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Kaliumnitrat Produkt Beschreibung

Potassium nitrate Struktur
7757-79-1
CAS-Nr.
7757-79-1
Bezeichnung:
Kaliumnitrat
Englisch Name:
Potassium nitrate
Synonyma:
XSJ;KNO3;nitre;vicknite;collo-bo;SALTPETER;saltpetre;kaliinitras;kaliumnitrat;nitrateofpotash
CBNumber:
CB9854301
Summenformel:
KNO3
Molgewicht:
101.1032
MOL-Datei:
7757-79-1.mol

Kaliumnitrat Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
334 °C (lit.)
Siedepunkt:
100 °C750 mm Hg
Dichte
1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
Flammpunkt:
400°C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Löslichkeit
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
Aggregatzustand
Solid
Wichte
2.109
Farbe
white
PH
5.0-7.5 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Wasserlöslichkeit
320 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,7648
Stabilität:
Stable. Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, strong reducing agents.
CAS Datenbank
7757-79-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA chemische Informationen
Potassium nitrate (7757-79-1)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher O,Xi,Xn
R-Sätze: 8-36/38-36/37/38-22
S-Sätze: 26-17-36-7-24/25
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. TT3700000
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2834 21 00
HazardClass  5.1
PackingGroup  III
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7757-79-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in rabbits: 1.166 g anion/kg, Dollahite, Rowe, Southwest. Vet. 27, 246 (1974)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H272 Kann Brand verstärken; Oxidationsmittel. Oxidierende Flüssigkeiten (Kapitel 2.13), Kategorie 2 (Ox. Liq. 2), H272 Oxidierende Flüssigkeiten (Kapitel 2.13), Kategorie 2 Achtung
Warnung
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H412 Schädlich für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 3 P273, P501
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P220 Von Kleidung und anderen brennbaren Materialien fernhalten.
P221 Mischen mit brennbaren Stoffen unbedingt verhindern.
P273 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P370+P378 Bei Brand: zum Löschen verwenden.

Kaliumnitrat Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSES BIS WEISSES KRISTALLINES PULVER.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Zersetzung beim Erhitzen unter Bildung von Stickstoffoxiden und Sauerstoff. Erhöhte Feuergefahr. Starkes Oxidationsmittel. Reagiert mit brennbaren und reduzierenden Stoffen.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK nicht festgelegt (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation des Aerosols und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Verdampfung bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Blut mit nachfolgender Methämoglobinbildung. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein. ärztliche Beobachtung notwendig.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in Kunststoff- oder Glasbehältern sammeln. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R8:Feuergefahr bei Berührung mit brennbaren Stoffen.
R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S17:Von brennbaren Stoffen fernhalten.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S7:Behälter dicht geschlossen halten.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

KNO3; Kalisalpeter, Salpetersäure-Kaliumsalz. Farbloser Feststoff.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Reizt die Augen. Aufnahme grösserer Mengen führt zu Blutdruckabfall, Krämpfen und Atemnot. Methämoglobinbildner.
Feuergefahr bei Berührung mit brennbaren Stoffen.
Nicht mit Metallen in Pulverform, brennbaren Stoffen, organischen Stoffen, Bor, Sulfiden, Kohlenstoff, Schwefel/Kohlenstoff, Phosphiden,Phosphor, Schwefel oder Magnesium in Berührung bringen.
LD50 (oal, Ratte): 2000 mg/kg.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz.

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Trocken aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen mit Wasser.
Wasser.
Brandfördernd. Nicht mit brennbaren Stoffen in Berührung bringen. Im Brandfall können nitrose Gase freigesetzt werden.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 15 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft.
Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser trinken. Erbrechen auslösen. Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort entfernen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

In Wasser gelöst zu den neutralen, wässrigen Lösemittelabfällen.

Beschreibung

Potassium nitrate is a solid, colorless, crystalline ionic compound that exists as the mineral niter.Potassium nitrate is also known as saltpeter. The name saltpeter comes from the Latin sal petrae, meaning salt of stone or salt of Petra. he term saltpeter or Chilean saltpeter is also used for sodium nitrate, NaNO3.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Potassium nitrate is an odorless, flammable, water-soluble, white or colorless crystals with saline taste that melt at 337°C. Used in pyrotechnics, explosives, and matches, as a fertilizer, and as an analytical reagent.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Colorless transparent crystals or white granular or crystalline powder;rhombohedral structure; density 2.11 g/cm3at 20°C; melts at 334°C; decomposes at 400°C evolving oxygen; soluble in cold water, 13.3 g/100mL at 0°C;highly soluble in boiling water, 247 g/100mL at 100°C; lowers the temperature of water on dissolution; very slightly soluble in ethanol; soluble in glycerol and liquid ammonia.

