Group 2B carcinogens as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1990. IARC Monograph, Vol. 49: Geneva.)
DescriptionNickel is a hard, silvery white, malleable metal chunk or grey powder. Nickel powder is pyrophoric – can ignite spontaneously. It may react violently with titanium, ammonium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, and hydrazoic acid. It is incompatible with acids, oxidising agents, and sulphur. The industrially important nickel compounds are nickel oxide (NiO), nickel acetate (Ni(C2H3O2), nickel carbonate (NiCO3), nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4), nickel subsulphide (NiS2), nickelocene (C5H5)2Ni, and nickel sulphate hexahydrate (NiSO4 · 6H2O). Nickel compounds have been well established as human carcinogens. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis have revealed that not all nickel compounds are equally carcinogenic: certain water-insoluble nickel compounds exhibit potent carcinogenic activity, whereas highly water-soluble nickel compounds exhibit less potency. The reason for the high carcinogenic activity of certain water-insoluble nickel compounds relates to their bioavailability and the ability of the nickel ions to enter cells and reach chromatin. The water-insoluble nickel compounds enter cells quite efficiently via phagocytic processes and subsequent intracellular dissolution. Nickel is classified as a borderline metal ion because it has both soft and hard metal properties and it can bind to sulphur, nitrogen, and oxygen groups. Nickel ions are very similar in structure and coordination properties to magnesium.
Chemical Propertiessilver white, hard, malleable metal chunks or grey powder
Chemical PropertiesNickel metal is a hard, ductile, magnetic metal with a silver-white color.
HistoryDiscovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteorites and often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed with from 5 to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario, a district that produces much of the world’s nickel. It is now thought that the Sudbury deposit is the result of an ancient meteorite impact. Large deposits of nickel, cobalt, and copper have recently been developed at Voisey’s Bay, Labrador. Other deposits of nickel are found in Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, Indonesia, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile, somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion- resistant alloys such as Invar?, Monel?, Inconel?, and the Hastelloys?. Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also now used extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome?, Permalloy?, and constantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely divided nickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in batteries. The sulfate and the oxides are important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes; twenty-five other unstable isotopes are known. Nickel sulfide fume and dust, as well as other nickel compounds, are carcinogens. Nickel metal (99.9%) is priced at about $2/g or less in larger quantities.
DefinitionChEBI: Chemical element (nickel group element atom) with atomic number 28.
UsesNickel-plating; for various alloys such as new silver, Chinese silver, German silver; for coins, electrotypes, storage batteries; magnets, lightning-rod tips, electrical contacts and electrodes, spark plugs, machinery parts; catalyst for hydrogenation of oils and other organic substances. See also Raney nickel. manufacture of Monel metal, stainless steels, heat resistant steels, heat and corrosion resistant alloys, nickel-chrome resistance wire; in alloys for electronic and space applications.
General DescriptionNickel catalyst, is extremely fine powdered nickel. Nickel is grayish colored. Insoluble in water. Nickel catalyst is used to promote the chemical action in manufacturing synthetics and to process vegetable oil and petroleum. If exposed to air or moisture, Nickel may become hot enough to ignite. Nickel is insoluble in water and does not react with larger volumes of water.
Air & Water ReactionsPyrophoric, Ignites spontaneously in the presence of air; during storage, H2 escapes with fire and explosion hazards; reacts violently with acids forming H2. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 807].
Reactivity ProfileMetals, such as METAL CATALYST, are reducing agents and tend to react with oxidizing agents. Their reactivity is strongly influenced by their state of subdivision: in bulk they often resist chemical combination; in powdered form they may react very rapidly. Thus, as a bulk metal Nickel is somewhat unreactive, but finely divided material may be pyrophoric. The metal reacts exothermically with compounds having active hydrogen atoms (such as acids and water) to form flammable hydrogen gas and caustic products. The reactions are less vigorous than the similar reactions of alkali metals, but the released heat can still ignite the released hydrogen. Materials in this group may react with azo/diazo compounds to form explosive products. These metals and the products of their corrosion by air and water can catalyze polymerization reactions in several classes of organic compounds; these polymerizations sometimes proceed rapidly or even explosively. Some metals in this group form explosive products with halogenated hydrocarbons. Can react explosively with oxidizing materials.
HazardFlammable and toxic as dust or fume. Dermatitis and pneumoconiosis. A confirmed carcinogen
Health HazardFire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Inhalation of decomposition products may cause severe injury or death. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
Fire HazardFlammable/combustible material. May ignite on contact with moist air or moisture. May burn rapidly with flare-burning effect. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated.