History

Saltpeter’s most prominent use in human history is as the principal ingredient in gunpowder.The potassium nitrate used in gunpowder was originally obtained from natural mineral deposits of niter. Small quantities formed as efflorescence deposits on damp stone walls were identified as early as 2000 b.c.e. in Sumerian writings. As the use of black powder expanded with the development of weapons, the demand for saltpeter exceeded supply. This was exacerbated during times of war. To meet the demand for saltpeter to produce black powder, a saltpeter industry developed that followed prescribed methods to produce large quantities of saltpeter. The method depended on processing dirt obtained from areas where nitrates would naturally form. These were areas in which animal waste had accumulated such as the dirt floors of barns, stables, herding pens, caves, or cellars. The ammonia compounds in the urine and fecal wastes in these areas underwent nitrifi cation to produce nitrates, which combined with potassium in the soil to form saltpeter.

Verwenden

Although the most prominent use of saltpeter is for the production of black powder,potassium nitrate is also used as fertilizer. In the first half of the 17th century, JohannRudolf Glauber (1604–1668) obtained saltpeter from animal pens and discovered its useto promote plant growth. Glauber included saltpeter with other nutrients in fertilizer mixtures. Glauber’s work was one of the first to indicate the importance of nutrient cyclingin plant nutrition.

Verwenden

This natural substance is the product of the decomposition of lime and urine. The white granules or powder are soluble in water 1:3 but insoluble in alcohol. Potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter or nitre, was combined with sulfuric acid to nitrate cotton for the manufacture of collodion. It was also used with magnesium to make flash powder and added to ferrous sulfate developers to produced cool white tones in collodion positives.

Verwenden

Potassium Nitrate is a preservative and color fixative in meats which exists as colorless prisms or white granules or powder. it has a solubility of 1 g in 3 ml of water at 25°c. see nitrate.

Verwenden

In fireworks, fluxes, pickling meats; production of nitric acid; manufacture of glass, matches, gunpowder; freezing mixtures. Agricultural fertilizer. Preservative in foods. In dentrifices to reduce tooth hypersensitivity.

Definition

ChEBI: The inorganic nitrate salt of potassium.

Vorbereitung Methode

Potassium nitrate may be produced by several methods. It is made commercially by reacting potassium chloride with nitric acid at high temperature.Nitrosyl chloride, a product obtained in the reaction, is converted into chlorine in this manufacturing process. Also, nitric acid is partly recycled in the process. The reactions are (Dancy, W.B. 1981. Potassium Compounds. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd. ed. Pp. 939-42. New York: Wiley Interscience):
3KCl + 4HNO3 →3KNO3+ Cl2+ NOCl + 2H2O
2NOCl + 4HNO3→6NO2+ Cl2+ 2H2O
4NO2+ O2+ 2H2O →4HNO3
Potassium nitrate also can be prepared by mixing a hot saturated solution of potassium chloride and sodium nitrate. The reaction is:
K++ Clˉ+ Na++ NO3ˉ→NaCl↓+ K++ NO3ˉ
Sodium chloride is less soluble than KCl, NaNo3and KNo3. It separates out by crystallization. The remaining solution is cooled to ambient tempera-ture. Potassium nitrate crystallizes out.

Trademarks

Cholal modifico;Cholal simple;Dewitt's pills for backache and joint pain;Viridite k.

Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO)

Potassium nitrate was formerly used as a diuretic. Its use for this purpose is now considered obsolete but it is still available in at least one country for the correction of potassium deficiency. It is aslo widely permitted at concentrations of the order of 5% in proprietary toothpastes. In some countries the drug has been banned due to a potential carcinogenic risk arising from the excessive use of nitrates and their transformation to nitrosamines.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

A white to dirty gray crystalline solid. Water soluble. Noncombustible, but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Used in solid propellants, explosives, fertilizers.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Soluble in water.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Potassium nitrate mixed with alkyl esters may explode, owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates; mixtures with phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979. p. 108-109]. Powdered antimony mixed with Potassium nitrate explodes when heated [Mellor 9:282 1946-47]. A mixture of antimony trisulfide and Potassium nitrate explodes at a red heat [Mellor 9:524. 1946-47]. Arsenic disulfide forms explosive mixtures when mixed with Potassium nitrate, [Mellor 9:270.1946-47]. A mixture of sodium acetate and Potassium nitrate may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. p. 30]. A mixture of Potassium nitrate and sodium hypophosphite constitutes a powerful explosive [Mellor 8:881. 1946-47]. A mixture of powdered zirconium and Potassium nitrate explodes when heated above the melting point [Mellor 7:116. 1946-47].