Agricultural UsesNickel (Ni) is a silver-white, ductile, malleable, yet tough metallic element of Group 10 (formerly Group VIII) of the Periodic Table. Mostly, nickel goes into the making of steel and other corrosion resistant alloys. Finely divided nickel is used as a hydrogenation catalyst. Nickel is a beneficial trace element for plants.
Its presence in the urease enzyme underlines its importance as a functional element. It is essential for grain viability, in barley and at concentrations less than 100 μg/kg, the grain level and the germination frequency decrease progressively. The quantity of Ni in a few fertilizers is as given: 2 ppm in nitrochalk, 13 ppm in superphosphate and 10 ppm in FYM.
Nickel is the metal component of urease that hydrolyzes urea to give ammonia and carbon dioxide. Compounds that react with nickel in the urease molecule inhibit the hydrolysis of urea.
Nickel enhances the nodule weight and the seed yield of soybeans, chickpeas and temperate cereals. It is present in plants in the range of 0.1 to 1O ppm of the dry weight.
High levels of Ni may induce Zn or Fe deficiency because of cation competition, and may create nickel toxicity. The browning and necrosis of the leaf tips and margins are the toxicity symptoms on the plant. High Ni content also causes the distortion of young leaves and the death of the terminal shoots of the plant. The emerging leaves may fail to unroll and become necrotic, with the necrosis starting from near the base and spreading toward the leaf tip. Nickel toxicity in cereals and grasses varies in the intensity of chlorosis along the length of the leaf with a series of transverse bands.
Sewage sludge contains heavy metals like Ni, Cd, etc. that are absorbed by plants grown in soils contaminated with these heavy metals. The toxicity caused by these metals is in turn, passed on to animals that feed on such plants. Any regulation for sludge use should ensure that the soil pH is not lower than 6.5, as heavy metals are insoluble at pH greater than 6.5.
Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. Poison by ingestion, intratracheal, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. An experimental teratogen. Ingestion of soluble salts causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mutation data reported. Hypersensitivity to nickel is common and can cause allergic contact dermatitis, pulmonary asthma, conjunctivitis, and inflammatory reactions around nickel-containing medcal implants and prostheses. Powders may ignite spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with F2, NH4NO3, hydrazine, NH3, (H2 + dioxane), performic acid, P, Se, S, (Ti + KCLO3). Incompatible with oxidants (e.g., bromine pentafluoride, peroxyformic acid, potassium perchlorate, chlorine, nitryl fluoride, ammonium nitrate), Raney-nickel catalysts may initiate hazardous reactions with ethylene + aluminum chloride, pdioxane, hydrogen, hydrogen + oxygen, magnesium silicate, methanol, organic solvents + heat, sulfur compounds. Nickel catalysts have caused many industrial accidents.
Potential ExposureNickel is used as an alloy additive in steel manufacture; in the production of coins and other utensils. Nickel forms alloys with copper, manganese, zinc, chromium, iron, molybdenum, etc. Stainless steel is the most widely used nickel alloy. An important nickel copper alloy is Monel metal, which contains 66% nickel and 32% copper and has excellent corrosion resistance properties. Permanent magnets are alloys chiefly of nickel, cobalt, aluminum, and iron. Elemental nickel is used in electroplating, anodizing aluminum casting operations for machine parts; and in coinage; in the manufacture of acid-resisting and magnetic alloys; magnetic tapes; surgical and dental instruments; nickel cadmium batteries; nickel soaps in crankcase oil; in ground-coat enamels; colored ceramics; and glass. It is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation synthesis of acrylic esters for plastics. Exposure to nickel may also occur during mining, smelting, and refining operations. The route by which most people in the general population receive the largest portion of daily nickel intake is through food. Based on the available data from composite diet analysis, between 300 and 600 μg nickel per day are ingested. Fecal nickel analysis, a more accurate measure of dietary nickel intake, suggests about 300 μg per day. The highest level of nickel observed in water was 75 μg/L. Average drinking water levels are about 5 μg/L. A typical consumption of 2 L daily would yield an additional 10 μg of nickel, of which up to 1 μg would be absorbed.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
ShippingUN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
IncompatibilitiesNickel dust is a spontaneously flammable solid and a dangerous fire hazard.
Waste DisposalNickel compoundsencapsulation followed by disposal in a chemical waste landfill. However, nickel from various industrial wastes may also be recovered and recycled as described in the literature.
Tag:Nickel(7440-02-0) Related Product Information
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