Hazard

Dangerous fire and explosion risk when shocked or heated, or in contact with organic mate- rials, strong oxidizing agent.

Health Hazard

Exposure can cause mild irritation of eyes, nose and throat.

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is a potassium salt of nitric acid, also known as saltpeter or nitrate of potash. It is a white crystalline salt which occurs naturally in nitre or saltpeter. It can be used as fertilizer for normal application and fertigation. Potassium (44% K2O) and nitrogen (13 %) are the constituents of NK fertilizers, which serve as a source of potassium, where extra chloride is not desired.
The agricultural grade of potassium nitrate is freeflowing and non-caking, with a particle size in the range of 1500 to 400 microns.
Potassium nitrate, which is slightly hygroscopic and granulated, can be spread on soil by trucks, fertilizer distributors or by aerial spraying. In a mixed fertilizer, a powdered grade of nitrate of potash does not cake. Potassium nitrate is made by the reaction of potassium chloride with nitric acid as: The nitrate of potash forms an easily breakable crust on top. It is chemically neutral and its nitrogen and potassium oxide ratio is roughly 1:3. It has been used successfully as a source of nitrogen and potassium for tobacco, tomato, potato, corn, citrus and carnations.

Industrielle Verwendung

Potassium nitrate is also called niter and saltpeter,although these usually refer to the nativemineral. A substance of the composition KNO3,it is used in explosives, for bluing steel, and infertilizers. A mixture of potassium nitrate andsodium nitrate is used for steel-tempering baths.The mixture melts at 250°C. Potassium nitrateis made by the action of potassium chloride onsodium nitrate. It occurs in colorless prismaticcrystals, or as a crystalline white powder. It hasa sharp saline taste and is soluble in water. Thespecific gravity is 2.1 and the melting point is337°C.
Potassium nitrate contains a large percentageof oxygen, which is readily given up andis well adapted for pyrotechnic compounds. Itgives a beautiful violet flame in burning. It isused in flares and in signal rockets.
Most enamels contain some oxidizing agentin the form of potassium or sodium nitrate.Only a small amount of nitrate is necessary; 2to 4% is sufficient to maintain oxidizing conditionsin most smelting operations.
In glazes it is sometimes used as a flux inplace of potassium oxide, but, owing to its costand solubility, very little of it is contained inglaze. Where conditions prevent the use of sufficientpotash feldspar, potassium oxide is introducedinto the mix, usually in the form of thenitrate in a frit.
Potassium nitrite is a solid of the compositionKNO2 used as a rust inhibitor, for theregeneration of heat-transfer salts, and for themanufacture of dyes.

Sicherheitsprofil

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Ingestion of large quantities may cause gastroenteritis. Chronic exposure can cause anemia, nephritis, and methemoglobinemia. When heated, reaction with calcium hydroxide + polychlorinated phenols forms extremely toxic chlorinated benzodtoxins. A powerful oxidizer. Gunpowder is a mixture of potassium nitrate + sulfur + charcoal. Explosive reaction with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium perchlorate + water (in storage), boron + laminac + trichloroethylene. Forms explosive mixtures with lactose, powdered metals (e.g., titanium, antimony, germanium), metal sulfides (e.g., antimony trisulfide, barium sulfide, calcium sulfide, germanium monosulfide, titanium disulfide, arsenic disulfide, molybdenum disulfide), nonmetals (e.g., boron, carbon, white phosphorus, arsenic), organic materials, phosphides (e.g., copper(l1) phosphide, copper monophosphide), reducing agents (e.g., sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate), sodium acetate. Can react violently under the appropriate conditions with 1,3- bis(trichlorometh~d)benzene, boron phosphde, F2, calcium shcide, charcoal, chromium nitride, Na hypophosphte, ma2O2 + dextrose), red phosphorus, (S + As2S3), thorium dicarbide, trichloroethylene, zinc, zirconium. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and K2O. See also NITRATES.

mögliche Exposition

Used to make explosives, gunpowder, fireworks, rocket fuel; matches, fertilizer, fluxes, glass manufacture; and as a diuretic

Versand/Shipping

UN1486 Potassium nitrate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

läuterung methode

It crystallises from hot H2O (0.5mL/g) on cooling (cf KNO2 below). Dry it for 12hours under vacuum at 70o. The solubility in H2O is 13.3% at 0o, 110% at 60o, and 246% at 100o. After two recrystallisations, technical grade salt had <0.001 ppm of metals. The fused salt is a powerful oxidising agent.

Inkompatibilitäten

A powerful oxidizer. Dangerously reactive and friction-and shock-sensitive when mixed with organic materials and many materials. Violent reactions with reducing agents; chemically active metals; charcoal, trichloroethylene.

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7757-79-1(Kaliumnitrat)Verwandte Suche:


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